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Titration In Industry

How Are Standard Solutions Prepared In Industry The main difference between industrial and teaching institution laboratory preparation of standard solutions is in the processes. In that in the industrial environment, it can happen even without the need of supervision, unlike in the education institutions that mandate presence of laboratory staff. Meaning that the machines in the former setting can be able to read quickly and translate the results from the end point. Unlike in the college environment that most of…...

The Role of Geology in Influencing Water Chemistry

Water is and remains one of the important wants of the people, animals and the nature at large. Without water, they would be no life. Water is an unusual compound which has unique physical properties, and this makes it the compound of life, yet it’s the most abundant compound in the earth’s biosphere. The chemistry of water deals with the fundamental chemical property and information about water. Water chemistry can elaborate in terms of the following subtitles: composition of water, Structure, and…...

Effect of Temperature on Lipase

Theory The higher the substrate concentration the more quickly product is produced (rate of reaction increases) until enzyme saturation is reached at which time more substrate has no further effect. Enzymes such as Catalase are protein molecules which are found in living cells. They are used to speed up specific reactions in the cells. They are all very specific as each enzyme just performs one particular reaction. Catalase is an enzyme found in food such as potato and liver. It…...

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EAS p-Nitroacetanilide

Pinacol was converted to pinacolone in the experiment at a 15.60% yield. A low percent yield was expected due to the experimental distillation and experimental separation of the two layers. Some pinacolone could have been trapped in the aqueous layer due to experimental error at separating via a pipet. The IR showed peaks at 2967, 2906, 2871, 2359, 2337, 2173, and 1989. The representative peaks in an IR of pinacolene are present between 3000 and 1700. The NMR when manipulated…...

Diels alder reaction

Result: For the Diels-Alder reaction: Maleic acid is 0.002 mol 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene is 0.002 mol The theoretical yield is 0.36g Cycloaddition product is 0.358g (maybe it was not completely dry when I weighted.) The % yield of Diels-Alder reaction is 99.4% For the hydrolysis: The theoretical yield of hydrolysis is 0.396g The experimental product yield is 0.28g (some solid left on the filter paper and some for the melting point measurement.) The % yield of hydrolysis is 70.7% The cycloaddition of…...

Rate of Isomerism of [Co(en)2Cl2]

In the course of this experiment the rate of isomerism for the coordination complex cis [Co( en) 2Cl2] Cl was figured out utilizing UV/Vis spectrometry. Using a range of wavelengths the optimum spectrometer setting for analysis was identified. The corresponding maximum and minimum absorbance of the cis and trans isomers respectively at 540 nm indicated that it was picked as the wavelength to figure out the rate of conversion between the isomers. The very first order rate constant was computed…...

Separating a Mixture of Compounds

I.Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to separate three components; SiO₂, NaCl, and NH₄Cl through Sublimation, filtration and evaporation to determine the mass and mass percentage of each component. II.Experimental Method EquipmentChemicals Evaporating DishPowdered Mixture A 2 50ml beakerWater Balance Thermometer Bunsen burner III.Raw Data and Calculations Mass of empty evaporating dish76.00g Mass of evaporating dish + powder mixture sample86.00g Mass of the sample10.00g Sublimation of Ammonium Chloride (NH Cl): Mass of evaporating dish and the remaining sample after…...

Laboratory Techniques & Measurements

Laboratory Techniques & Measurements Objectives: Become familiar with several important laboratory techniques. Gain proficiency with some of the common measuring devices used in a chemistry laboratory. Determine the volume, mass, length, temperature, and density of objects and liquids Length Measurements: Object Length (cm) Length (mm) Pop Can 12.0 120.0 iPhone 11.7 117.0 TV Remote 16.3 163.0 Temperature Measurements: Hot water from tap (⁰C) - 47 Boiling Water (⁰C) - 61 Boiling Water after 5 mins.(⁰C) - 73Cold water from tap (⁰C) - 15 Ice…...

Discussion About Multimeter

Discussion. 1. When we want to measure voltage reading, the multimeter must be parallel with the component that we want to measured. The red on the high voltage side, and black on the lower. When measuring current, amperes, the multimeter must be in series with the component. Remove one side of the component and connect the black multimeter lead to the board where the component was plugged in and the red lead connects to the loose component. The difference between…...

Bromobenzene

Introduction: The chemical reaction of nitration consists of a nitro group being added to or substituted in a molecule. Nitration can basically be carried out by a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid; this mixture is useful to obtain the active nitronium ion. Electrophilic aromatic substitution is a method used when a functional group is needed to be substituted on to an aromatic compound. In the nitration, nitronium ion acts as the electrophile that involves the attack of…...

Chem Lab Mixtures

In this lab, a mixture of naphthalene (C10H8), common table salt (NaCl), and sea sand (SiO2) will be separated using the separation techniques in order to demonstrate the properties of mixtures and their ability to be separated by physical means. INTRODUCTION: This lab was based on the separation of the components of a mixture. A mixture can be defined as a physical combination of two or more pure substances. Separation techniques are used to separate components that are not chemically…...

Labouring the Walmart Way

Today nuclear power as an efficient and low consumption energy has been used widely, however, nuclear energy has potential and serious problems which people can not control. First off all, what is the nuclear? Many countries use nuclear energy to generate electricity. “Unclear is the energy stored in the center or the nucleus of an atom. After we bombard the nucleus into two parts, two different elements are formed along with the emission of high energy. The process generally followed…...

Binders Beverage & Landscaping

To help Bill Binder pick the best route to transport his bottles from his plant to his warehouse we can use the shortest path model. The shortest path model finds how to transport items/people from on location to another while minimizing the total distance traveled, time taken or some other measures. In Bill’s case we will minimize the time it takes to transport his bottles from his plant at node 1 to his warehouse at node 10. A road map…...

Honors lab Chemistry

0.032 g Volume of gas collected (mL) 30mL Barometric pressure (atm) 1.1 atm Room Temperature (°C) 22 °C Vapor pressure of the water (torr) 19.8 torr Calculations: 1. Write the balanced equation for the reaction conducted in this lab, including appropriate phase symbols. (2 points) Mg(s) + 2HCl(a) + H2O(a) -> MgCl2(s) + H2 (g) 2. Determine the partial pressure of the hydrogen gas collected in the gas collection tube. (3 points) 1.1 atm = 0.026 atm + h2 3.…...

History of organic chemistry

Chemistry has been called the science of what things are. Its intent is the exploration of the nature of the materials that fabricate our physical environment, why they hold the different properties that depict them, how their atomic structure may be fathomed, and how they may be manipulated and changed. Although organic reactions have been conducted by man since the discovery of fire, the science of Organic chemistry did not develop until the turn of the eighteenth century, mainly in…...

Empirical Formula Lab Report

INTRODUCTION John Dalton’s atomic theory states that elements combine in simple numerical ratios to form compounds. A compound, no matter how it is formed, always contains the same elements in the same proportion by weight. The law of mass conservation states that mass can neither be created nor destroyed. In this experiment, the mass of the metal was not destroyed or created; the metal’s mass was simply changed into a compound form once the gas reacted to it. The net…...

Analysis of Solutions Containing

This experiment continues the qualitative analysis begun in Experiment 19. Here we will be analyzing solutions to determine the presence of anions. The same techniques that were used for the cation analysis must be used for the anions. If you have not carried out Experiment 19, read the introductory section before starting this experiment. The major difference between cation and anion analysis is that in anion analysis, a series of separations of the ions from one another is usually not…...

?Thermochemistry Laboratory Report

Abstract The purposes of these three experiments are to determine the heat capacity of a calorimeter and with that data, confirm Hess’s Law and observe enthalpy changes within reactions. By measuring the change in temperature that occurs with the interaction of two different reactants, we were able to determine both the calorimeter constant and the change in enthalpy of a given reaction. The results were rather mixed, as some numbers more closely resembled the theoretical values than others did. Introduction…...

The Colligative Property

Are you familiar with Colligative Properties? Do you know that these properties are all around us, in our daily lives? Better yet, do you know how these properties affect us? Take a look on the inside scoop of what goes on to the water you sprinkled salt on while cooking Alfredo pasta, or the reason behind the salting trucks on the highways of New York City in the winter. Take a minute to learn about a fascinating detail of Chemistry!…...

?Quantitative Determination of Total Hardness In Drinking Water

Introduction This experiment is about the determination of water hardness through the use of complexometric EDTA titration. Determination of water hardness is important to find out the most suitable water hardness under particular circumstances. This was conducted for the purpose of applying the concept of complexometric titration using an efficient chelating agent, EDTA. Sample mineral water was analyzed using standard EDTA with EBT as indicator, and calcium ions present in the solution were calculated to determine the hardness of the…...

Cordination Compounds

* FLEXIDENTATE CHARACTER OF POLYDENTATE LIGANDS; * Poly dentate ligands have flexi dentate character in the sense that all donors atoms may not form coordinate bonds with the central metal atom or ion. For example; EDTA which is the hexa dentate ligand also acts as tetra dentate or penta dentate in certain complexes. Similarly sulphate ion, which is a bi dentate ligand, also acts as a mono dentate ligand in certain complexes, e.g. in [Co(SO4)(NH3)5]Cl. * LABILE COMPLEXES; * A…...

Report on Collegative Properties for Science

A detailed explanation, one paragraph or more in your own words, of the colligative property being discussed and why that property changes the way that it does when the amount of solute is increased. A detailed description, at least one paragraph, of a real-world application of the colligative property, including an explanation of how this application of the colligative property is important or useful to those affected. The real-world example must be one that was not mentioned in the lesson.…...

Vitamin C & DCPIP

Since the number of fruit juice required decolorizing the blue CDPIP solution in decreased in the order: Red pepper >kiwifruit >lemon >orange. Therefore, Red pepper contain the largest concentration of vitamin C, the second is kiwifruit , the third one is lemon and the lest one which contain the least concentration of vitamin C is orange. Discussion: The reason for diluted the fruit juice is because the fruit juice are colored by the pigment in the fruit juice. It caused…...

Isolation of Crude Acetaminophen

After first isolation of crude acetaminophen, 1.22g of light, brown shiny, fine Crestline solid emulated, which demonstrated slight less than 0.030g of product was lost from original 0.150g of p-aminophenol. The melting point range of crude acetaminophen ranged from 166.8-167.6°C, when compare to the known melting point of pure acetaminophen which ranged from 169.5-171°C, is slightly depressed. After decolonization of crude acetaminophen 0.060g of a very light tan/pink almost white, fine, shiny crystalline purified acetaminophen was recovered. Significant amount was…...

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

The experiment focuses on finding out what kind of activating effects that four different substituents will have on an aromatic benzene ring. The substituents being tested are aniline, anisole, acetamide (acetanilide), and phenol. All four of these groups are either para or ortho activating. Bromination is the reaction that will be carried out. The melting point ranges of the final products will be taken in order to determine their identities and reactivity. It is predicted that substitution order from most…...

Banana Peeling as Shoe Polish

A banana is an edible fruit produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants of the genus Musa. The fruit is variable in size, color and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind which may be yellow, purple or red when ripe. When the peeling of this edible fruit is combined with charcoal and oil, can this act as a shoe polish? A strong water-soluble antioxidant was identified in…...

Lab Safety

Lab safety is very important if you are going to work in a science lab. First off, you need the right equipment and you need to read the signs of each machine or are you are working in, so you can see what safety gear you will need to put on. First off, if you are going to work in an area involving fire, you should wear something non-flammable or an apron to protect yourself and your clothes. you should…...

Osmosis and Diffusion

The basic principles of Osmosis and Diffusion were tested and examined in this lab. We examined the percent increase of mass and molarity of different concentrations of sucrose in the dialysis bag emerged in distilled water and the potato cores emerged in concentrations of sucrose. The data reinforces the principles of Osmosis and Diffusion, and in a biological context, we can simulate how water and particles move in and out of our own cells. Introduction Objective: 1. Investigate the process…...

Qualitative Analysis of Anions

The objective of this experiment was to use qualitative analysis to determine the chemical characteristics of four known anions by systemic confirmatory testing. The chemical characteristics observed were to be used to identify an unknown sample. Sulphuric acid was to be added to a carbonate solution and an effervescent reaction would confirm the presence of carbonate anions. Another sample of carbonate solution was to be reacted with hydrochloric acid and the gaseous product was to be reacted with a suspended…...

Importance Of Chemistry

Our entire universe is made up of matter which is constantly changing forms and evolving into other forms of energy. We use chemistry from the beginning of the day till its end, the toothpaste we use to brush our teeth is made of abrasives, fluoride, and detergents. These common household items contain batteries, which make them very chemically dependent. The purification our water by process of chlorination, dental cleanliness from toothpaste, sterilization, the control and the cure of disease are…...

Chem 101 Lab Report 2

Mixtures are made up of substances or components. If the mixture is fairly uniform in composition, properties, and its overall appearance, it is homogenous. If the component parts are clearly separated, it is heterogeneous. In order to identify the components in a mixture, methods must be used to sort out the components. However, the same methods will not work for sorting all substances. Four different processes would be employed to sort soluble and insoluble components in the following experiment. Introduction…...

The Effect of Temperature on Beetroot’s Cells Membrane

Introduction: Beetroot Beetroot is one of many type of beets known as Beta Vulgaris. It can be used in cooking and drinking as it is one of the source of vitamins, minerals, nutrients and antioxidant as well including magnesium, potassium, sodium and vitamin C and betaine. Betaine in the cells serve as organic osmolytes which are synthesized or taken from the surroundings by the cells for protection against osmotic stress, drought and high temperature. It is also important for cardiovascular…...

Cucumber as Stain Remover

AKNOWLEGEMENT The researchers would like to extend our sincerest Gratitude to the following persons, who gave their endless Support assistance and also for their inspiration that make our project possible. To our teacher, Mr. Mathew T. Sabales who encouraged us to Pursue and continue our research project, in giving us creative ideas to make our project more improved and better. To our dear parents who are very supportive especially in Financial support and for moral support, love and inspiration that…...

Magnesium Oxide Chemistry Report

In chemistry, compounds can be distinguished by using the empirical formula. The formula provides the simplest positive integer ratio of elements in a compound. The empirical formula is largely useful in determining the ratio of elements within ionic compounds where the structure is of a non-directional nature of bonding where any ion at any time could be surrounded by 4, 6, or 8 oppositely charged ions. This creates a pattern of endlessly repeating lattice of ions they do not exist…...

Evaluation of a Gas Constant (Experiment)

Experiment 3: Evaluation of Gas Constant Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate the ideal gas law under ordinary conditions. In this lab, the variables in the ideal gas law are known or can be found aside from the constant R. Thus, the R values can be found and relatively determine the relevancy of the ideal gas law to the lab conditions. The ideal gas law was tested using the reaction: Mg (s) + 2HCl2 (aq) H2 (g)…...

Experiment 1: Bromination of Acetanilide1 Precautions

Experiment 1: Bromination of Acetanilide1 Precautions: Ethanol is flammable Sodium hypochlorite is an oxidizing agent and releases toxic fumes (handle in fume hood) Acetic acid is corrosive, harmful if inhaled, flammable and can cause burns (handle in fume hood) Gloves are recommended to avoid chemical contact with skin Reaction Scheme: Conversion of acetanilide to p-bromoacetanilide Procedure: To a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask containing a mixture of 95% ethanol (6 mL) and acetic acid (5 mL), dissolve acetanilide (7.4 mmol) and…...

An Introduction to Qualitative Analysis

Procedure Part I - Qualitative Analysis of Group 2 Elements Mix 0.02M K2CrO4 with each Mg(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2 and Ba(NO3)2 together. Secondly, mix 0.1M (NH4)2C2O4 instead of 0.02M K2CrO4 together with the same reactants used before. Thirdly, mix 0.1M Na2SO4 with those reactants. Then, mix 0.1M NaOH with the same reactants used before again. Part II - Qualitative Analysis of Selected Anions First mix 1M HNO3 with each Na2CO3, Na2SO4, NaCl and NaI together. Repeat these steps by placing 0.1M…...

Preparation of Cyclohexene From Cyclohexanol

Abstract: A 42.89% yield cyclohexene was successfully synthesized from 10.0 mL cyclohexanol by unimolecular elimination (E1) through the dehydration of cyclohexanol and confirmed via a bromine test and the IR spectra. Introduction: Alkenes are hydrocarbons that have carbon–carbon double bonds and are one of the many functional groups in organic molecules. Alkenes are sp2 hybridized and are unsaturated because two of their hydrogen’s are missing from the saturated alkane formula (CnH2n+2). Typically alkenes are synthesized by elimination reactions, however, organic…...

Alchemy vs Chemistry

Some people think that chemistry is just about mixing things up and experimenting in test tubes and explosions. Actually chemistry studies everything around us and how they change, for example it tells what your body is made out of. We study chemistry in biology, geology, engineering, and even physics. Chemistry is the science of matter, and how it changes and its chemical reactions, it's also called as the central science ( the main one) because it connects physics with other…...

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