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Titration In Industry

Titrations performed in colleges are done manually by using burets. The only significant variation is that carrying out a large number of fundamentally similar routine titration analyses in the laboratory the routine is, simplified and automated. Mainly in relation to the aspect of calculations where the volume of titration is in-put into an Excel spreadsheet, and the results immediately return. I...

The Role of Geology in Influencing Water Chemistry

The chemistry of lakes, rivers, oceans, and stream water in many regions is strongly associated with the character and circulation of geologic materials in the watershed. For example, the dominance of glacial till and granitic gneiss rock in the North and East of Big Moose Lake region results in a geologically sensitive terrain distinguished by low alkalinity and chemical compositions of the surfa...

Rate of Isomerism of [Co(en)2Cl2]

Brasted, R. Hirayama C. 1958 The cis-trans Isomeration of Dichlorbis-(ethylenediamine)-cobalt(III) Chloride and Dichlorbis-(propylenediamine)-cobalt(III) Chloride in Alcohols, Journal of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota. Vol. 80 pp 788 – 794. Brown, T. LeMay H. Bursten, B. Murphy, C. Langford, S. & Sagatys D. 2010. Chemistry: The Central Science, Pearson, Australia...

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Discussion About Multimeter

A systematic error can be more tricky to track down and is often unknown. This error is often called a bias in the measurement. In chemistry a teacher tells the student to read the volume of liquid in a graduated cylinder by looking at the meniscus. A student may make an error by reading the volume by looking at the liquid level near the edge of the glass. Thus this student will always be off by a...

Bromobenzene

The difference between these two weights was 0.45 grams. The number for the dry crystal was then later used to determine the actual yield and the percent yield of the laboratory experiment.. The moles of bromobenzene were calculated to be 0.0142 moles. The moles of nitric acid were calculated to be 0.090 moles. Therefore, since the moles of bromobenzene were lower than the moles of nitric acid, it...

Binders Beverage & Landscaping

The solution of Bill’s problem shows that the shortest path (measured in terms of time) from the plant to the warehouse is 60 minutes and involves traveling through nodes 2, 4, 8 and 9. The Excel Solution from Solver is attached separately. At node one which is the supply node the net flow is -1. At node 10 which is the demand node the net flow is 1. All other nodes are transshipment nodes and h...

Honors lab Chemistry

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History of organic chemistry

Now since this class I’ve been observing just how this filter system works. I have discovered that the residue that remains after filtering in some way affected the taste of my regular tap water. I have since learned that this residue consists of salt and other stuff that could definitely dramatically affect the test. Interestingly enough though, this filtration process didn’t start with me. S...

Empirical Formula Lab Report

After the lab, the inside of the crucible was black. This is because the magnesium not only reacted with the oxygen and the nitrogen in the air but also with the porcelain of the crucible. The reason for waiting for the crucible to cool before weighing it was because at higher temperatures, the molecules inside are still active, causing the weight to be off. During Trial 2, the magnesium was not p...

The Colligative Property

Are you familiar with Colligative Properties? Do you know that these properties are all around us, in our daily lives? Better yet, do you know how these properties affect us? Take a look on the inside scoop of what goes on to the water you sprinkled salt on while cooking Alfredo pasta, or the reason behind the salting trucks on the highways of New York City in the winter. Take a minute to learn ab...

Quantitative Determination of Total Hardness In Drinking Water

The Complex solutions were formed by titration with the chelating agent EDTA. With the use of complexometric titration the total hardness of water sample was determined. It was found out that the water hardness of Viva mineral water is classified as “hard” in terms of calcium and magnesium ions content that was expressed in terms of ppm CaCO3. The claimed total hardness of Viva Company is larg...

Cordination Compounds

* The halide complex of Cu (2) shows two different stereo chemistries. In (NH4)2[CuCl4], [CuCl4]2- ion is square planar, but Cs2[CuCl4] and Cs2[CuBr4], the [CuX4]2- ions have a slightly squashed tetrahedral shape. Tetrahedral [CuCl4]2- ions are orange whereas, square planar [CuCl4]2- ions are yellow in colour. * GREATER STABILITY OF Co(+3) COMPLEXES THAN Co(+2) COMPLEXES; * Co+2 ions are very stab...

Vitamin C & DCPIP

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Lab Safety

You will need to rinse your eyes under some water for about 15 minutes to get all of the chemicals out. If you see a hand symbol on something, that means you should wear heat resistant gloves. You will most likely need to wear them, because you will be touching something with a very hot temperature and you could badly burn yourself. When ever working with an electrical device, never use it near wa...

Physical and Chemical Properties

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Importance Of Chemistry

Chemistry is also important for the environment. When you are aware of the harming effects of the gases like carbon dioxide and methane as a result of the greenhouse effect, you can easily carve out solutions for the reduction of effects on the environment. If you go with a minimum knowledge of the importance use of chemistry you can help in saving the environment to a large extent. Though chemist...

The Effect of Temperature on Beetroot’s Cells Membrane

A lab coat must be wear during the experiment as the beetroot juice is a good dye which can stain your skin and clothes badly. Besides, you must use all the apparatus carefully especially the cork borer and the knife to avoid any harm or injuries. While handling the test tubes with water bath, make sure you are in a suitable and safe distance with the water bath to avoid scalding or burn. When you...

Magnesium Oxide Chemistry Report

The Empirical formula had indicated the proportion of Magnesium to oxygen (1:1) and identifies the compound to be Magnesium Oxide. The balance was very accurate in taking precise measurements of masses and the supervision of the experiment during the burning had been careful to prevent any loss of Magnesium Oxide mass to escape which in turn caused my mass results to apply to the law of conservati...

Beer’s Law Lab Report

Possible errors that may have occurred during this lab have to do with calibration of the spectrometer. The transmittance values changed second to second so if the timing was not perfect in measuring the samples, the transmittance would have been erroneous. The transmittances would have been too high (based on experimentation) so the absorbance rates would have been too low. This in turn would hav...

An Introduction to Qualitative Analysis

Secondly, we mix Ba(NO3)2 instead of HNO3 with the anions, and we observed that CO32- and SO42- forms a ppt. Then we add HNO3 to the ones that formed ppt, and the ppt disappeared. Next, we mix AgNO3 instead of Ba(NO3)2 with the anions, and observed ppt formed with all of the anions except for SO42-. After that, we added HNO3 and NH3 separately to the anions and we observed no change in SO42-, but ...

Alchemy vs Chemistry

This idea was known as transmutation, and the main goal of it is to transfer ordinary metal into gold. Aristotle did not have a proof for his theory However, because he was trusted and respected this idea has been for 2000 years even though they were wrong, and still until now there are some people who believe in alchemy and alchemists still exist. Some people think that chemistry and alchemy are ...

Chemistry Form 4

At the most basic level, a strand, or fiber, of glass, can be formed by taking molten glass (made by melting silica sand, limestone, and soda ash, along with recycled glass) and forcing it through a small hole. Commercial fiberglass production engages a platinum bushing with up to three thousand holes in it, creating three thousand fibers at a time. Even though glass is brittle, these fibers are ...

Organic Chemistry Experiment 4 - Recrystallization

[1] Acetylation of Aniline using Acetic Anhydride. http://prolabscientific.com/Acetylation-of-Aniline-using-Acetic-Anhydride-p-23917.html. [2] Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry: Toxic Substances Portal – Aniline. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=449&tid=79. [3] Bayquen, A. V., Cruz, C. T., de Guia, R. M., Lampa, F. F., Peńa, G. T., Sarile, A. S., & Torres, P. ...

Grignard Synthesis

The main goal of this lab was to create a Grignard reagent and then use that same reagent to produce a tertiary alcohol. This was accomplished by reacting the Grignard reagent with acetophenone. The end product was 1,1-diphenylethanol. Its recorded melting point range was 80°C-81°C, which is the same as its literature value. This means that there was no or very little impurity in the recrystall...

Mercury Drug Research

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Conductimetric Titration and Gravimetric Determination of a Precipitate

concentration of both solutions. The error was evident because the acid was 0.1 M H2SO4, thus according to the readings, with 1 mL of 0.1 M H2SO4 and at 5.3 umho, that should have been the point of equivalence, meaning that at 1 mL of 0.1 M H2SO4 both substances would be equimolar, but that was not the case. Equimolarity was achieved at 4 mL of 0.1 M H2SO4 with the conductivity is 8.9 umho as disp...

Basic Laboratory Techniques

This experiment helped us how to use basic laboratory apparatus in measuring mass, length, volume, temperature and density. By the use of these measurements, we learned how to compute the accuracy and precision of the results and proper way in reporting in significant figures. In performing this experiment number 1, Basic Laboratory Techniques, I conclude that in doing laboratory experiment, you a...

Determination of the formula unit of a compound

When zinc metal is reacted with hydrochloric acid, hydrogen gas is released and an aqueous solution of zinc chloride is produced. The zinc chloride solution when evaporated to dryness leaves a pure salt product. In order to calculate the simplest whole number ratio of chlorine to zinc or empirical formula for zinc chloride, we need to use the initial mass of zinc and the solid produ...

Practical Application of Back Titration

Rinsing procedure was repeated.The graduated burette was filled with excess amount of 0.08M NaOH solution. Some solution was allowed to drain out through stopcock to a waste beaker.The burette was clamped securely to a retord stand.1-2 drops of methyl orange indicator was added to conical flask and it was swirled. The conical flask was placed under the burette.The initial burette reading was read ...

A Thermoacidophile - Combination of Thermophile and Acidophile

The findings could also lead to a whole host of biotechnological applications. For example, the Aquificales bacteria have enzymes involved in the production of hydrogen that could be used in developing biofuels. Also, the bacteria thrive in environments with high levels of metals and thus could also offer new bioremediation pathways to remove them from contaminated sites. Additionally, the Aquific...

Organic Chemistry Laboratory - Formal Report

During the experiment, the group observed that the first drop of the distillate was collected when the thermometer reached 78 degrees Celsius. This shows that the volatility of ethanol is 78 degrees Celsius. Distillates were collected every time the temperature increased by 1 or 2. The group stopped at 98 degrees Celsius because if it goes beyond that, water, with a volatility of 100 degrees Celsi...

Heat of neutralization

In contrast when volume is constant, changes in energy (q) can be related to changes in the internal energy, ΔErxn.2 In this experiment the neutralization of sodium hydroxide (a strong base) with hydrochloric acid (a strong acid) and acetic acid (a weak acid) will be investigated. The base is present in slight excess and, therefore, the acid is the limiting reagent and determines the number of mo...

Heptane/1-Hexanol Intermolecular Forces

Thus compound falling in ‘alcohol’ functional group will have higher boiling point than alkane because hydroxyl group has hydrogen bonding which are stronger than dipole-dipole forces. The stronger the intermolecular forces the more energy it will be required to overcome these forces. Therefore more energy is required to convert 1-hexanol in to gas than it is required for heptane. So heptane e...

Atoms, Molecules and Elements

When two protons move toward each other they will repel away, as is true with two electrons. “The more energy an electron has, the farther from the nucleus it will be, thus electrons are arranged in shells at various distances from the nucleus according to how much energy they have” (Science Southwestern Advantage, 2011, p. 319). The charge of an atom works much like that of a magnet, if you t...

Chemistry practice skills

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Chemistry In Daily Life

Advertising, Africa, Agriculture, Animals, Antarctica, Anthropology, Antique, Applied Sciences, Archaeology, Architecture, Aromatherapy, Artificial Intelligence, Arts, Asia, Astrology, Astronomy, Australia, Aviation, Backpacking, Beauty, Biographies, Biology, Bird Flu, Books, Cheerleading, Chemistry, Children, Cities, Climate, Communication, Cooking, Countries, Business, Cars, Celebrities, Culture...

Introduction to Chemical Engineering

Getting acquainted is of most concern at this initial stage of team development. It usually includes polite dialogue of a superficial, information-sharing nature. Based on first impressions or past experiences, group members develop stereotypes in an attempt to categorize each other and anticipate future responses. Ideas are simple; emotions and feelings are kept in tight control, and controversy ...

Role of Chemistry in Our Society

In conclusion chemistry is a very important science in our lives that helps most of the other sciences by the making of the products those sciences use. Its a subject which is necessary for living in this world. Today chemistry has become a daily use in our life. Without chemistry, living on this earth is not possible. And even chemistry has even used years ago, we still use it as a important scie...

Mercury Footwear Questions

We have conduct some simulation in the spreadsheet, we can find the present value of Mercury is very sensitive to cost of capital, under basic model if the cost of capital reduce to 10%, the value will rise up to 304,882. As for debt ratio and expect g, it is not so sensitive, but has some influence. To my surprise, the reinvestment rate is not sensitive to the outcome, I have not figure out the r...

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