Chemistry Essay Examples

Essays on Chemistry

What if Humans Could Breathe Underwater
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For humans, it is essential to have oxygen. Oxygen helps our body full of cells make energy. On average we inhale about 12-20 times per minute. Ever since I was young I loved the water. From the swimming pool to the ocean itself. Have you ever thought what if...humans could breathe underwater? For humans to breathe underwater we could see how polluted our seas are, start a new agriculture, and finally explore all of earth waters. Humans being able to…...
HumanLife UnderwaterOxygen
Properties of Free Radicals
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At the end of the 1930s, a group of chemists proved that natural rubber degradation is due to successive and destructive attacks of atoms or unstable molecules, ie free radicals. Any matter, consists of infinitesimal particles: the atoms. At the core of these atoms are the protons and the neutrons, and the electrons rotate around it, which couple together, forming a relatively stable combination. Free radical is a molecule that has lost an electron with electric charge, eager to mate,…...
AMDR – Macronutrient Range & Recommendations
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Comparison of typical vs Population diet AMDRs: Healthy people can consume any kind of food, but diabetes individuals should eat a specific diet which help them to stabilize their sugar levels. AMDRs recommended % for healthy people are 55% carbohydrates,15% protein, and 30% fat, however people with diabetics have different AMDRs requirements. A low carbohydrate diet helps people with diabetes to maintain their sugar levels because carbohydrates raise blood sugar levels faster. Similarly, protein and fat requirements for diabetes individuals…...
A Healthy DietCarbohydrateNutrition
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The sodium thiosulphate
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The size of this activation energy is different for different reactions. I think that the concentration of a solution affects the rate of reaction because ‘the rate of reaction depends on how frequently the molecules of the reacting substances collide. A more concentrated substance has more molecules for a given volume than a more dilute substance because there are more molecules about, the frequency of the successful collisions is greater and the reaction happens faster. ’ I have predicted this…...
The preliminary experiment
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This will help ensure that the results of the experiment are reliable and ensure that the acids react with the magnesium and not the formulated oxide layer. The Acids: Choice of acids and their varying strengths was based upon the Bronston-Lowry theory. According to the Nuffield Advanced Chemistry Students' Book, acids that ionise completely at moderate dilutions are called strong acids. Consequently they tend to have a large Ka (dissociation constant) value. Weak acids interact very little with water therefore…...
Equilibrium constantExperiment
The elodea specimen
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Ribulose Bisphosphate It is this light independent stage which is affected by the temperature because it involves an enzyme, Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase (rubisco), which catalyses the reaction between carbon dioxide and a five-carbon sugar known as Ribulose Bisphosphate (RuBp). Enzymes are catalyst made of protein. They convert substrate molecules into products by possessing an active site where the reactions occur. The optimum temperature of rubisco is 45o C. Exceeding this temperature causes the bonds that hold the polypeptides in specific…...
Size of units facilities
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Economies of scale Scale economies are based on the notion that large units are more economical because fixed costs can be spread over more units of production. The company may consider using a large unit of capacity in two cases: Firstly if the cost of building and operating large production equipment does not increase linearly with volume. A machine with twice the output rate generally costs less than twice to as much to buy and operate. Also, in larger facilities…...
The enthalpies of combustion
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Standard enthalpy change of combustion is the energy change that occurs when 1 mol of fuel is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions. However, it is impossible for substances to be burnt under standard conditions. The enthalpies of combustion are different depending on the number of carbons and hydrogens in each substance. For example, the enthalpy combustion for methane is -890 kJ mol-1, however the enthalpy change of combustion for ethane or propane will be greater because more bonds…...
The “Sugar Colonies”
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"Everyone knows that the colonial world was a haven for the godly, a refuge for the oppressed, a challenge to the adventurous and the last resort of scoundrels. " (A. E Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour) The history and legacy of slavery is deeply intertwined within British colonial history, and is still to this day the source of some animosity between Britain and her colonies. It has always been the case that the wealthy exploit the…...
Chemistry determination of RAM of lithium
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Lithium reacts violently with water to give off flammable hydrogen gas and corrosive dust. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is a corrosive alkali. Hydrochloric acid is corrosive to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Acute (short-term) inhalation exposure may cause eye, nose, and respiratory tract irritation and inflammation and pulmonary oedema in humans. Acute oral exposure may cause corrosion of the mucous membranes, oesophagus, and stomach and dermal contact may produce severe burns, ulceration, and scarring in humans. Chronic (long-term) occupational exposure…...
Calcium carbonate
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We found that the convection current for distilled water was slightly different from the current of acid rain. On the basis of our observations, the convection current for rain water moved slightly more quickly. This was evident when the tank containing the acid rain was put onto the hot plate, and it could be seen that its convection current was faster than distilled water's. This is because it takes less time than the distilled water for the particles in acid…...
Calcium carbonateNature
Will participants perform better in a low or high density room?
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Aim of the experiment was to see whether performance is affected by the density of a room and done in a laboratory experiment with repeated measures design; there were two conditions, high density room and low density room. Participants were 8 females aged 16 - 18 from Abbot Beyne 6th Form. Results showed that performance is affected by the density of the room, but opposite to what was predicted in the Experimental Hypothesis. (N=7, 1 tailed test, P=0.05, critical value…...
Volumetric Analysis
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The aim of this investigation is to find the various measurements of concentration (Also called the morality) of acid that will neutralise 1 mole of sodium hydroxide. This is found using the titration method. Prediction I predict that the volume of acid that will be used to neutralise the given solution would depend on the concentration. The more acid I add to an alkali, the more neutral it will become. If I add too much acid, the solution will not…...
Sulphuric Acid
Vermicomposting methods
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Introduction The most widely used vermicomposting system, worldwide, is the 'bed' method, which involves applying thin layers of sanitised and partially matured compost, to the surface of beds containing high densities of earthworms. New layers of waste are applied to beds on a regular basis and the earthworms move upwards into the fresh waste to feed and to process the material. Earthworm numbers increase as more waste is applied until a limiting density is reached. Harvesting earthworms by hand The…...
BiologyChemistryNatural resourcesNatureWater
Titration with HCl and NaOH
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Aim: Determine the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide solution using a standardised solution of hydrochloric acid. Health and safety: HCl/NaOH -corrosive-avoid spills, mop-up (gloves) -safety glasses -laboratory coat Pippete fillers- take care when using in case they snap when putting on the pipette Indicator -stains/poisonous Method Step 1. Wash out: i.) the pipette, with a little of the sodium hydroxide solution ii.) the burette, with a little of the hydrochloric acid solution iii.) the conical flask, with a…...
Thermometric Titration Investigation
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We have to plan an experiment which measures the temperature change accompanying neutralisation so that it can be investigated. Neutralisation is when an acid and an alkali mixed together neutralise the other. The hydrogen and the hydroxide ions bond to form water and the rest bonds to form a salt. For example in the case of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, the salt is sodium chloride. Neutralisation is an exothermic reaction, like all reactions where bonds are formed. I plan…...
The Representation of Food in Toni Morrison
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The theme of food and the different representations that they carry are imbued into Toni Morrison's work. In an interview Morrison explains the constructions of blackness and white, and states, "there is a lot of juice to be extracted from plumy reminiscences of 'individual' and 'freedom' if the tree upon which such fruit hangs is a black population forced to polar opposites"(Parker 622). Her use of imagery surrounding the issues of black oppression with the use of food speaks to…...
The magnesium strip
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The chemical equation for this experiment is Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2 Prediction My prediction on this experiment is when the temperature is kept at low degrees the reaction of magnesium strips with HCl will be slower but when the temperature is raised to a higher degree the magnesium strip will react with HCl much faster. So when the particles move faster they would have more collisions between them. In cold temperature In hot temperature Example when magnesium strip…...
The hydrogen peroxide
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Introduction When a substance is heated, the particles move faster. When the particles are moving faster they will travel at greater distances which will involve more collisions. This will increase the rate of reaction. Concentration The more concentrated the reactants are the greater the rate of reaction. This is because increasing the rate of reaction increases the number of collisions between particles and therefore increases the rate of reaction. Pressure An increase in pressure can lead to an increase in…...
The collision theory
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The results should lie on straight lines. I will know from looking at the graphs, if I have any outliners. As you can tell from the straight lines. There are not any outliers and my results are correct. From this test I have decided that 2cm would be the best length to work with, as it provides a long enough time to record accurately the 2mole acid test, and it is also a reasonably short time for the 0. 5…...
The Affect of Hydrogen Peroxide on the Liver
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Aim: "To see what factors affect the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by the enzyme catalase which is found in the liver" Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up the chemical reactions which go on inside living things. Without them the reactions would be so slow that life would grind to a halt. Enzymes work by when a substrate molecule bumps into a molecule of the right enzyme, it fits into a depression on the surface of the enzyme molecule.…...
Test different foods for protein present
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This experiment design by a group of general science to test different foods for protein present, the experiment will be focus on the present of protein in different kind of food, using biuret test. Protein contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Some have phosphorous, there are 20 amino acid that make up protein 9 of them are essential for growth, repair tissues and for build up muscles, however our body can not produce them we have to consume them. Not…...
The surface area of magnisium
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Delivery tube for conical flask with side arm  Electronic weighing scales Apparatus setup and procedure Measure out the required concentration in ratio with water with 50ml of solution.  Once you have measured these concentrations in to your 5 measuring cylinders, fill your 200ml measuring cylinder with water completely so that there are NO air bubbles left in the top; and invert it into your tub of water fixed by the clamp stand.  Measure out the Magnesium strips to 0. 1g…...
Sulphuric Acid
Stomatal Density
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Aim: To investigate the stomatal density of different leaves. Apparatus: * Light microscope * Distilled water * Water pipette * Microscope slide * Cover slip * Scalpel * Forceps * Colourless varnish * Ruler * 4 different types of leaves: 1. 2. 3. 4. Hypothesis: The stomatal density of plants is dependant on their habitat. The key factor which the stomatal density will depend upon will be the water supply and the extent to which the environmental factors of each…...
The stomatal density of a dicotyledonous plant growing in both Sunny and Shady conditions
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This project investigated the stomatal density of a dicotyledonous plant growing in both Sunny and Shady conditions. The stomatal density of a batch of leaves taken from the main branches of the plant was estimated using a light microscope and an eyepiece graticule. Transparent nail varnish was used to obtain replicas of the different adaxial (lower) leaf surfaces by carefully applying it to the same area of the different sample and carefully removing it with the aid of a pair…...
Seashells for Sealants
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School Year 2011-2012 A REQUIREMENT FOR SCIENCE IV: PHYSICS “Oyster Shells for Sealants” 1. Introduction Leak are one of houses major problem. It won’t let you sleep when rain is pouring so hard and your roof has holes. Your water bills will be high because your water pipe has a leak. These are just some of the problems we encounter in our houses,Primary cure to this problems are sealants. Oyster isn’t just any seafood its shells has avery useful usage.…...
Calcium carbonateSea
How does the resistance of nichrome wire depend on its length?
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Procedure: In order to investigate how the resistance of nichrome wire depends on its length I will firstly have to know the formula for resistance (resistance = voltage � current). So, in order to find the resistance of a length of nichrome wire, I need to put the wire in a circuit, and then measure the voltage across it and the current through it. I will do this for different lengths of nichrome, simultaneously recording my results. Nichrome Wire Length…...
Redox Titration: Permanganate against Oxalate (Ethanedioate)
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The mixture of oxalic acid and oxalate should be diluted ten times. Using pipette filler pipette 25cm3 of given solution and dilute it to 250cm3 in a volumetric flask. The resulting solution can be used for subsequent titration. (B) Acid-base titration Titrate a 25cm3 portion of the diluted mixture against the given standard Sodium Hydroxide (0.05M). Add 3 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator. At the end point, the solution will change from colorless to pink. Repeat the titration for 3 more…...
Rates of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid
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Tom - this is good, in that it's all there. But it's muddled - again, I don't think you've really gone away from it and then come back fresh, and read it through to see if it makes sense. There's no point submitting work until you have. My comments are in italics You need to explain the chemistry behind the theory - it will be in your textbook I imagine Rates of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid Aim…...
The Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate Solution
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The Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate Solution a) Introduction. When Hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of sodium thiosulphate, a reaction takes place in which sulphur is slowly precipitated and the mixture becomes more and more opaque. 2HCl (aq) + Na2S2O3 (aq) 2NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + SO2 (g) + S (s) This gives us a simple way of finding the rate of reaction. If in each experiment, the same volume of solution is…...
Chemical ReactionSodium
Quantitative Tests For Identifying Organic Functional Groups
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Aldehydes and ketones can undergo a variety of reactions, but they share many chemical properties with other related compounds such as acids and esters. It is possible to detect the presence of an aldehyde or ketone by reaction with 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine this test only gives a positive result with aldehydes and no reaction with ketones, nevertheless carry out the tollen's reagent to find out whether the ketone is present. Alcohols are hydrocarbons with -OH replacing one or more hydrogen atoms.…...
Quantative analysis of glucose using a colorimeter
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Apparatus 6 concentrations of glucose Test tubes Test tube racks Couvettes Water bath Colorimeter Syringe Risk assessment Lab coat because using Benedicts solution = corrosive Safety glasses because using Benedicts = corrosive Hair tyed back out of the way Bags under the desk out of the way Method There are six concentrations of glucose solution: 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.3% and x. The aim is to find the concentration of x. A control is also to be completed. A control…...
Pharmaceutical Safety
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Safety Implementations ? Table of Contents 1Abstract4 2Introduction5 3Safe Drug Development Process in Pharmaceutical Companies6 4Pharmaceutical Unit Operation Safety Measures10 4. 1Weighing and dispensing10 4. 2Charging and discharging10 4. 3Liquid separations10 4. 4Filtration11 4. 5Compounding11 4. 6Drying11 5Biosafety Levels12 5. 1Level 112 5. 2Level 212 5. 3Level 312 5. 4Level 413 6Personal Protective Equipment13 6. 1What is PPE? 13 6. 2OSHA Standards14 6. 3Types of PPE15 6. 3. 1Gloves16 6. 3. 2Footwear18 6. 3. 3Eyewear20 6. 3. 4Hearing Protection22 .…...
Osmosis: Potato and Sucrose Solution
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Investigation of Factors Affect Osmosis in Potatoes Aim The aim of the following experiment was to investigate the effect of  varying the concentration of sucrose solution on osmosis in a potato. Preliminary Experiments One preliminary experiment was done before the main experiment. From  the preliminary, we were trying to find out how osmosis actually  occurred in potatoes, and gave us a vague idea on what the main  experiment would be like. This preliminary will aid my prediction, which is stated…...
What Is Organic Compounds
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An organic compound belongs to gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. Some types of carbon that contain compounds such as carbides, carbonates, and oxides of carbon and cyanides are sometimes classified as inorganic. AllotropesHYPERLINK "http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Allotropes_of_carbon" of carbon such as diamond and graphite may also be classified as inorganic. The difference between "organic" and "inorganic" carbon compounds, even though they are useful in organizing the area of chemistry it somewhat doesn’t make sense. Organic chemistry…...
NatureOrganic Compounds
Nutritional value in eggs
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Eggs contain a good source of HBV (high biological value) proteins. Proteins are necessary for growth, maintenance and repair. This protein comes from animal sources. Eggs are an excellent source of protein, iron and phosphorous. Eggs are also yolk-rich source of Vitamin A, D and B (little or no C). Egg yolks are known to contain vitamin A which functions are to ensure good vision and normal growth and development. The egg yolk also contains vitamin D. This helps a…...
NutritionProteinVitamins And Minerals
Metal and Tungsten
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Laura Speirs June 13, 2011 Professor Nalley Tungsten Paper Tungsten Tungsten is a gray-white metallic element that is stable and is very resistant to acids and bases. It does, however, oxidize in air, especially at higher temperatures Tungsten was discovered by Juan Jose and Fausto Elhuyar, Spanish chemists and brothers, in 1783 in samples of the mineral wolframite ((Fe, Mn)WO4). Tungsten was named from the Swedish words "tung sten" meaning "heavy stone. " Tungsten's chemical symbol comes from its eariler, Germanic…...
Measuring Cylinder
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The other independent variable was the hydrochloric acid as we changed it to 2M. We also changed the way we put the calcium powder first and then put the hydrochloric acid after, as we established that it would facilitate the process and assure better results. It would be easier to quickly place the bung inside to prevent the gas from escaping. We also timed the readings of the gas 10 – 120 seconds. The reason why we left it to…...
Measuring Conductivity
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In this experiment, the main goal is to study the formation and properties of a coordination compound. A coordination compound is composed of a central atom bound to multiple groups called ligands. There is a wide variety of possible ligands that can bond directly to the central atom, but only two common ones, NH3 and CO3, are to be studied in this particular experiment. In the formation of carbonatotetraamminecobalt (III) nitrate, denoted [Co(NH3)4CO3]NO3, the transition metal which serves as the…...
Measure about 1cm of sodium carbonate
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1. Measure about 1cm of sodium carbonate in a test tube and add the same amount of dilute hydrochloric acid. 2. Using a clean pipette, withdraw a sample of gas and bubble it through some lime - water in a clean test tube. If there is a white precipitate then the gas produced was carbon dioxide. 3. Dispose of the contents down the sink using plenty of water. 2) REACTION BETWEEN A METAL AND A DILUTE ACID 1. Take a…...
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FAQ about Chemistry

What if Humans Could Breathe Underwater
...Humans being able to breathe underwater would be a chance in a lifetime. Being able to feel and live like the aquatic life while the oceans are polluted with gases, oils, and another human waste is what we need. To feel how they feel. To see how they...
How does the resistance of nichrome wire depend on its length?
...For the conclusion I would like to state that for every 5cm decrease in the length of nichrome wire, the voltage decreases by approximately 0.1 V, whilst the resistance decreases by approximately 0.7 (from 45-40cm), followed by 0.6 (from 40-35cm), fo...
What Is Organic Compounds
...Some organic compounds are used to preserve food, to control pain and fever, and to relieve us. Organic chemists figure out the arrangements of organic molecules, revise their different effects, and improve procedures for the synthesis of organic com...
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