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Chemistry Essay Examples

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Titration In Industry

How Are Standard Solutions Prepared In Industry The main difference between industrial and teaching institution laboratory preparation of standard solutions is in the processes. In that in the industrial environment, it can happen even without the need of supervision, unlike in the education institutions that mandate presence of laboratory staff. Meaning that the machines in the former setting can be able to read quickly and translate the results from the end point. Unlike in the college environment that most of…...

The Role of Geology in Influencing Water Chemistry

Water is and remains one of the important wants of the people, animals and the nature at large. Without water, they would be no life. Water is an unusual compound which has unique physical properties, and this makes it the compound of life, yet it’s the most abundant compound in the earth’s biosphere. The chemistry of water deals with the fundamental chemical property and information about water. Water chemistry can elaborate in terms of the following subtitles: composition of water, Structure, and…...

Effect of Temperature on Lipase

Theory The higher the substrate concentration the more quickly product is produced (rate of reaction increases) until enzyme saturation is reached at which time more substrate has no further effect. Enzymes such as Catalase are protein molecules which are found in living cells. They are used to speed up specific reactions in the cells. They are all very specific as each enzyme just performs one particular reaction. Catalase is an enzyme found in food such as potato and liver. It…...

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Rate of Isomerism of [Co(en)2Cl2]

In the course of this experiment the rate of isomerism for the coordination complex cis [Co( en) 2Cl2] Cl was figured out utilizing UV/Vis spectrometry. Using a range of wavelengths the optimum spectrometer setting for analysis was identified. The corresponding maximum and minimum absorbance of the cis and trans isomers respectively at 540 nm indicated that it was picked as the wavelength to figure out the rate of conversion between the isomers. The very first order rate constant was computed…...

Discussion About Multimeter

Discussion. 1. When we want to measure voltage reading, the multimeter must be parallel with the component that we want to measured. The red on the high voltage side, and black on the lower. When measuring current, amperes, the multimeter must be in series with the component. Remove one side of the component and connect the black multimeter lead to the board where the component was plugged in and the red lead connects to the loose component. The difference between…...


Introduction: The chemical reaction of nitration consists of a nitro group being added to or substituted in a molecule. Nitration can basically be carried out by a mixture of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid; this mixture is useful to obtain the active nitronium ion. Electrophilic aromatic substitution is a method used when a functional group is needed to be substituted on to an aromatic compound. In the nitration, nitronium ion acts as the electrophile that involves the attack of…...

Binders Beverage & Landscaping

To help Bill Binder pick the best route to transport his bottles from his plant to his warehouse we can use the shortest path model. The shortest path model finds how to transport items/people from on location to another while minimizing the total distance traveled, time taken or some other measures. In Bill’s case we will minimize the time it takes to transport his bottles from his plant at node 1 to his warehouse at node 10. A road map…...

Honors lab Chemistry

0.032 g Volume of gas collected (mL) 30mL Barometric pressure (atm) 1.1 atm Room Temperature (°C) 22 °C Vapor pressure of the water (torr) 19.8 torr Calculations: 1. Write the balanced equation for the reaction conducted in this lab, including appropriate phase symbols. (2 points) Mg(s) + 2HCl(a) + H2O(a) -> MgCl2(s) + H2 (g) 2. Determine the partial pressure of the hydrogen gas collected in the gas collection tube. (3 points) 1.1 atm = 0.026 atm + h2 3.…...

History of organic chemistry

Chemistry has been called the science of what things are. Its intent is the exploration of the nature of the materials that fabricate our physical environment, why they hold the different properties that depict them, how their atomic structure may be fathomed, and how they may be manipulated and changed. Although organic reactions have been conducted by man since the discovery of fire, the science of Organic chemistry did not develop until the turn of the eighteenth century, mainly in…...

Empirical Formula Lab Report

INTRODUCTION John Dalton’s atomic theory states that elements combine in simple numerical ratios to form compounds. A compound, no matter how it is formed, always contains the same elements in the same proportion by weight. The law of mass conservation states that mass can neither be created nor destroyed. In this experiment, the mass of the metal was not destroyed or created; the metal’s mass was simply changed into a compound form once the gas reacted to it. The net…...

Thermochemistry Laboratory Report

Abstract The purposes of these three experiments are to determine the heat capacity of a calorimeter and with that data, confirm Hess’s Law and observe enthalpy changes within reactions. By measuring the change in temperature that occurs with the interaction of two different reactants, we were able to determine both the calorimeter constant and the change in enthalpy of a given reaction. The results were rather mixed, as some numbers more closely resembled the theoretical values than others did. Introduction…...

The Colligative Property

Are you familiar with Colligative Properties? Do you know that these properties are all around us, in our daily lives? Better yet, do you know how these properties affect us? Take a look on the inside scoop of what goes on to the water you sprinkled salt on while cooking Alfredo pasta, or the reason behind the salting trucks on the highways of New York City in the winter. Take a minute to learn about a fascinating detail of Chemistry!…...

Quantitative Determination of Total Hardness In Drinking Water

Abstract This experiment is about the determination of water hardness through the use of complexometric EDTA titration. Determination of water hardness is important to find out the most suitable water hardness under particular circumstances. This was conducted for the purpose of applying the concept of complexometric titration using an efficient chelating agent, EDTA. Sample mineral water was analyzed using standard EDTA with EBT as indicator, and calcium ions present in the solution were calculated to determine the hardness of the…...

Cordination Compounds

* FLEXIDENTATE CHARACTER OF POLYDENTATE LIGANDS; * Poly dentate ligands have flexi dentate character in the sense that all donors atoms may not form coordinate bonds with the central metal atom or ion. For example; EDTA which is the hexa dentate ligand also acts as tetra dentate or penta dentate in certain complexes. Similarly sulphate ion, which is a bi dentate ligand, also acts as a mono dentate ligand in certain complexes, e.g. in [Co(SO4)(NH3)5]Cl. * LABILE COMPLEXES; * A…...

Report on Collegative Properties for Science

A detailed explanation, one paragraph or more in your own words, of the colligative property being discussed and why that property changes the way that it does when the amount of solute is increased. A detailed description, at least one paragraph, of a real-world application of the colligative property, including an explanation of how this application of the colligative property is important or useful to those affected. The real-world example must be one that was not mentioned in the lesson.…...

Vitamin C & DCPIP

Since the number of fruit juice required decolorizing the blue CDPIP solution in decreased in the order: Red pepper >kiwifruit >lemon >orange. Therefore, Red pepper contain the largest concentration of vitamin C, the second is kiwifruit , the third one is lemon and the lest one which contain the least concentration of vitamin C is orange. Discussion: The reason for diluted the fruit juice is because the fruit juice are colored by the pigment in the fruit juice. It caused…...

Isolation of Crude Acetaminophen

After first isolation of crude acetaminophen, 1.22g of light, brown shiny, fine Crestline solid emulated, which demonstrated slight less than 0.030g of product was lost from original 0.150g of p-aminophenol. The melting point range of crude acetaminophen ranged from 166.8-167.6°C, when compare to the known melting point of pure acetaminophen which ranged from 169.5-171°C, is slightly depressed. After decolonization of crude acetaminophen 0.060g of a very light tan/pink almost white, fine, shiny crystalline purified acetaminophen was recovered. Significant amount was…...

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

The experiment focuses on finding out what kind of activating effects that four different substituents will have on an aromatic benzene ring. The substituents being tested are aniline, anisole, acetamide (acetanilide), and phenol. All four of these groups are either para or ortho activating. Bromination is the reaction that will be carried out. The melting point ranges of the final products will be taken in order to determine their identities and reactivity. It is predicted that substitution order from most…...

Lab Safety

Lab safety is very important if you are going to work in a science lab. First off, you need the right equipment and you need to read the signs of each machine or are you are working in, so you can see what safety gear you will need to put on. First off, if you are going to work in an area involving fire, you should wear something non-flammable or an apron to protect yourself and your clothes. you should…...

Osmosis and Diffusion

The basic principles of Osmosis and Diffusion were tested and examined in this lab. We examined the percent increase of mass and molarity of different concentrations of sucrose in the dialysis bag emerged in distilled water and the potato cores emerged in concentrations of sucrose. The data reinforces the principles of Osmosis and Diffusion, and in a biological context, we can simulate how water and particles move in and out of our own cells. Introduction Objective: 1. Investigate the process…...

Physical and Chemical Properties: Lab Report

Did you observer any chemical changes in this experiment? Yes What evidence did you use to decide that something was a chemical change? I observed during the application of the hydrochloric acid to some of the substances bubbling, and smoking Give at least two examples of chemical changes you observed. Green changed from blue to application of HCL to Mg smoking and bubbling and CuCO3 Classify the following properties of sodium metal as physical or chemical: • Silver metallic color:…...

Importance Of Chemistry

Our entire universe is made up of matter which is constantly changing forms and evolving into other forms of energy. We use chemistry from the beginning of the day till its end, the toothpaste we use to brush our teeth is made of abrasives, fluoride, and detergents. These common household items contain batteries, which make them very chemically dependent. The purification our water by process of chlorination, dental cleanliness from toothpaste, sterilization, the control and the cure of disease are…...

The Effect of Temperature on Beetroot’s Cells Membrane

Introduction: Beetroot Beetroot is one of many type of beets known as Beta Vulgaris. It can be used in cooking and drinking as it is one of the source of vitamins, minerals, nutrients and antioxidant as well including magnesium, potassium, sodium and vitamin C and betaine. Betaine in the cells serve as organic osmolytes which are synthesized or taken from the surroundings by the cells for protection against osmotic stress, drought and high temperature. It is also important for cardiovascular…...

Magnesium Oxide Chemistry Report

In chemistry, compounds can be distinguished by using the empirical formula. The formula provides the simplest positive integer ratio of elements in a compound. The empirical formula is largely useful in determining the ratio of elements within ionic compounds where the structure is of a non-directional nature of bonding where any ion at any time could be surrounded by 4, 6, or 8 oppositely charged ions. This creates a pattern of endlessly repeating lattice of ions they do not exist…...

Experiment 1: Bromination of Acetanilide1 Precautions

Experiment 1: Bromination of Acetanilide1 Precautions: Ethanol is flammable Sodium hypochlorite is an oxidizing agent and releases toxic fumes (handle in fume hood) Acetic acid is corrosive, harmful if inhaled, flammable and can cause burns (handle in fume hood) Gloves are recommended to avoid chemical contact with skin Reaction Scheme: Conversion of acetanilide to p-bromoacetanilide Procedure: To a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask containing a mixture of 95% ethanol (6 mL) and acetic acid (5 mL), dissolve acetanilide (7.4 mmol) and…...

Beer’s Law Lab Report

Abstract: The Beer’s law lab was conducted to determine the optimal wavelength of Co(NO3)2·6H2O with the use of spectrometry. The results determined that the optimal wavelength to study the absorbance of this salt was 500nm. It also demonstrated how transmittance of light and absorbance of light are inversely proportional because absorbance is calculated by multiplying transmittance by a negative log. Introduction: When one is studying chemicals, there are many important factors of significance. The color of a chemical is a…...

An Introduction to Qualitative Analysis

Procedure Part I - Qualitative Analysis of Group 2 Elements Mix 0.02M K2CrO4 with each Mg(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2, Sr(NO3)2 and Ba(NO3)2 together. Secondly, mix 0.1M (NH4)2C2O4 instead of 0.02M K2CrO4 together with the same reactants used before. Thirdly, mix 0.1M Na2SO4 with those reactants. Then, mix 0.1M NaOH with the same reactants used before again. Part II - Qualitative Analysis of Selected Anions First mix 1M HNO3 with each Na2CO3, Na2SO4, NaCl and NaI together. Repeat these steps by placing 0.1M…...

Alchemy vs Chemistry

Some people think that chemistry is just about mixing things up and experimenting in test tubes and explosions. Actually chemistry studies everything around us and how they change, for example it tells what your body is made out of. We study chemistry in biology, geology, engineering, and even physics. Chemistry is the science of matter, and how it changes and its chemical reactions, it's also called as the central science ( the main one) because it connects physics with other…...

Chemistry Form 4

INTRODUCTION All the objects that exist around us are comprised of chemical compounds. These objects exist an aspect, compound or mixture. All these items contribute benefit to human kind. As time goes on, human has done numerous looks into to make sure all these chemical compounds will be enough for using themselves. Chapter 9 of Kind 4 curriculum introduces the students with produced substances in industry. This is very important for the trainees to value the knowledge of chemistry that…...

Organic Chemistry Experiment 4 - Recrystallization

INTRODUCTION Recrystallization is the primary method for purifying solid organic compounds. Compounds obtained from natural sources or from reaction mixtures almost always contain impurities. The impurities may include some combination of insoluble, soluble, and colored impurities. To obtain a pure compound, these impurities must be removed. Each is removed in a separate step in the recrystallization procedure. [8] Acetylation of aniline by acetic anhydride was performed to synthesize the crude acetanilide. The obtained crude acetanilide contained acetic acid as well…...

Grignard Synthesis

Objective: The goal of this lab is to synthesize a Grignard reagent from bromobenzene and magnesium metal in diethyl ether. This same Grignard reagent would then be used to prepare a tertiary alcohol and then purify and characterize the product. Procedure: Refer to the microscale lab in pages 124-130 (15.1 and 15.2) in Modern Projects and Experiments in Organic Chemistry: Miniscale and William Microscale. Observations: Mixture of magnesium with bromobenzene turned into a yellow coloration after the bubbling. After much…...

Mercury Drug Research

Mercury Drug Corporation is the Philippines' dominant pharmacy group. The Quezon City-based company operates a national chain of more than 450 drugstores, including company-owned and franchised stores. Mercury Drug is estimated to sell as much as 60 percent of all medicines sold each year in the Philippines (the country's hospitals sell about 12 percent of medicines). Mercury Drug's pharmacies follow the American model, combining drug and medical equipment sales with over-the-counter medicines, personal care items, basic household needs, cosmetics and…...

Conductimetric Titration and Gravimetric Determination of a Precipitate

Abstract: This experiment demonstrated that by titrating barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2 solution with a sulfuric acid, .1 M H2SO4 solution the point of equivalence can be obtained. Since they were ionic compounds, then the lowest conductivity reading was the point of equivalence because at that reading they were both at a non-ionic state since all their ions have been completely reacted. A first when the H2SO4 was added the conductivity was high, 17.8 umho, then as more H2SO4 was added it…...

Basic Laboratory Techniques

Objectives To use common laboratory apparatus in measuring mass, length, volume, temperature, and density To compute the accuracy and the precision of a set of scientific measurements To apply the concept of significant figures in reporting correctly scientific measurements Materials and Equipment Ruler, meter stick, 10 mL graduated cylinder, 50 mL graduated cylinder, small and large test tube, 50 mL and 150 mL beakers, 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask, digital top-loading balance, unknown liquids for density determination, irregular solids for density…...

Effect of Enzymes

Introduction The enzyme catalase is present in cells in order to speed the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is a toxic chemical to the human body. When hydrogen peroxide is broken down, the end products are Water (H2O) and Oxygen (O2). In this report, the reaction of catalase to hydrogen peroxide is being tested. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, concentration, and pH level on this reaction are being considered. We hypothesize that he experiments will show that Catalase speeds…...

Determination of the formula unit of a compound

The crucible is weighed and the exact mass is recorded. Approximately 0.2g of zinc is placed into the crucible and the crucible with its contain is weighed. The exact mass of zinc is determined.3)10 ml of 6M HCl solution is poured into a measuring cylinder. The 10 ml of 6M HCl solution is carefully added into the crucible containing zinc powder and the contents is stirred gently using a glass rod. A vigorous chemical reaction occurred and hydrogen gas is released. (This step is carried out in a fume cupboard.) If the zinc powder has not dissolved completely, acid was added, 5 ml at a time,…...

Practical Application of Back Titration

Synopsis The objective of this experiment is to determine the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 in toothpaste using back titration technique. A known weight portion of toothpaste is obtained to react with known volume and concentration of standard acid solution. After completing the reaction, the resulting solution containing excess acid is back titrated with known volume and concentration of standard base solution. Determination of excess acid after reaction allow us to calculate the amount of acid react with…...

A Thermoacidophile - Combination of Thermophile and Acidophile

A thermoacidophile (combination of thermophile and acidophile ) is an extreme archaebacteria which thrives in acids, sulfur rich, high temperature environments. Thermoacidophiles prefer temperatures of 70 - 80 C and pH between 2 and 3. They live mostly in hot springs and/or within deep ocean vent communities. Classified as an Archaebacteria and an extremophile, Thermoacidophiles are found in places where most organisms would not survive. Thermoacidophiles love heat and acidic watery environments, live in sulfur hot springs. As a result…...

Organic Chemistry Laboratory - Formal Report

Introduction The study is about distillation. Distillation is a process of converting a liquid to a vapor, and then, collecting the distillate in another container. This technique is used to separate components in a liquid mixture which have different boiling points, or to separate a component that is not volatile. It is one of the methods used when purifying liquids. For example, it is used to concentrate alcoholic beverages. The four distillation methods include simple distillation, fractional distillation, vacuum distillation…...

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