Essays on Chromatography

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The value of the impure aspirin RfP compared with pure aspirin RfA, the difference between these two substances was only 0.64 - 0.58 =0.06, which was less than 0. 01. Because the Rf value of a compound was constant on the same plate in condition of the temperature and solvent were kept the same and the closer the value of RfP and RfA the possible these two substances were the same. So the crude product had a very high purity,…...
Size of units facilities
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Economies of scale Scale economies are based on the notion that large units are more economical because fixed costs can be spread over more units of production. The company may consider using a large unit of capacity in two cases: Firstly if the cost of building and operating large production equipment does not increase linearly with volume. A machine with twice the output rate generally costs less than twice to as much to buy and operate. Also, in larger facilities…...
Akira Analytical Solutions Pvt Ltd is No.1 Distributors of HPLC/GC/UPLC Columns and Lab Accessories in India.
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is a leading distributing company in India for HPLC/GC/UPLC Columns and Lab Accesories. Akira Analytical Solutions PvtLtd most sought after No.1 brands in India which are named to their rugged ness are as follows: from Japan. Regis Chiral Columns from USA. Altius GC Columns . Akira Analytical Solutions PvtLtd supply Benson Polymeric Columns, Poly LC Columns, Jordi GPC Columns, Eprogen SEC columns, Waters HPLC Columns, Hypersil BDS Columns, Nuceosil Columns, Dionex Columns, Ultron ES OVM Columns, Sumichiral Columns, , Diacel…...
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Pandanus odoratissimus Linn belongs to the family Pandanaceae It
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Pandanus odoratissimus Linn. belongs to the family Pandanaceae. It is widely distributed in Southeast Asia including Philippines and Indonesia. It is a small, leafy herb, less than 1 meter tall. Pandanus leaves are mostly used in Southest Asian cooking. In Indian Ayurvedic, P. odoratissimus is recommended for the treatment of headache, rheumatism, spasm, cold, epilepsy, wounds, scabies and ulcer[17]. It is also believed to have medicinal properties including antiviral, anti allergy, anti platelet, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer action. Preliminary screening…...
Chromatographic Separations
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Hemolymph samples were obtained from chilled, surface-sterilized two-day-old 5th instar larvae of Mythimna separata that had been deprived of food for 4 hours [22]. After puncturing the propterothoracic membrane at the base of the coxa of the metathoracic leg, hemolymph was drawn from the hemocoel and collected in a 10-fold volume TNM-FH medium containing 1.0 mM phenylthiourea. Then, the anti-cancer QDP and the pesticide EMB were added to the medium until the final concentrations were 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and…...
BiologyChemistryChromatographyExperimentScienceScientific method
Manufacturing Procedure of Products of Bio-Works Company
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Introduction Biotechnology companies have has different types of departments like Manufacturing (Production), Quality assurance, Quality control, Research & Development, Microbiology, and financial & Procurement departments. Manufacturing (Production) department acts as the heart of the Company [1]. This department is responsible for converting raw materials and other recipients of finished products. All process to involve in the preparation of the product of the receipt of material through Processing, Packaging, and labeling with a finished product. The Manufacturing department provides guidance for…...
Carvedilol and Potassium Carbonate
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Abstract: The present communication reports the preparation of carvedilol an adrenergic antagonist drug by a novel design of synthesis which has improved the yield. An optimized synthesis by screening different solvents and bases was proposed using R software. Finally better conditions for preparation of carvedilol in high yields were established. Keywords: 4-hydroxy carbazole, epichlorohydrin, 4-(2, 3-epoxyprpoxy) carbazole, 2-(2-methoxyphenoxy) ethanamine, R software Introduction Carvedilol (Figure I) is an adrenergic antagonist with both non-selective ?1, ?2 and ?1 receptor blocking agent and…...
Method Development for Fecal Lipidomics Profiling
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Simple Summary: Altered faecal lipidome reflects the gross outcome of nutrient intake, digestion, and absorption by both the gut microbiome and the animal gastrointestinal tract, providing means to study animal-microbiota interactions. Faecal lipidome profile also shows changes in lipid metabolism, a hallmark feature of diet-induced metabolic changes and hence the interest in its use as a biomarker to predict dietary composition. This study illustrates faecal lipidome components and their ratios as a biomarker for forage quality in beef cattle fed…...
Laccase Preparation and Use
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2.5 Preparation of curde laccase from Stenotrophomonas YBX1 The harvest Stenotrophomonas sp. YBX1 cells grown on 250ml of nutrient broth after 24 hrs of incubation followed suspended in 20 ml of 50 mM sodium aceatate buffer pH 6, and sonicated for 5 minutes at 4°C. The extract was centrifuged (9500xg, 30 min, at 4°C) and the resulting supernatant was filtered first by passing 0.45µ filter membrane. Clear filtrate was used for enzymatic assays and further subjected to purification steps followed…...
Isolation and Identification of some Polar Compounds from Helichrysium Cyomsum
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ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOME POLAR COMPOUNDS FROM HELICHRYSIUM CYOMSUM Background Medicinal plant has provided the medical field with varies amount of new molecule. The use of plant as medicine has being in practice since before 3000 B .C , since then medicinal plants has been documented by each country throughout history (Raskin & Ripoll 2004 ). The extended history of medicinal plant is a good indication that plant do possess the potential to provide large amount of new chemical…...
Quantitative Analysis Of Organic Waste
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Quantitative analysis of organic waste by capillary GC Objectives: The objectives of this experiment were: To prepare a series of organic solvent samples and an unknown organic waste sample. To analyze these samples using capillary GC. To use information from chromatograms produced in order to calculate % composition and response factor of each sample. To identify what organic solvent is present in the unknown organic waste sample. To calculate the amount of organic solvent in the samples. Introduction: An internal…...
Size Exclusion Chromatography
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For application in biochemical aspect, this technique can find out the quaternary structure of purified proteins which possess slow exchange times, since it can be carried out under native solution conditions and preserve macromolecular interactions. The reason why we use this technique for purification is Size exclusion chromatography is a low resolution chromatography method as it does not identify similar species very well. It can also test the tertiary structure of protein as it measures the hydrodynamic volume, allowing folded…...
Dehydration of an Alcohol lab report
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In Experiment 9, distillation was used to carry out the dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol using 4:1 mixture of phosphoric and sulfuric acid. Gas Chromatography was then used to measure the products. Two products were formed. The theoretical yield of the alkene mixture was 3. 914 g. The actual yield of the mixture was 0. 73 g. The percent yield for the reaction was 18. 65%. Peak A had an area of 0. 3 mm2 and a percentage of 4. 6 %.…...
Candy Chromatography
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Introduction Ever wondered why candies are different colors? Ever wondered why candies are different colors? Many candies contain colored dyes. Bags of M&Ms or Skittles contain candies of various colors. The labels tell us the names of the dyes used in the candies. But which dyes are used in which candies? We can answer this by dissolving the dyes out of the candies and separating them using a method called chromatography. Research Candy Chromatography is the method of analysis of…...
Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments by Paer Chromatography
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I. INTRO There are different types of components in plant pigments. The most important and abundant chemical pigment discovered in plants is chlorophyll. This pigment exists in 2 types; chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll a, being the primary photosynthetic pigment, has a primary purpose to transform light energy to chemical energy utilized by the plant itself. Chlorophyll b soaks up light in a region of the spectrum apart from the dominant chlorophyll, and transfers the energy it produces to…...
Chromatography Lab Questions
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A pencil is used rather than a pen to mark the “starting line” in step two because a pen or marker while be used to place a small dot of ink in the center of the X that is made with a pencil. Capillary action is filling of pores in a solid with a liquid. Capillary action is caused by spotting or absorption and is allowed to seep or flow through. The type of pen that will probably give better…...
The Separation of Ink Chromatography
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I. Title: The Separation of Ink Using Chromatography II. Date: October 3rd, 2012 III. Purpose: To separate a mixture using paper chromatography. IV. Procedure: 1. Fill beaker with 100 mL water. 2. Poke hole in filter paper with scoopula approximately 1 cm from top. 3. Place dot of ink approximately 2 cm from the bottom of the filter paper. 4. Put scoopula through hole and hang paper from scoopula so that it touches the water, making sure Ink dot is…...
Plant Pigment Chromatography
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1. Describe what each of your chromatography strips looked like. Specifically, identify the pigments on each strip and compare their positions to one another. Plants have four types of pigments, namely chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and xanthophylls. These pigments have different polarities and chemical properties. In paper chromatography, the pigments will separate based on their affinity to the medium (paper), and affinity for the solvent. The solvents used in this experiment are water (polar) and acetone (mid-polar). Therefore, the different pigments…...
Lab Report for Chromatography
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Study Questions: One of the requirements for the photosynthesis process to occur, the plant cells need sufficient light. Pigments are the substances that absorbed visible light. Different pigments absorb light of different wavelengths. From the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a, it suggests that blue and red light work best for photosynthesis. There is a high degree correlation between the absorption spectra of leaf and the absorption spectra of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotene. It is because those pigments are…...
Identification of an Unknown Organic Acid
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Abstract Identifying this organic acid was an extensive task that involved several different experiments. Firstly, the melting point had to be determined. Since melting point can be determined to an almost exact degree, finding a close melting point of the specific unknown can accurately point to the identification of the acid. In this case the best melting point range was 207-209 degrees Celsius. Melting point, while very helpful in identifying an unknown organic acid, is simply not enough. Next, a…...
Calcium carbonateChemistryChromatographyEducation System TodayEquilibrium constantExperiment
Chromatography and its Types Explanation
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ABSTRACT Chromatography is the separation of mixtures into their constituents. It relies on the differential solubilities or absorptivities of the components to be separated with respect to two phases, one of which is stationary and the other, mobile. The group aims to separate the coloured components of siling labuyo using column chromatography then determine the purity of the components using thin layer chromatography and lastly, measure the RF values of the coloured components in thin layer chromatography. The students plugged…...
Column and Thin Layer Chromatography
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Chromatography is a technique used to separate mixtures into components as a result of differential partitioning behavior between a stationary phase and a mobile phase that percolates through the stationary bed. [1, 2] Column and thin layer chromatography are examples of the solid-liquid method of chromatography, which utilizes an adsorbent solid stationary phase (silica) and a liquid mobile phase. In column chromatography, the solid stationary phase is situated within a tube as the liquid mobile phase is added to the…...
Paper Chromatography Lab
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Purpose: to separate the various photosynthetic pigments of Spinacia oleracea leaves. Materials: - methanol - water - filter paper - sand - test tube - 10 S. oleracea leaves - 2 wooden splints - mortar - pestle Method: First, 10 S. oleracea leaves were gathered. A piece of filter paper, a wooden splint, a mortar and pestle were also gathered. The leaves were placed inside the mortar, filling the mortar approximately half full. The leaves were then crushed with the…...
Carbohydrate Lab Report
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Qualitative identification of a substance is of significant importance in chemistry. Physical constants such as melting points have traditionally been used by organic chemistry for identification of unknown compounds. As for inorganic substances, the precipitation of a solid, results of a flame test, or the formation of a colored substance could all be keys to identifying a sample. Chromatography and spectra are amongst the newer techniques practiced today. A problem that arises in biochemistry when attempting to identify a particular…...
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