Essays on Titration

Chemistry determination of RAM of lithium
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Lithium reacts violently with water to give off flammable hydrogen gas and corrosive dust. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is a corrosive alkali. Hydrochloric acid is corrosive to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Acute (short-term) inhalation exposure may cause eye, nose, and respiratory tract irritation and inflammation and pulmonary oedema in humans. Acute oral exposure may cause corrosion of the mucous membranes, oesophagus, and stomach and dermal contact may produce severe burns, ulceration, and scarring in humans. Chronic (long-term) occupational exposure…...
Volumetric Analysis
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The aim of this investigation is to find the various measurements of concentration (Also called the morality) of acid that will neutralise 1 mole of sodium hydroxide. This is found using the titration method. Prediction I predict that the volume of acid that will be used to neutralise the given solution would depend on the concentration. The more acid I add to an alkali, the more neutral it will become. If I add too much acid, the solution will not…...
ChemistryConcentrationMaterialsSulphuric AcidTitration
Utilise different carbon sources as substrates for cellular respiration
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The purpose of this investigation is to compare the ability of two different strains of yeast to respire, when using different sugars as respiration substrates. Considering the lengths that have been reached to develop varieties of yeast with greater suitability and effectiveness for very particular fermentation purposes, it seems reasonable to suppose that two different strains of the same species of yeast, selected for their different fermentation properties, have developed requirements that are not uniform. As a result of the…...
Anaerobic RespirationCellular RespirationChemistryEnzymeTitration
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Titration with HCl and NaOH
Words • 750
Pages • 3
Aim: Determine the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide solution using a standardised solution of hydrochloric acid. Health and safety: HCl/NaOH -corrosive-avoid spills, mop-up (gloves) -safety glasses -laboratory coat Pippete fillers- take care when using in case they snap when putting on the pipette Indicator -stains/poisonous Method Step 1. Wash out: i.) the pipette, with a little of the sodium hydroxide solution ii.) the burette, with a little of the hydrochloric acid solution iii.) the conical flask, with a…...
Thermometric Titration Investigation
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We have to plan an experiment which measures the temperature change accompanying neutralisation so that it can be investigated. Neutralisation is when an acid and an alkali mixed together neutralise the other. The hydrogen and the hydroxide ions bond to form water and the rest bonds to form a salt. For example in the case of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, the salt is sodium chloride. Neutralisation is an exothermic reaction, like all reactions where bonds are formed. I plan…...
Redox Titration: Permanganate against Oxalate (Ethanedioate)
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The mixture of oxalic acid and oxalate should be diluted ten times. Using pipette filler pipette 25cm3 of given solution and dilute it to 250cm3 in a volumetric flask. The resulting solution can be used for subsequent titration. (B) Acid-base titration Titrate a 25cm3 portion of the diluted mixture against the given standard Sodium Hydroxide (0.05M). Add 3 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator. At the end point, the solution will change from colorless to pink. Repeat the titration for 3 more…...
Preparation and determination of structural formula
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The solution turned orange/brown when approximately 1.8g was added. After complete addition the solution was a bright orange and pink color with a small brown layer on top. Hydrogen peroxide (7. 2mL, 30%) was added to this mixture which created vigorous effervescence of oxygen gas and a very dark red color. Once the effervescence subsided, concentrated hydrochloric acid (46. 1mL) was added - which created a light red color and blue gas on top with temporary bubbling. The solution was…...
Finding Concentration of a Solution
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Jason Yu (Block C) Research Question Which of the following methods give a value of NaOH concentration closest to the 'real' value1? 1. Weighing the solute, 2. Titrating it 1. No literature value available, we need to find by most accurate method Data Collection: Method A (Weighing NaOH) Quantitative Data: Method A: Weighing NaOH Mass of NaOH pellets (zeroed beaker) = 0.412 � 0.001 g Volume of standard solution = 100.0 � 0.5 cm3 Qualitative Data: On electronic balance: Two…...
To find out the Ka of ethanoic acid, chloroethanoic acid and dichloroethanoic acid
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1. The pH meter is calibrated, using a buffer solution of accurately known pH. 2. 20.0cm3 of 0.10M ethanoic acid was pipetted into a conical flask. 3. 0.10M sodium hydroxide solution was titrated using phenolphthalein as indicator, until the solution was just turned pink. 4. A further 20.0cm3 of the same ethanoic acid solution was added to the flask and was mixed thoroughly. 5. The pH of the resulting solution was determined. Result: Volume of NaOH used is recorded below:…...
The Estimation Of Iron(II) And Iron(III) In A Mixture Containing Both: the Procedure
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Iron is a transition element; a transition element is an element that forms at least one ion with a partially filled d subshell. All transition elements may be found in a variety of oxidation states, for example iron exists as both as Iron(II) and Iron(III). Transition elements can react with both oxidising and reducing agents. An oxidising agent will convert Iron(II) into Iron(III), the iron will lose an electron. A reducing agent will convert Iron(III) into Iron(II), the iron will…...
The Estimation of Iron (II) and Iron (III) in a Mixture Containing Both
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Planning:- Fe2+ Fe3+ + e- (multiply by 5) MnO4- + 5e- + 8H+ Mn2+ + 4H2O MnO4- + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 5Fe3+ + 4H2O Background Knowledge - Iron, Fe, is a transition metal with the atomic number 26. Iron is a magnetic, malleable and metallic silver element. Iron has the ability of having multi valences, commonly Fe2+ or Fe3+. Fe2+ forms ferrous compounds, whereas Fe3+ tends to form ferric compounds. Iron can be used as a catalyst due…...
ChemistryConcentrationMaterialsSulphuric AcidTitration
To determine the molarity of a given sample of Sulphuric acid by using titration
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A volumetric analysis is a method used to find out the amount of solute in a solution. It involves preparation of a primary standard, which is a solution of known molarity, and titration. When choosing a good primary standard, the requirements are that it should be cheap, stable in atmosphere and should not be hygroscopic to prevent the loss of solution. Also, it should have a high purity and high molar mass to prevent serious weighing error. In this experiment,…...
Determine the concentration or molarity of Ethanoic acid
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The aim of this investigation is to determine the concentration or molarity of Ethanoic acid (CH3COOH) in two types of commercial vinegar. To set about this, values of percent by mass have been noted from the internet and the modal value for this was 5%. The concentration can be calculated from percentage by mass by doing this: 5% ethanoic acid in vinegar can be interpreted by saying that it is the same as 5 grams of acid per every 100…...
To determine the enthalpy changes of reaction for some reactive metals, with hydrochloric acid
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Sodium carbonate can be used as a standard to determine acid concentration, because it is readily available in a pure and dry form. Here 7.5g is used to make up a 250cm solution with a concentration of 0.283 moldm .The calculations show this; The exact concentration of hydrocloric acid, is found by titrating it against the standard solution. Apparatus Chemicals 2 decimal place balance; HCl (exact weighing jar; concentration not known teat pipette; between 2.0 and 2.5moldm); pipette; burette; screened…...
Determine the concentration of a limewater solution
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Equation Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl � CaCl2 + 2H2O calcium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid � calcium chloride + water Apparatus Burette 50cm3 Pipette 20mls/25mls Volumetric Flask 2000cm3 Conical Flask Boss and Clamp Funnel White tile Indicator 2000cm3 0.02 mol Hydrochloric acid 250 cm3 Limewater Firstly, the acid that I was given is too strong for the reaction to be reliable, which means that it has to be diluted. To get a suitable concentration of the acid which will titrate into the…...
Determination of the relative atomic mass of magnesium by back titration
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In this following experiment, we are aiming to determine the relative atomic mass of magnesium, using a process known as 'back titration'. The basic outlines of this experiment include a strip of magnesium being allowed to reach with excess hydrochloric acid. The excess acid is then determined by titration with a standard alkali (Sodium Hydroxide) and hence the moles of acid that reacted with the magnesium is found by difference. This can be used to determine the number of mole…...
Comparing the Concentration of Some Alkalis in Saturated Solutions
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When metals from groups one and two of the periodic table combine with an OH molecule, the type of intramolecular bonding is ionic bonding. The metals lose one or more electrons and so become positively charged. The non-metal ions/ molecules gain electrons and so become negatively charged. The oppositely charged ions attract each other to form a rigid 3-D lattice a. Each ion in the lattice is surrounded by others of opposite charge e.g. NaOH: Due to their polar nature,…...
Chemistry practical 
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Hydrated Iron(II) Sulphate crystals contains water of crystallization. Water of crystallization is the fixed amount of water that an hydrated salt contains. The formula of an hydrated salt is generally written as M.xH2O, where the M is an hydrous salt formula, and x is the number of moles of water per mole of hydrated salt. In this experimental investigation, we are going to determine the formula of hydrated Iron(II) Sulphate, which is given to us in the instruction as FeSO4.xH2O.…...
Chemistry Practical: Finding the water content of Na2 CO3 .xH2O by Titration
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Step 1: making up the solution Step 1. Weigh about 4g of sodium carbonate hydrate crystals into a dry weighing bottle. Place bottle, lid and powder onto the balance and weigh using an accurate balance to record weight to 3 d.p. Note: remember not to expose crystals to air for too long to avoid water loss from crystals. Step 2. Transfer the powder to a beaker (100 ml+ in size) Step 3. Reweigh the bottle and lid (and subsequently any…...
Chemistry Coursework
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Aim: In this experiment I am finding out how much sulphuric acid is present in sodium carbonate solution. How I will find the accurate concentration of sulphuric acid I am to find the accurate concentration of sulphuric acid ranging between 0.05 and 0.15-mol dm-3, I am provided with solid, anhydrous sodium carbonate, and range of indicators. The indicator which I will be using in my experiment is methyl orange, because it is used in most titrations, and it changes colour…...
Biotechnology Company Products Overview and Analysis
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CHAPTER 1- Introduction In 1906, Hakeem Hafiz Abdul Majeed laid the foundation of Hamdard Dawakhana in Delhi. It was initially started as a small Unani clinic in the historic by lanes of Old Delhi. Hamdard is known for its integrity and high quality in the field of Unani medicines. The goal of Hamdard was to ease the sufferings of the sick using the healing properties of herbs. After Hakeem Abdul Majeed passed away at a younger age the reigns of…...
Biotechnology Boon Or BaneChemistryCompanyMaterialsTitrationWater
Strychnos Cocculoides
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Background of the study The African continent has a variety of indigenous fruit, and many are not processed and this study will try to mitigate the fact that little research is done on the processing of many of this indigenous fruits, the focus is on Strychnos cocculoides commonly known as monkey orange. The monkey orange tree is a compact tree 2-8 m tall (occasionally reaching 10m) found in the Kalahari and its surrounding savannas and dry woodlands. It is found…...
ChemistryFoodFruitResearchTitrationVitamin C
Environmental water analysis
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Aims To estimate the total weight of suspended solids in a water sample. To estimate the total weight of dissolved solids in a water sample. To calibrate a pH meter and use it to determine the Ph of a water sample. Buffering capacity of water sample. To determine the acidity of the water sample . To d etermine the alkalinity of the water sample. Introduction The European council have set out directives, Council directive 98/83 EC of November 1998 on…...
Analysis of the Nitrogen Content of Lawn Fertiliser
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Research Question: What is the percentage by mass of nitrogen (from the ammonium ion NH4+) in Bunnings Green Up brand of lawn fertilizer compared to the manufacturer's specification of 12.3%? Aim: To determine the percentage by mass of available nitrogen, present as the ammonium ion, in Bunnings Green Up brand of lawn fertiliser, then comparing it with the one specified by the manufacturer. Hypothesis: Since the ammonium ion (NH4+) present in fertilisers is a weak acid, it is hard to…...
Estimating the % purity of marble by back titration method
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The worths for the % purity of marble that I have actually calculated depend on a close variety, nevertheless there is a significant distinction, of 4.74% in the purity estimated in between the 2 specific values. Nevertheless, the deviation is covered by the uncertainty of ï ¿ 1/2 4.84%. However, specific mistakes have taken place that have actually caused this variance in the outcomes. REASONS FOR VARIANCE Random Errors 1. Loss of marble after weighing: After weighing out the marble,…...
Titration Lab: the Paper
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Method for Control of Variables 1. In order to control the titration of potassium permanganate, we used the pipette to make the titration constant. We also used the same amount of chemical solutions, with the same flasks, to make the titration as constant as possible. 2. To control the amount of redox in the experiment, we have used the pipette to keep on putting the same amount of drop every time. The pipette made the amount of redox constant for…...
To determine the molecular mass of an unknown alkali metal carbonate, X2CO3
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Pages • 10
Criteria Assessed: * Data Collection and Processing (DCP) * Conclusion and Evaluation (CE) Candidate Name: Candidate Number: International School, Singapore AIM: To determine the molecular mass of an unknown alkali metal carbonate X2CO3 using titration. INTRODUCTION: Since substance Z is an alkali metal carbonate, it can safely be hypothesized that the compound is most likely to be the carbonate of Lithium, Sodium or Potassium since these are the only three alkali metal carbonates which are stable and safe to use…...
Experiment: Analysing molar mass of Aspirin
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Introduction In 1899 the Bayer Company of Germany introduced the ethanoate ester of salicylic acid naming it, ‘Aspirin’. Aspirin is an acid, it can be titrated with a base such as sodium hydroxide to the equivalence point. The following chemical equation describe the acid-base reaction that will be observed in this experiment. H-Aspirin + NaOH ------> Na-Aspirin + H2O (acid) (base) (salt) The above chemical equation is balanced as written. An indicator will be used to provide a way to…...
AspirinExperimentStanford Prison ExperimentTitration
Determinating the percent acetic acid in vinegar using titration
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Qualitative: As we add sodium hydroxide to vinegar with the phenolphthalein the solution instantly turned pink and then instantly turned colorless.  As we got closer to equating the moles of H+ Ions with OH- the pink would stop turning into colorless leaving a pale pink color. Data processing: Trial 1: In order to determine the mass of the acid, we have to calculate the moles of acetic acid used, and we can get that by multiplying the volume of sodium…...
Determining Ka by the half-titration of a weak acid
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To get the Ka of acetic acid, HC2H3O2 I will react it with sodium hydroxide. The point when our reaction is half-titrated can be used to determine the pKa. As I have added half as many moles of acetic , as NaOH, Thus, OH- will have reacted with only half of the acetic acid leaving a solution with equal moles of HC2H3O2 and C2H3O2-. Then I will use the Henderson-Hasselblach equation to get pKa. CH3COOH + NaOH H2O + NaCH3COO…...
To Determine the Content of Iron in Iron Tablets by Titration
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PROCEDURES: Making a solution of the tablets 1. 5 iron tablets were weighed accurately, and then dissolved in about 100cm3 of 1.0 moldm-3 sulphuric acid in a conical flask. Some heating was required, but not more than the necessary needed to dissolve the tablets. 2. The mixture was filtered into a beaker, making sure that no solution was lost, then the conical flask was washed out with water and the washings were poured through the filter. 3. Finally, distilled water…...
Redox titration
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To determine the x in the formula Fe (NH4)2(SO4)2i?? xH2O by titration against a standard solution of potassium manganate (VII) (permanganate). Theory: The experiment involves a redox reaction between potassium manganate (VII) and ammonium Potassium manganate (VII) is used in the experiment as it reacts completely and it is its own indicator. Potassium manganate (VII) solution is a strong oxidizing agent. In an acidic medium, manganate(VII) ion undergoes reduction as shown below. MnO4- (aq) + 8H+ (aq) + 5e- -->…...
Analysis of two Commercial Brands of Bleaching Solution
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Objective To determine the concentrations of the active ingredients in 2 commercial bleaches. Introduction Sodium hypochlorite is usually found in bleaching solutions. It is the active ingredient of bleaching solutions. It bleaches by oxidation. When it is added to dye, the following reaction occurs: ClO- + dye ----------------> Cl- + (dye + O) If the oxidized form of the dye is colorless, then the color of the dye would fade away. In the presence of acid, the hypochlorite ions from…...
Determination of the Percentage of Oxalate in Iron(II) Oxalate by Redox Titration
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Pages • 5
Introduction Acidified potassium permanganate is a strong oxidizing agent. It oxidizes substances and reduces itself. MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e- -------------> Mn2+ + 4H2O (Purple) (Colourless) Both iron (II) and oxalate ions can be oxidized. When they come in contact with an oxidizing agent, the following reactions occur: 1. C2O42- ------------------> 2CO2 + 2e- 2. Fe2+ ------------------> Fe3+ + e- (Pale green) (Yellow) So, when potassium permanganate is added to acidified iron (II) oxalate, two redox reactions occur. 1. 5C2O42-…...
Titration aim my aim is to find the volume
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Aim My aim is to find the volume of hydrochloric acid needed to neutralise sodium hydroxide. Theory Titration is a laboratory method used to analyse a chemicals concentration. In this experiment 10cm3 of sodium hydroxide should be neutralised by 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid. Phenolphthalein is used in this experiment as an indictor where the base is a pink colour and acid as a cloudy white colour. When they are use to neutralise each other the mixture goes clear at the…...
Determination of the equilibrium constant for esterification
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Esterification is the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol. This experiment is an esterification response between ethanoic acid and propan-1-ol when warmed: CH3COOH(aq) + CH3CH2CH2OH(aq) < CH3COOCH2CH2CH3(aq) + H2O(l) The development of propyl ethanoate is especially well-suited to the decision of the stability constant. The reaction is sluggish enough at room temperature level so the order of mixing, temperature level variations over the reaction time and even a last titration with a strong base just have little effect…...
Equilibrium constantTitration
Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid solution
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Pages • 1
Experiments: 1. Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid solution 2. Determination of the concentration of commercial colourless vinegar Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid Objective: To determine the molarity of sodium hydroxide. As the molarity of the sodium hydroxide is unknown, in order to standardize it, the concentration of the acid has to be known. Result: Titration Trial 1 2 3 4 Initial burette reading() 18. 33 8. 05 7. 52 8. 21. Final burette reading() 45. 48…...
Acid-Base Titration using Method of Double Indicators
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Objective: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the composition of a mixture of solutions of NaOH and Na2CO3 by double indicator method. Introduction: Consider a mixture of NaOH(aq) and Na2CO3(aq). Reaction between HCl(aq) and Na2CO3(aq) takes place in two stages: HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) � NaHCO3(aq) + H2O(l) -------------------------(1) HCl(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) � NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) -----------------(2) While that between HCl(aq) and NaOH(aq) completes in only one step: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) � NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) -----------------------------(3) The…...
Titration Of Acids And Bases
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Introduction According to Arrhenius definition, acid is substance that produces H3O+ ion while base is substance that produces OH- ions. The reaction between acid and base often yields the products of salt and water. The formation of water in this neutralization reaction is caused by the combination of H3O+ and OH- ions. In order to determine the concentration of an unknown acid and base, a method called acid-base titration is used. The end of the titration has been reached when…...
Calcium carbonateChemicals IndustryTitration
Titration Experiment
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Aim: To find out the mass of Iron (II) sulphate each ‘Iron tablet’ contains Background Knowledge: ‘Iron tablets’ are prescribed to patients suffering from anaemia. They contain 200mg (0.200g) of iron (II) sulphate FeSO4 We are going to analyse iron tablets to find out how much Iron (II) sulphate they contain. The procedure we will use is a REDOX reaction, by oxidising the Fe2+ contained in the Iron (II) sulphate to Fe3+. We will use potassium manganite (VII) as the…...
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