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When a substance is heated, the particles move faster. When the particles are moving faster they will travel at greater distances which will involve more collisions. This will increase the rate of reaction.
Concentration The more concentrated the reactants are the greater the rate of reaction. This is because increasing the rate of reaction increases the number of collisions between particles and therefore increases the rate of reaction. Pressure An increase in pressure can lead to an increase in the rate of reaction. The increase in pressure forces the particles closer together.
This causes more collisions and therefore increases the rate of reaction
After looking at the background information I predict that the mass of the oxygen produced will be proportional to the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide which will also be proportional to the rate of reaction. I think that if I increase the concentration of hydrogen peroxide I will increase the number of collisions, which will increase the rate of reaction. Therefore I think that if I double the concentration of hydrogen peroxide I will double the number of collisions which will double the rate of reaction.
I think this will happen because in general, concentrated solutions react more quickly than dilutes solutions. In a concentrated solution there are more collisions between the reacting particles, so the reaction will proceed more quickly.
Reaction rates can be speeded up by increasing the concentration of the reacting solution. After observing my results I found that my prediction were correct.
Looking back at my experiments and the results I collected I can see that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased so did the volume of oxygen produced.
This happened because as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide increased so did the number of particles and this lead to an increase in the number of successful collisions and therefore the reaction rate increased along with the volume of oxygen gas. From looking at the diagram I can see that the dilute solution H202 of has only a few particles which means there is less chance of collisions occurring, whereas the concentrated solution of H202 has more particles which means there is a greater chance of collision.
However I could not prove the second part of my prediction which was, if I double the concentration of H202 it would double the number of collisions, which would double the rate of reaction. If I pull out some results from my tables I can see that the amount of oxygen produced for each concentration did not double but it did increase. Time (s) Volume of oxygen gas evolved – 1. 5% Volume of oxygen gas evolved – 3% Volume of oxygen gas evolved -Analysing From looking at the calculations of the rate of reaction I can say that all three concentrations of hydrogen peroxide had the fastest rate of reaction at the start of the reaction.
This can be explained by using the rate of reaction theory. In a reaction, reactants are being used up and products are forming. So the amount of reactants fall and the amount of products rise. In my experiment the hydrogen peroxide decreased and the oxygen rose. Overall the hydrogen peroxide with the concentration of 6% had the fastest reaction because it had more particles for collisions to be successful than the 1. 5% and 3% concentration of hydrogen peroxide. From looking at my results I can also see that the 1.
5% concentration of H202 had a slower reaction than the 3%. I can explain this by applying the collision theory to this result. There are less particles in the 1. 5% concentration than the 3%, this means there would be less chances of collision which would reduce the rate of reaction. This goes the same for the 6% concentration, as the 3% had a slower reaction than the 6%. In my experiment the catalase did not denature at any point. However, if I was to increase the temperature of the catalase the catalase would have denatured above 40oC. Safety Safety glasses were used during my experiments harmful chemicals were used .
The measuring cylinder was placed on the table and I bent down to measure the hydrogen peroxide I used the syringe slowly and carefully because if I pressed too hard there would be too much pressure and the catalase would spill out The catalase was heated in a water bath for safety Fair Test To make my tests fair, I will investigate how the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, effects the rate of reaction by changing the concentration and keeping all other factors constant. Constant Factors: Equipment used – by using the same equipment throughout all the experiments.
Time – by allowing each experiment to proceed for only 2 minutes (trial experiment – 1 minute because we will be testing the experiment for any problems) Concentration of – by using the same concentration of catalase (1%) throughout catalase all the experiments. Volume of catalase – by using the same volume of catalase throughout all the experiments. Volume of H202 – by using the same volume of H202 throughout all the experiments. Temperature – by using the same reaction temperature (room temperature) throughout all the experiments.
Variable factor Concentration – by carrying out the experiment using different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (1. 5%, 3%, 6%). I will use different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide throughout the experiments and carry out three tests for each concentration.
This will help me calculate an average result (line of best fit on a graph) and also increase the accuracy of my experiments. Evaluating I can improve my method to give me better results by using a wider range of concentration of hydrogen peroxide. This would then give me more results in which I can use to draw up a better conclusion. I could also improve my experiment by collecting the oxygen gas in a different way.
I could use the method of displacement to collect the oxygen gas. This would help me get accurate results of how much oxygen gas evolved. Another improvement I could use in my experiment is by using a bigger gas syringe to collect the oxygen gas. This is because the syringe I used was too small and the oxygen gas filled the syringe causing the end of the syringe to come out. A bigger syringe would help me find out how much oxygen gas was actually being produced. If I was to do this experiment again I would definitely change the time in which we measured the oxygen gas.
This is because 5 seconds was a too shorter time to measure the oxygen being evolved. I would rather read the gas syringe every 10 seconds, which will enable me to read the gas syringe more accurately to give me better results. There were two big errors from my results that show up on my graph. The first error (circled) was on the 1. 5% concentration. This may have occurred because the conical flask which contained the catalase and the hydrogen peroxide was shaken too much. The second error (circled) was on the 3% concentration. This error may have been a result from an incorrect reading from the gas syringe.
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