Essays on Concentration

Enzyme concentration
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If the temperature is too high then the enzyme will denature. This means that the active site will be damaged, and will no longer fit with the substrate. This means that no reaction will occur. pH Independent - If the pH is very different to an enzymes optimum pH then the enzyme can be denatured as the hydrogen ions (of which pH is a measure) can interact with the amino acid R groups and affect the way they bond with…...
Volumetric Analysis
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The aim of this investigation is to find the various measurements of concentration (Also called the morality) of acid that will neutralise 1 mole of sodium hydroxide. This is found using the titration method. Prediction I predict that the volume of acid that will be used to neutralise the given solution would depend on the concentration. The more acid I add to an alkali, the more neutral it will become. If I add too much acid, the solution will not…...
ChemistryConcentrationMaterialsSulphuric AcidTitration
Rates of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid
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Tom - this is good, in that it's all there. But it's muddled - again, I don't think you've really gone away from it and then come back fresh, and read it through to see if it makes sense. There's no point submitting work until you have. My comments are in italics You need to explain the chemistry behind the theory - it will be in your textbook I imagine Rates of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid Aim…...
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The Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate Solution
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The Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate Solution a) Introduction. When Hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of sodium thiosulphate, a reaction takes place in which sulphur is slowly precipitated and the mixture becomes more and more opaque. 2HCl (aq) + Na2S2O3 (aq) 2NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + SO2 (g) + S (s) This gives us a simple way of finding the rate of reaction. If in each experiment, the same volume of solution is…...
Chemical ReactionChemistryConcentrationSodiumWater
The effect of changing the concentration of a reactant upon the rate of a reaction
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This investigation is appropriate for a general or first-year college-prep course. The effect of changing the concentration of thiosulfate ion is studied by observing the time required for a fixed amount of product to form. As the reaction proceeds, the solution becomes cloudy due to the formation of a colloidally dispersed precipitate of sulfur. In order to determine the point at which a specific amount of product has formed, an "x" is observed through the solution. The reaction is timed…...
Measuring Cylinder
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The other independent variable was the hydrochloric acid as we changed it to 2M. We also changed the way we put the calcium powder first and then put the hydrochloric acid after, as we established that it would facilitate the process and assure better results. It would be easier to quickly place the bung inside to prevent the gas from escaping. We also timed the readings of the gas 10 – 120 seconds. The reason why we left it to…...
Investigating the Water Potential of Root Vegetables
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For my experiment I will be investigating the water potential of root vegetables. The vegetable I am going to use is turnip. I am going to use turnip because it is a uniform vegetable. This investigation is about osmosis. "Osmosis is the net movement of water molecules from an area of high water potential to an area of low water potential. This takes place through a partially permeable membrane." Water potential is the potential energy of the water molecules on…...
Finding Concentration of a Solution
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Jason Yu (Block C) Research Question Which of the following methods give a value of NaOH concentration closest to the 'real' value1? 1. Weighing the solute, 2. Titrating it 1. No literature value available, we need to find by most accurate method Data Collection: Method A (Weighing NaOH) Quantitative Data: Method A: Weighing NaOH Mass of NaOH pellets (zeroed beaker) = 0.412 � 0.001 g Volume of standard solution = 100.0 � 0.5 cm3 Qualitative Data: On electronic balance: Two…...
To find out the Ka of ethanoic acid, chloroethanoic acid and dichloroethanoic acid
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1. The pH meter is calibrated, using a buffer solution of accurately known pH. 2. 20.0cm3 of 0.10M ethanoic acid was pipetted into a conical flask. 3. 0.10M sodium hydroxide solution was titrated using phenolphthalein as indicator, until the solution was just turned pink. 4. A further 20.0cm3 of the same ethanoic acid solution was added to the flask and was mixed thoroughly. 5. The pH of the resulting solution was determined. Result: Volume of NaOH used is recorded below:…...
The factors affecting the volume of Carbon Dioxide gas produced when a carbonate reacts with an acid
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In this investigation I will aim to investigate the factors affecting the volume of carbon dioxide gas produced when Calcium carbonate reacts with Hydrochloric acid. This is shown in the equation below. CaCo + HCL CaCl + Co + H O Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid Calcium Chloride + Carbon dioxide + water My results will be in cm�. I will workout my predicted results with the help of the moles equation We were given six different variables to experiment…...
Calcium carbonateCarChemistryConcentrationMaterialsWater
The Estimation Of Iron(II) And Iron(III) In A Mixture Containing Both: the Procedure
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Iron is a transition element; a transition element is an element that forms at least one ion with a partially filled d subshell. All transition elements may be found in a variety of oxidation states, for example iron exists as both as Iron(II) and Iron(III). Transition elements can react with both oxidising and reducing agents. An oxidising agent will convert Iron(II) into Iron(III), the iron will lose an electron. A reducing agent will convert Iron(III) into Iron(II), the iron will…...
The Estimation of Iron (II) and Iron (III) in a Mixture Containing Both
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Planning:- Fe2+ Fe3+ + e- (multiply by 5) MnO4- + 5e- + 8H+ Mn2+ + 4H2O MnO4- + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 5Fe3+ + 4H2O Background Knowledge - Iron, Fe, is a transition metal with the atomic number 26. Iron is a magnetic, malleable and metallic silver element. Iron has the ability of having multi valences, commonly Fe2+ or Fe3+. Fe2+ forms ferrous compounds, whereas Fe3+ tends to form ferric compounds. Iron can be used as a catalyst due…...
ChemistryConcentrationMaterialsSulphuric AcidTitration
How different concentrations of the enzyme pectinase affect the degradation of the substrate pectin?
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Aim: My aim is to find out how different concentrations of the enzyme pectinase affect the degradation of the substrate pectin, and hence the volume of clarified apple juice produced in a specific duration of time. Hypothesis: Will different enzyme concentrations have different effects on the yield of clarified apple juice obtained from apple pulp of equal masses, in a given time? Biological Knowledge: Enzymes are a class of proteins, which are biological catalysts responsible for speeding up and controlling…...
Determine the concentration or molarity of Ethanoic acid
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The aim of this investigation is to determine the concentration or molarity of Ethanoic acid (CH3COOH) in two types of commercial vinegar. To set about this, values of percent by mass have been noted from the internet and the modal value for this was 5%. The concentration can be calculated from percentage by mass by doing this: 5% ethanoic acid in vinegar can be interpreted by saying that it is the same as 5 grams of acid per every 100…...
Determine the concentration of a limewater solution
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Equation Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl � CaCl2 + 2H2O calcium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid � calcium chloride + water Apparatus Burette 50cm3 Pipette 20mls/25mls Volumetric Flask 2000cm3 Conical Flask Boss and Clamp Funnel White tile Indicator 2000cm3 0.02 mol Hydrochloric acid 250 cm3 Limewater Firstly, the acid that I was given is too strong for the reaction to be reliable, which means that it has to be diluted. To get a suitable concentration of the acid which will titrate into the…...
How the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction?
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An investigation to find out how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate (marble chips) Planning The aim of my investigation is to find out how changing the concentration of acid affects the rate of the reaction between CaCO3 and HCl. To make my experiments fair tests, I will only change one variable: the concentration of the acid. I will have to keep the volume of the acid, the mass and size…...
Calcium carbonateChemistryConcentrationMaterialsPhysics
Comparing the Concentration of Some Alkalis in Saturated Solutions
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When metals from groups one and two of the periodic table combine with an OH molecule, the type of intramolecular bonding is ionic bonding. The metals lose one or more electrons and so become positively charged. The non-metal ions/ molecules gain electrons and so become negatively charged. The oppositely charged ions attract each other to form a rigid 3-D lattice a. Each ion in the lattice is surrounded by others of opposite charge e.g. NaOH: Due to their polar nature,…...
Chemistry Coursework
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Aim: In this experiment I am finding out how much sulphuric acid is present in sodium carbonate solution. How I will find the accurate concentration of sulphuric acid I am to find the accurate concentration of sulphuric acid ranging between 0.05 and 0.15-mol dm-3, I am provided with solid, anhydrous sodium carbonate, and range of indicators. The indicator which I will be using in my experiment is methyl orange, because it is used in most titrations, and it changes colour…...
How Does Changing the Concentration Of Hydrochloric Acid Affect the Speed It Reacts With Marble Chips?
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I am going to see if changing the concentration of acid affects the speed at which it reacts with marble chips. Marble chips + Hydrochloric acid ( Carbon dioxide + Water + Calcium chloride CaCO3 + HCl ( CO2 + H2O + CaCl2 I will measure how much gas is given off by using a tally counter to count how many bubbles of gas are given off and measuring the volume of gas produced. Diagram: Apparatus: 5g medium marble chips…...
Calcium carbonateChemistryConcentrationMaterialsSpeed
Concentration of Catalase Report Final
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The Effect of Concentration of the Catalase Research Question: Does the concentration of liquid catalase affect the amount of oxygen gas produced?Rationale Many variables can be implemented to increase the rate of a chemical reaction. The presence of an enzyme can be used to help aid in increasing the rate of reaction. The type of enzyme being investigated is the catalase in its liquid form. The purpose of the liquid catalase of any enzyme is when it reacts with hydrogen…...
Death And Concentration Camps In The Holocaust History
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The Holocaust was a horrifying crime against humanity. Adolf Hitler led a nation of Germans who were trying to rid “inferior races”. Hitler had a “final solution” to take care of anybody who he saw as inferior. “The plans included in the Final Solution included the deportation, exploitation, and eventual extermination of European Jews”. (Grobman) His method was to kill any undesirables. He would use concentration camps and death camps. Within the years 1941-1945 over eleven million people were killed.…...
ConcentrationConcentration CampsDeathHistoryNazi GermanyThe Holocaust
The rate of reaction between sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acid
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* Research question: Does the change in concentration of sodium thiosulfate and the fixed concentration of hydrochloric acid result a change in time taken for the yellow sulfur precipitate to form, thus lead to a change in time taken for the cross to disappear and the rate of reaction? * Variables: * Independent variable: The concentration of sodium thiosulfate / M. * Dependent variable: The time taken for the cross to disappear / second. * Controlled variables: * The concentration…...
Determining the of the Effect of the Concentration of Na2S2O3 on the Rate of Reaction
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In this experiment we reacted different concentrations of Na2S2O3 (aq) with a constant volume of HCl, and measured the time it took for the X drawn under the beaker in black marker to disappear. Uncertainty Details: The uncertainty in the volume of Na2S2O3 (aq) and H2O (l) is given by manufacturer of the burettes. As we find the change in the volume in the burette, the uncertainties are added, and the uncertainty in the volume is ±0.1cm³ The uncertainty in…...
To study the effect of dilution
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Objective: To study the effect of dilution, concentration of water and temperature on the rate of the chemical reaction between methanal (HCHO), sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) and sodium hydrogensulphite (NaHSO3). Chemicals: 0. 3 M methanal about 100 cm3 solution B (containing 0. 20 M NaHSO3 and 0. 05 M Na2SO3) about 100 cm3 phenolphthalein indicator several dropping bottles shared Apparatus: Boiling tube x 6 100 cm3 beaker x 2 Glass rod x 1 250 cm3 beaker x 1 stop watch x…...
Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration on Enzyme Catalase
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Indroduction: Enzymes are proteins. They function as biological catalysts. They lower the energy barrier of a reaction so that the reaction can take place at body temperature. Also, they can speed up Metabolic reactions without being changed or used up. During a reaction, an enzyme molecule combines temporarily with the substrate. When the reaction is complete, the enzyme molecules returns to its original dorm and the product is released. So enzymes are never wasted and always recycled. Due to enzymes…...
Osmolarity: Concentration and Sucrose Solutions
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My group and I conducted the experiment that estimates osmolarity by change in weight of potato tubers, this was conducted in order to explore the process of diffusion and osmosis and more importantly to investigate the question of “Does different concentrations of sucrose solutions have an effect on the final weight for the potato tubers?” In this experiment we estimated the osmolarity of potato tuber cores by submersing different potato cores into sucrose solutions of 0.0-0.6M, and weighing the potato.…...
Osmosis and celery lab experiment
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Diffusion is simply the net movement of atoms or molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. The force behind the movement is heat or kinetic energy (also called Brownian motion). Diffusion occurs when you spill water on the carpet floor and it spreads out, or when you open a bottle of perfume and it leaves the bottle and spreads throughout the air in the room. Osmosis is a similar phenomenon that moves water from…...
The Effect of Glucose Concentration
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INTRODUCTION: Yeast, also known as a saccharomyces cerevisiae, is single celled eukaryotic cells that are in the kingdom fungi and are unicellular organisms which normally reproduce asexually by budding at a very high rate. Scientists quite often decide to work with yeast because of its features fast growing rate and the fact that yeast's DNA can be easily manipulated. Some types of yeast can be found naturally on plant or in the soil. Also it is worthwhile mentioning that yeast…...
Sedimentation: Tangent and Concentration
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Sedimentation is the process of separating a liquid mixture of suspended particles into clear supernatant liquid and denser slurry having a higher concentration of solids. This is usually accomplished by allowing the particles to settle through the force of gravity, mechanically using centrifugal force, or electrostatically using an electric current. Continuous sedimentation tanks are usually used in wastewater treatment facilities to separate suspended particles from wastewater. This experiment aims to determine the effect of initial concentration and initial height of…...
The effect of different concentrations of glucose on anaerobic respiration in yeast cells
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Apart from substrate concentration, which I will be changing in this experiment, it is important to keep the other variables the same to ensure the results are reliable and to get a fair test – results must change because of a difference in the input variable, not because of a different variable. I can monitor the temperature and check it stays the same by using a thermometer. I can keep the pH the same by always using water from the…...
Anaerobic RespirationCellConcentrationGlucose
Comparison of concentration camps to japanese internment
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Although we cannot compare the horrors of the Nazi Concentration camps to the American "Relocation Centers", there are many similarities. Both of the groups of victims were of the minorities, and these cultures were somewhat of an enemy to the leader of their country. These groups (the Japanese in America nearly two thirds of which were American citizens, and the Jews, Gypsies, the Poles, Slovaks, Communists and other enemies of the state in Germany and Poland, many of which had…...
ComparisonConcentrationConcentration CampsNazi GermanyPolitics
Water Can Kill? Exploring Effects of Osmosis
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Questions 1. What sort of environment (hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic) does consuming excessive amounts of pure water create in the body fluid that surrounds your cells? What effect would this have on your cells? - A hypotonic environment would be created in the body fluid, as there would be a lower concentration of solutes outside of the cell than inside the cell. This would create the effect of water entering the cells at an abnormal rate, and the cells, eventually, would…...
To investigate the effect to the potato cells in the different solute concentration water
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Water can move through the different cells due to the difference of water potentials in the cells. If there is a higher solute concentration in the cell than outside the cell, the water will move into the cell. However, if the concentration of inside the cell is lower than the outside, water will not move into the cell. This process is called osmosis. Research question; This investigation will determine how different concentrated sugar water will affect to the mass change…...
Determining the Osmolarity of a Potato
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Abstract Students in Biology find it difficult to understand the concept of tonicity and osmolarity in a real time situation. In this investigation, several concentrations of sucrose were used to determine the osmolarity of a potato. It was found that the concentration of sucrose was close to 3.6 in the potato used showing that it was isotonic. Anything above caused the potato to gain weight showing that it was a hypotonic solution and anything below caused the potato to lose…...
Investigating The Rate Of Reaction Between Marble Chips And Hydrochloric Acid
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Planning I will use marble chips and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid and water to see how it affects the rate of reaction. I will use concentrations of 50cm3 using different volumes of water and acid. Introduction I am investigating how the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid is altered when the concentration is changed. This is the word equation for my investigation, Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + Carbon + Water [IMAGE]Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide The symbol…...
Food Dye Lab
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Abstract: The purpose of this lab was to determine the food dyes present in a selected beverage, their concentration, and then replicate the solution within a 20% margin of error. The beverage we chose was Gatorade Frost Riptide Rush. A spectrometer was used to determine which food dyes were present in the sampled beverage, red 40 and blue 1 were determined to be present. The next step was to determine the concentration of the dyes, this was done by testing…...
Effect of lipid solubility on permeability of plasma membrane
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: To study the effect of lipid solubility of molecules on permeability of plasma membrane of animal cell. Introduction : Diffusion: In general, diffusion process occur when there is a concentration gradient between two region .Molecules (other than water) will move by diffusion as long as there is a concentration gradient. A concentration gradient exists when a particular type of molecule (like food coloring dye molecules) is not spread out in an even concentration, but exists in a higher concentration at…...
Concentration helps the child in his social development
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“The first essential for the child’s development is concentration. It lays the whole basis for his character and social behavior, he must find out how to concentrate, and for this he needs things to concentrate upon…” The Absorbent Mind, Chapter 22 Discuss how the Montessori Education helps to develop a child’s concentration and helps the child in his social development. In order to accomplish any task you need to be able to concentrate your mind for a time, it is…...
ChildChild developmentConcentrationHelpLearning
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FAQ about Concentration

The factors affecting the volume of Carbon Dioxide gas produced when a carbonate reacts with an acid
...Using the method I have written I carried out the experiment and obtained some rather accurate results. Again I do not think I shall have to repeat my results as my prediction and results agree. There is only one slightly anomalous result which I cou...
How different concentrations of the enzyme pectinase affect the degradation of the substrate pectin?
...I have to be more precise when measuring the volume of pectinase solution and distilled with the syringe, taking care look at the lower meniscus; and doing the same when noting down the result from the measuring cylinder. I ought to rinse the chopped...
How the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction?
...I would also investigate the rate of reaction at different temperatures of the acid. Instead of waiting for the acid to run out I might measure out that it would be the marble chips that run out. By doing this I could also see how long it takes for t...
How Does Changing the Concentration Of Hydrochloric Acid Affect the Speed It Reacts With Marble Chips?
...I think that most of my experiment was accurate and the method was appropriate. Having said this, I think that something may have been wrong with the 1.75 molar acid because on both graphs the results are irregular. If I did this experiment again I w...

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