As the Canadian rock band Rush once so eloquently put, “There are those who think that life has nothing left to chance, a host of holy horrors to direct our aimless dance”. The concept they are referring to in their lyrics, which subsequently is the title of the track being sampled, is the belief in free will or rather lack thereof. The existence of free will has been at the center of countless philosophical disputes. Everyone, including Canadian rock bands, has their own two cents regarding the nature of free will. To understand what free will is, it is interesting to learn the concepts of Determinism and Indeterminism.
The Law on Physician Assisted Suicide
Introduction Since the implementation of The Suicide Act 1961, it has been a subject of controversy and debate, as to whether physician-assisted suicide (PAS) should be permitted in the UK. The National Health Service (NHS} website states - ‘Assisted suicide is the act of deliberately assisting or encouraging another person to kill themselves’ and according to Section 2 of the Suicide Act 1961, Doctors will be liable for conviction if they encourage or intend to encourage the suicide of another…...
Assisted SuicideEuthanasiaFree WillHealthLawMedicine
Macbeth And the Power of Fate Vs Free Will
Fate has the power to create one's destiny. By some wild power, the result of an individual's decisions is controlled by how they are planned to happen. In other words, some believe these choices can challenge fate, and that fate only manipulates one's mind into choosing their way. One of the questions that were brought up multiples times in our class discussion was whether individuals were victims of fate or their own choices/actions and if each aspect plays a significant…...
DestinyFateFate And DestinyFree WillMacbeth
The Debate Between Fate And Free Will
The question around whether people have an inescapable fate or if they have free will to do with whatever they please with their lives is one of the most debated. In our day to day lives, it is easier to identify the free will in the menial decision-making we do. Some events in our lives, however, do have a sense of control by a higher power that is beyond us. Once someone decides that they have no free will and…...
Brave New WorldFate And DestinyFree WillPhilosophyThings Fall Apart
Fate Theme in “Romeo and Juliet”
Romeo and Juliet were star-crossed lovers, but was their fate decided or did they choose their own? In this essay, fate in the stars will be discussed as well as if Romeo and Juliet had any say in their destiny, Romeo winning or losing against fate will also be examined in addition to metaphors of stars and fate and how these played a major role in William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. In Shakespeare’s time (the Elizabethan Era) fate was believed…...
DestinyFateFree WillHamletRomeo And Juliet
With Four Freedoms, Four Responsibilities
How you ever thought about the meaning of freedom? Freedom cannot be described in simple words, because this term contains many deep meanings. It does not have a common definition. Different people understand it in different ways. Freedom means more than simply “free” to do whatever I want. Freedom can be viewed in many ways. Freedom for me is the right to express myself in any way I choose. It also means having liberty and independence of your own actions.…...
Free WillFreedomPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophy
Robert Kane’s Libertarianism
How does Kane try to show that we are ultimately responsible for our own actions? Does he succeed? In this essay, I will explain Robert Kane’s libertarian notion of free will as well as his idea of self-forming actions and how he uses it to show that we are the ultimate sources of our actions. I will outline his view that we are ultimately responsible for our actions because we are their ultimate sources. I will object to that idea…...
DeterminismFree WillPersonal ResponsibilityPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophyResponsibility
First thing we have to suppose in order to be able to talk about moral is that we are not determined or more precise that we are not hard-determinist. Because if we would be determined, it would mean we would have no free will and as we do not have free will, we are unable to make our own choices. So a basic condition to talk about morality is that we have a free will. In every day life we…...
EthicsFree WillPhilosophical TheoriesPsychologySocial Life Of Human BeingSociology
Heart of Darkness Imperialism, Hegemony, and Othering
Narrative of Thought I remember when I first read Heart of Darkness. I was a sophomore in high school when I had been required to read it. I remember when I got it. I thought to myself that it might be a cool book. I read the first five pages and wanted to throw it the window. It was confusing, frustrating and a little weird. Eventually I did read it. The more I read the more it made sense. When…...
Free WillGreedHeart Of DarknessImperialismShooting An Elephant
Philosophical Thoghts about Freewill and Determinism
A person's "will" is their ability to decide and choose among different options. The term "freewill" suggests that the choice this person has made, although it may have been influenced by outside circumstances or people, was ultimately his or her own choice. There is a related principle. It generally states that "ought" implies "can". If someone ought to do something that implies that they can do it. After all, if they cannot do something then surely they are not obliged…...
DeterminismFree WillPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophyReligion
Determinism Versus Free Will in Slaughterhouse Five
Is the life of each individual already planned? Is each turn their life takes just in the path that has already been laid out for them? Or does each person have the power to choose the path in which they will follow everyday? In Slaughterhouse Five Kurt Vonnegut leads the reader to believe in determinism or fate as the essences of life. Billy Pilgrim is a veteran of World War II and of the bombing of Dresden. This experience has…...
DeterminismFree WillLaughterSlaughterhouse Five
Beloning in A Clockwork Orange and Film the Wrestler
The concept of belonging is essential. To belong is to form a connection which will allow a sense of identity to manifest, without this we lose our humanity; however, conformity is in a sense a facade of belonging, as it restrains our freedom and forces us to only mimic. My studied texts show how society demands us to conform, yet conformity prevents a sense of true identity being created. This notion is elaborated within the novel, A Clockwork Orange, a…...
A Clockwork OrangeConformityFilmFree WillPhilosophySociety
A Clockwork Orange Book Review
A review of the book "A Clockwork Orange" focussing on the abuse of power A Clockwork Orange The choice between good and evil is a decision every man must make throughout his life in order to guide his actions and control his future. This element of choice, no matter what the outcome, displays man's power as an individual. Any efforts to control or influence this choice between good and evil will in turn govern man's free will and enslave him.…...
A Clockwork OrangeBook ReviewFree WillMusicViolence
Free Will vs. Omnipotence
Omnipotence can be defined as the quality of having unlimited or very great power. Every infinity-based outcome that happens in your life is a direct result of the decisions you make and actions you take while executing your 'free will' during your lifetime. All these potential outcomes are already known by God or intelligent Design no matter what level of infinite regression. I am taught God sees all human history from the very beginning of time to the very end…...
Free WillGodPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophyReligion
Movie “The Matrix”: Plato’s and Aristotle’s Philosophies
The Matrix, a Wachowski fellow's movie, conforms many modern and traditional ideas regarding theВ truth behind the facts. Moreover, the dominant framework of the film is adapted from 'Plato's Allegory of the Cave.' (Jowett) The film reflects the philosophy of Plato almost exactly in structure. The theory is about prisoners who are shackled in a cave since childhood, facing just a wall. Throughout the wall, their shadows of different shapes of animals and plants and a sound of fire that…...
AristotleFree WillMoviePhilosophical TheoriesPlatoThe Matrix
41 Describe moral dilemmas which could arise in personal region
4.1. Describe moral dilemmas which could arise in personal region of responsibility when balancing man or woman rights and duty of care.When running in fitness and social care environment, we're pretty regularly confronted with conditions involving moral dilemas. Therefore, it is very essential that the manager has a clear knowledge of morality and the that means of moral choices and how they're linked to health and social practice. We may also need to have a great know-how in their prison…...
Is Life Like a Box of Chocolates?
Forrest Gump, directed by Robert Zemeckis, is a movie about the exceptional life of an ordinary man. Forrest Gump is simple-minded man who grows up in a small town in Alabama. At school all of his peers reject him except a troubled girl named Jenny who becomes his life long friend. When kids bully Forrest, Jenny always tells him to run. Running not only saves Forrest, but is the reason he accomplishes so much in life. He gets a scholarship…...
ChocolateDestinyForrest GumpFree WillLife
Money’s Place in Society
Money and modern society, what is the relationship? One has to acknowledge that the modern society has been all about money. Everything that human beings do today either is intended to make money, or is in one way or another affected by money. It cannot be completely dismissed as greed especially because the modern society cannot function without money. Money is a primary theme everywhere. In this essay, the influence of money in social relationships is examined with reference to…...
Christian RiveraProfessor Justin KaganPhilosophy March 10 2019The Philosophy of Heaven and HellEveryone
Christian RiveraProfessor Justin KaganPhilosophy March 10, 2019The Philosophy of Heaven and HellEveryone you talk to has different religious beliefs and viewpoints on life, in my paper I will be discussing the topic of Heaven and Hell while also addressing the one and only Judeo-Christian God almighty.God and Free WillWhen you hear the name God you may feel excited, angry, worried, or even indifferent but you cannot deny the fact that the name holds power and that there is something special…...
An Analysis Of What Is Enlightenment By Kant Philosophy
The title of the essay was ‘what is enlightenment’ it was written in 1784, in the essay he basically replied to a question that was put forward an year earlier by Reverand Johann Zollner, he was also a government official. Reverand had posed an open question to all about removal of clergy from marriages, many people replied but the most famous one is by Kant. The essay reflected the present situation that existed when he wrote the essay. The situation…...
Free WillImmanuel KantMetaphysicsPhilosophyReasonThe Enlightenment
Divine Foreknowledge and Free Will
Augustine discusses a critical issue which is the incompatibility of man’s free will and God’s foreknowledge. So the question is, do we really have free will in spite of the fact that God foreknows everything? If God knows what must necessarily happen next, then how do have the free will to make our own choices? Augustine comes up with a series of arguments to prove that we sin by our own will with no intervention of the divine foreknowledge. Augustine…...
Skeptical Views in Montaigne Essays
For Montaigne, the main issue is the human problem, but not the one who occupies a central place in the universe, but the ordinary and concrete person. This is a new subject for philosophy, so Montaigne comes up with a new form of presentation of his reflections. Philosophy, in conformity with Montaigne Essays, should return to everyday life. Philosophy, in conformity with Montaigne Essays, should return to everyday life. Self-attainments is the tool for this. Montaigne calls for the renunciation…...
Enlightenment and Religion
Enlightenment has been fundamentally a humanistic movement, which proposed a new approach to basic matters of religion, faith and church. This paper aims to investigate some of the Enlightenment teachings about religion. I will use “An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?” by Emmanuel Kant and “A Letter concerning Toleration” by John Locke to demonstrate how philosophers of the Enlightenment treated religion. In explaining what Enlightenment is Kant touched some questions of religion and church. For him religion was…...
Free WillImmanuel KantJohn LockePhilosophical TheoriesReligionThe Enlightenment
Theories of Justice: John Stuart Mill’s Harm Principle
This "very simple principle," as Mill portrays it in the book itself, is now commonly known as the Damage Principle, and it functions as the basis for his defence of specific flexibility. According to Mill, every individual grownup should be complimentary from restraint or disturbance other than to the degree that his/her actions might damage others. While society may legally restrict the individual because which "issues others," each individual must be otherwise complimentary in that which "issues himself." - In…...
Free WillHuman NatureIndividualismJusticeLibertyTheories
Recreation, Leisure and Play
The idea of leisure has been in existence for numerous centuries and has actually come to have numerous different significances depending upon the duration in history or the civilization that it originated from. From as early as Ancient Greece, Rome or Babylonia, the term we now referred to as leisure has existed in some form or another. As has actually been extensively noted in initial recreation texts, schole was both the ancient Greek word for leisure significance, "serious activity without…...
Individualism and Communilism
How far can a person go in life without the need of others? Is it possible for him or her to achieve success without having any sort of social dynamic to aid in the progress of their lives? Does having strong social connections aid a person in shaping his or her character to achieve their goals and can these achievement be defined as his or her own if there was intervention of any sort from a social group? It is…...
CommunityEthicsFree WillHuman NatureIndividualism
Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris
Almost forty years ago, on Holy Thursday, 11 April 1963, Pope John XXIII published his epic Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris. Addressing himself to “all men of good will”, my venerable predecessor, who would die just two months later, summed up his message of “peace on earth” in the first sentence of the Encyclical: “Peace on earth, which all men of every era have most eagerly yearned for, can be firmly established and sustained only if the order laid down…...
ChurchEthicsFree WillHuman rightsMoralityPeace
How John Locke Inspired Maria Montessori?
Childhood John Locke was born on August 29, 1632, in Wrington, a village in the English nation of Somerset. He was baptized the same day. Soon after his birth, the household moved to the marketplace town of Pensford, about seven miles south of Bristol, where Locke grew up in an old made stone farmhouse. His daddy was a county attorney to the Justices of the Peace and his mother was an easy tanners child. Both his parents were Puritans and…...
EducationFree WillJohn LockeMindSense
Do We Have Free Will?
There are several definitions to the question of free will that could be considered. However from a scientific point of view, the argument leans towards whether free will should be a neurological element, or the conception of conscious thinking and decision making; a process that although has a biological aspect, the actual cause of the act is done by choice, and the free will is the decision maker; within the limits and boundaries set by society. In essence, it is…...
Sartre View on Free Will
Sartre proposes an interesting view on free will when he says, "either man is wholly determined or else man is wholly free. " This quote shows us that Sartre believes that man is free to do what he wants. For Sartre, freedom is the most basic value, which renders possible all other values the way our fundamental plan precedes and grounds our small choices. In that sense freedom is the source of all values. It is not logically possible to…...
The Compatibility of Free Will and Determinism
One of the biggest issues regarding criminal activity is deciding how to assign moral responsibility to each situation. This critical question has caused the world to take a step back, ponder the origination of individual choices, and decide whether people are determined or not. Determinism supports the claim that “all events are the necessary result of previous causes” (Lawhead, 267). Therefore, a determinist would say that our choices are inevitable outcomes of the causal order. Incompatibilism claims that determinism is…...
Mystery of Free Will and Moral Responsibility
We all seem to think that we make decisions on our own and have the ability to choose from making different decisions. We do what we want to do because it seems as if we have many options to choose from to be in control of our own destiny. The basic question of the mystery of free will is that, “Are we able to really make our own decisions or are the decisions we make already predetermined (with it being…...
Destiny, Fate and Free Will
Really an entity such as destiny or fate that exists? Does each and “everyone” of us have a destiny, “ A set of predetermined events within our lives that we take an active course in shaping” Or a fate, “The preordained course of your life that will occur because of or in spite of your actions,” and as you/one would expect, the obvious existence of our own free will, “The power of acting without the constraint of necessity or fate;…...
DestinyFateForrest GumpFree WillSquirrel
Oedipus – Free Will Vs Fate
Oedipus as the Puppet and the Puppeteer The bad luck that befall Oedipus the King in Sophocles' play show an essential relationship between the will of the gods and man's complimentary will. The ancient Greeks believed that the gods ruled the universe and had an irrefutable function in the conditions of male's existence. Man was free to make his own choices however was eventually delegated his actions. The principles of complimentary will and fate play an important role in Oedipus'…...
Free Will and Justification of Punishment
If there is no libertarian free will ? that is if there is either no free will or if compatibilist free will is all the free will there is, can punishment be justified? The argument of free will versus determination is important when looking at the justification of punishment. It seems obvious to say that if something is not an individual's fault (responsibility), then they should not be blamed for it, and should not receive punishment. If people do not…...
The Matrix Fate vs Free Will
Fate and free will in the Matrix, fate is non-negotiable as the world is preprogramed. Human actions are predetermined so free will does not exist. When Morpheus offers neo the choice to follow him down the ‘rabbit hole’ or ‘stay in wonderland’ he is offering him the choice between fate and free will. In the scene where Neo first meets the Oracle, there is the possibility of learning what his fate is and his identity. In the final scene, Trinity…...
FateFree WillThe Matrix
Fate Vs. Free Will Antigone
Antigone, the play, fuels the debate whether fate is stronger than one’s free will. Antigone’s fate was to die fighting for respect of her family. At first, Antigone's fate was to live, but her free will let her to choose to disobey Creon's law about burying her brother. When she made the choice to go against Creon, her fate was to die. Towards the end of "Antigone," Creon on changed his mind to kill Antigone but fate had already taken…...
Human Free Will and Gods Foreknowledge
The argument of the compatibility and incompatibility of God’s foreknowledge and human free will have been going on for hundreds of years. Concerning the definition of freedom, to get a better understanding, can be described as an act that an individual can do freely without being restrained or force. Philosophers that are well known in this subject matter are Alvin Plantiga and Nelson Pike. Pike will argue that human freedom is incompatible with God’s foreknowledge based upon facts such as…...
Free Will In A “Clockwork Orange”
Option and free will are needed to keep humankind, both separately and communally; without them, man is no longer human however a "clockwork orange", a mechanical toy, as shown in Anthony Citizen' unique, "A Clockwork Orange". The choice between great and evil is a decision every man must make throughout his life in order to direct his actions and manage his future. Forcing someone to be excellent is not as essential as the act of somebody picking to be excellent.…...
A Clockwork OrangeFree WillPhilosophy
Instances of Free Will in Antigone by Sophocles
Free will is a gift given to man to remain in control of their lives; our fate and destiny are determined by our free will and the decisions we make. In the play Antigone, written by Sophocles Antigone demonstrates her free will when she decides to bury her brother, directly defying Creon’s law. As a result of this defiance her fate was suicide. The choice she made functions as a exercise of free will because she considered the consequences and…...
Free Will and Determinism
Before one can properly evaluate the entire debate that enshrouds the Free Will/Determinism, each term must have a meaning, but before we explore the meaning of each term, we must give a general definition. Determinism is, "Everything that happens is caused to happen. (Clifford Williams. "Free Will and Determinism: A Dialogue" pg 3). This is the position that Daniel, a character in Williams' dialogue, chooses to believe and defend. David Hume goes a little deeper and explains in his essay,…...
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Chance vs Determination
For the sake of this argument, it is imperative to distinguish the different natures of Indeterminism clauses and the clauses belonging to that of Determinism. Indeterminism is defined as “the doctrine that human actions, though influenced somewhat by preexisting psychological and other conditions, are not entirely governed by them but retain a certain freedom and spontaneity”(“Indeterminism.” Dictionary.com, Dictionary.com,). Indeterminism is a branch in philosophy that relies heavily on chance, or moreover, focuses directly onto unknown contributing factors that result in an outcome that is not completely able to be determined ahead of time. Determinism, on the other hand, is defined as “the doctrine that all events, including human action, are ultimately determined by causes external to the will, some philosophers have taken determinism to imply that individual human beings have no free will and cannot be held morally responsible for their actions”.
Indeterminism is often incorrectly identified as determinism and vice versa. Arguments can be made that clauses are being written off as indeterminism when in fact they are not, they are deterministic in nature. To further elaborate on that point, using the logic from, Slattery, Trick. “Indeterminism.” Breaking the Free Will Illusion for the Betterment of Humankind, some might consider a roll of dice to be an act of chance. Or some might consider it to be random act, a way to even that playing field merely because we don’t know what the outcome will be. It would seem to have the defining characteristics pertaining to spontaneity, and to have the right criteria to fall under the category indeterminism. That, however, is not the case. The act of rolling dice does not belong under the title of an indeterminism clause. Technically speaking, the dice being thrown a specific way, gravity, the terrain it lands on, the weight of the dice themselves, etc. are all causal factors that contribute into the results of the dice.
These are all outside factors acting on their own will onto the dice influencing its outcome. Outside factors more over environmental factors outside of our control give the illusion of chance. The resulting outcome of the number or numbers the dice or die lands on can be traced directly back to the outside factors. There is no room for chance to exist, every action, every slight wobble of the dice has a cause, no matter how infinitesimal, there is always a cause.
Law of Universal Causation
The above conceived notion that every action has a cause is the layman’s explanation of the principle of universal causation. The very basis of indeterminism violates the foundation principle of universal causation. To put it another way, universal causation is well-defined as “the theoretical or asserted law that every event or phenomenon results from, or is the sequel of, some previous event or phenomenon, which being present, the other is certain to take place”(Law of Universal Causation.” The Free Dictionary, Farlex,). Indeterminism claims there is a sense of spontaneity to the actions of living things. Indeterminism allocates that ultimately there is no underlying driving force that causes or decides the outcomes of actions committed by nonliving and living things. Imagine having a small rubber ball in the palm of your hand. The ball will not fall to the ground when it is in your hand. This is due to the fact there is an outside force, your hand in this instance, is holding the small rubber ball steady above the ground. If you were to remove the hand holding the ball, the ball would fall out of your grasp and bounce onto the ground below your feet.
Now you may ask why is that and how is that not the result of spontaneity? It would fall to the floor due to gravity being an environmental force outside the ball’s control and even outside your control acting on it. It would appear that you had the advantage of spontaneity, but that is not true. Yes, in this hypothetical situation you did decided to drop the small rubber ball , but the ball fell due to gravity, there is no spontaneity nor is there chance. The outcome of the ball was easily predictable. In order for that clause to be plausible under Indeterminism, the small rubber ball would have had to do something entirely unexpected. Had the ball floated above you, burst into flames, transformed into a peach or even changed colors it would be a case of Indeterminism. Since none of those scenarios transpired, and the small rubber ball fell as to be expected, it is a simple manifestation of gravity at work, what goes up must come down, more over it is Determinism at work.
Deterministic views establish that humans are a direct byproduct of our culture and outside environmental factors. Recalling the first example with the roll of the dice, one can argue that human brains work in the exact same manner. To elaborate on this, consider the human brain functions in this scenario as the die themselves. The outcome of the die results from the shape, the way it’s thrown, the effect of gravity, the surface it lands on etc.; this idea works in similar ways with human brains, in that they are affected by outside factors, except they are determined by the DNA that composes them, and the environmental stimuli surrounding them.
Determinism vs Indeterminism
How one grows up, their life experiences, the cultural views imposed on them, and their educational background, to name a few, are all factored into human brain function, and ultimately shape how an individual makes decisions. For the die, there are various numbers on each side, each representing a different statistical outcome that could transpire. Similarly, for humans our actions and decisions are represented by various brain functions. That being said however, the above mentioned die outcomes, as well as the actions that humans take, are already predetermined by these outside factors, and therefore adhere to the principle of universal causation.
Determinism denounces the idea that humans have free-will or even a choice in the outcome of their actions. Determinism focuses largely on the concept that much of what we do as humans, has already been predetermined. Choice is an illusion to give a false sense of free-will in which to govern ourselves, but in reality, the so-called product of our actions has been well established before we act and moreover it has been decided before we begin to contemplate how our actions will resolve.
If the theory of indeterminism were true and the theory of determinism were to be false, it would violate the universal principle of causation. There cannot be a violation of the principle of universal causation. Since there cannot be a violation of the principle of universal causation, indeterminism is false. Due to the falsehood of indeterminism the existence of free will in itself is fabricated.