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Criminology Theories Essay Examples

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The Adversarial System

The system of criminal treatment mostly used in the United States is the adversarial system. The term enemy is easily translated to suggest opposition. Our present criminal procedure pits 2 sides versus each other to present their respective proof and issues surrounding a criminal act. This paper will attend to the adversarial system and its expressed use in criminal court procedures in the United States. Amongst the questions this paper will take into factor to consider are: Is the adversarial…...

Dual Court System

The United States is known to have an exceptional judicial system. Our system is comprised of two main court systems – the federal court system and the state court system. The Federal court system, an integrated system divided into numerous geographic units and various levels of hierarchy. In addition, each state has its own court system with a system of local courts that operate within the state. Under this dual federal/state court structure, the U. S. Supreme Court is the…...

An Overview of General Strain Theory

In modern criminological research and debate, general strain theory (GST) remains at the forefront. The aim of this paper is to discuss general strain theory (GST), what it is, and how it came to be. Details on specific research regarding general strain theory, however, lie beyond the scope of this writing. This paper will instead focus on GST’s place among other criminological theories, and why it stands where it is today. Therefore, to get a proper perspective on this theory,…...

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Are criminals made or born?

In 1909 the daddy of modern-day criminology, an Italian by the name of Cesare Lombroso made a series of skull measurements which led him to think that lawbreakers had actually smaller sized brains as compared to law abiding residents (Wolfgang, 1961 361-391). Although, this contention was eventually disproven, Lombroso did prosper in bringing science one of its most essential contributions. He took away the focus from criminal offenses and put it where it belonged, towards the criminal mind. While there are…...

Methods Of Inquiry

What are methods of inquiry and how are they used in criminal investigation? Methods of inquiry are a set of principles used to gather and process information in the pursuit of providing answers. These principles are divided into two distinct categories reconstructing the past and discovering or creating new knowledge (Osterberg J./Ward R., 2010). Criminal investigation uses elements of both of these disciplines to gather and evaluate evidence into clues or leads necessary for determining if a crime has been…...

Criminology Theories-Differential Association and Strain Theory

Abstract             In criminology, theories play an important role especially in understanding the settings, motivations, assets, behaviors and actions of criminals. These theories serve as their guidelines in order to detect and sometimes read the plans of their enemies. Unfortunately, these theories are not one hundred percent accurate, however, learning these aspects are still essential. Differential Association and Strain Theories are most commonly used in the field of criminology. These theories aim to explain the totality and the instinctive or…...

Criminology Theories on Reducing Recidivism

Prison, non-custodial sentences and rehabilitation seem all failed in reducing recidivism; however, there is little and limited evidence to support non-custodial sentences, as well as some people think if rehabilitation could be implemented effectively, it would work. Although the advantage of prison is keeping our society from dangerous people, when it comes to reducing recidivism rate, the effect of prison is disappointing. The public usually think that imprisonment is safer for communities; however, it appears powerless to deter inmates from…...

Howard Beckers Theory of Crimes and Behavior

Howard Becker’s labeling theory starts off by identifying the deviant. Once you get caught doing something, you are identified and labeled for it; it can either be formal as labeled under the law or informal as in labeled with in family and friends. For example, I had two very good friends in high school, Serafin and Brian. They were best buds and always did everything together. Like many teenagers in high school they started to experiment with drugs. Like every…...

Criminal Theory

People with anti-social behaviors are defined by “A persuasive pattern of disregard for, and violation, of the rights of others that begins in early childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. ” (Walsh and Hemmens page 238) People with this disorder are up for greater health risks, for the disorder makes a person be a risk taker, usually engaging in smoking, alcohol, risky sexual behavior’s and drugs. Their also at risk for they are prone to depression, inflicting self-wounds…...

Criminals are made or born

An understanding of criminal behaviour has been attempted by psychologists through many different theories. The three theories I will discuss are: the biological theory, the psychological theory and the social theory of crime. Each theory provides a thorough explanation of why people carry out criminal behaviour, however, which theory offers the better explanation? Are criminals born or made? The biological theory of crime suggests that it is very likely that biological factors play a significant role in criminality due to…...

The Dnepropetrovsk Maniacs

One of the two friends were killed, the other managed to escape” (Versii). Thirteen more murders followed, often with multiple bodies found in the same day. Two victims were found every day from July 14 through the 16 (“Lowlifes planned 40 murders”) The three suspects were arrested on July 23, 2007. Igor Suprunyuck attempted to sell a mobile phone they had stolen from one of their victims at the local pawn shop. When that phone was turned on to show…...

Strain Theory and Juvenile Delinquency

Abstract The best way for someone to become the best policymaker or criminal justice personal, they need to fully understand the criminal theory because it is the base level to all-of their success. Policy makers use the theoretical understanding to create new policies or find different ways to fix current crime problems in the world, but at the same time find out what is the cause of the crime problem in the first place. Criminal Justice personal use the criminological…...

Criminology Theory an Strategy Implementation Towards Latent Fingerprint

Composites A composite print happens when mix of any of the over three classes are found in a similar print. It is characterized as a mix of various examples together. They're subdivided as: Central Pocket circle: This example joins highlights of circle and whorl. Most of edges have appearance of circle however in which one a greater amount of edge re curves about the centre framing a pocket. Double loop: This example is a blend of two circles through and…...

Deviance and Crimes in Society

Abstract Deviance involves the rebellion from the generally accepted social norms. An individual is said to be deviant if he/she is found culpable of violating either the formal or informal rules prevailing in a certain society. Formal rules comprise primarily of the officially enacted laws. Informal rules are the rules that prevail in a society but are not provided for in the official laws. Deviance varies from one society to the other. Knowledge from Sociology has come in handy to…...

Leah Betts - 'What is Moral Panic'?

What does the concept tell us about crime and criminality? Support your discussion with at least four identified examples of moral panics experienced in the past. 'It could be your child' (The Guardian, 16th November 1996) In November 1995, Leah Betts lay in a hospital bed in a coma after taking Ecstasy at her 18th birthday party. This story brought the use of ecstasy to major news headlines and raised major concerns amongst the public. Three main concerns were established…...

Social norms

Introduction The second of the four definitions is deviation from social norms. This definition is reliant on the set of behaviours and moral standards of a certain culture. These rules can either be part of the law (e. g. not stealing, not vandalising) or can be implicit and conventional of a certain culture (e. g. in Britain not choosing to sit next to a stranger on an otherwise empty bus, not greeting people by kissing both cheeks). If a person…...

Social traps and dilemmas

Introduction Such individualism is not unique to the individualistic culture of America. Edney's findings are supported in other cross cultural studies. In Japan, a collectivistic culture, Kaori Sato (1987)vii gave participants opportunities to plant and harvest trees from a simulated forest for money. When the students shared the costs of planting the trees, the result was much like those in Western (individualistic) cultures: trees (the stock) were prematurely harvested before they had grown to their most profitable size. The lack…...

Susan Smith: Diagnosis and Treatment

Susan Smith was convicted on July 22, 1995 for murdering her sons and sentenced to life in prison. Initially she told the police an African American man stole her car and abducted her two children. Though this ethnically sensitive case, as told by Susan Smith, initially attracted sympathy for her, eventually after extensive investigation and prosecution she confessed her crime. If we study the case minutely then we reach at a conclusion that it is a type of Dependent Personality…...

Forensic Psychology and Criminal Justice

Explain the "crime control" and "due process" models of justice. Select one and discuss the strengths and limitations of this model. There are numerous attempts at explaining and structuring the criminal justice system, more specifically the prosecution process and punishment. The two most well-known models will be discussed in this essay: the "due process" and "crime control" models as proposed by the American scholar Packer (1969). It is important to note that these models are mainly used as explanatory tools,…...

The Development of Serial Killers

The definition of a serial killer is traditionally noted as a person who has a particular psychological motivation for killing. The murders are usually performed uniquely and the killer has a signature that they are often known for. Serial killers are often compared to mass murderers; however, serial killers do not typically follow the mass murderer format where there are no breaks in between the murders. Serial killers tend to have characteristics that highlight the fact that they are murderers.…...

H.H. Holmes: One of America's First Recorded Serial Killers

Murder, mayhem, and madness are three characteristics the country's first serial killer, Herman Webster Mudgett, better known as H. H. Holmes, rooted deep inside of him. Herman Webster Mudgett not only exceeded expectations with his intelligence but also shifted the way serial killers are perceived. H. H. Holmes is deemed to be the country's first serial killer and the father of swindling and trickstering. An intellectual, who attended the University of Michigan and later moved to Chicago, changing his name…...

Serial Killer: John Wayne Gacy

Introduction John Wayne Gacy was the serial killer who killed 33 young men. He was born on March 17, 1942, in Chicago, Illinois, and died on May 10, 1994, in Joliet, Illinois. During that time in history, no one was convicted of killing so many people. He was a pillar of the community before he was convicted. The paper will talk about his life, criminal offenses, investigation, and finally his death. His life John Wayne Gacy was born into a…...

Serial Killers: Nature vs Nurture

Serial killers are amongst the most complicated and intriguing individuals that continue to receive attention from both the public and the media to this day. At any given time, there are anywhere between 25-50 active serial killers in the United States alone. (FBI) Makes you wonder who they are and where they could be. Could it be a co-worker, a friend, a family member, or someone that you cross paths with at the store? “A serial killer is someone who…...

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