an appeal to logic and science
an appeal to the fear of communism
an appeal to authority and credibility
an appeal to moral responsibility
Kennedy wanted to give an inspiring speech without being long-winded.
Kennedy did not put much preparation into his inaugural address because he was a naturally gifted speaker.
Kennedy wanted his speech to be exciting, so he used a lot of humor to excite the audience.
Kennedy’s speech was criticized for being too complicated and unorganized for most people to appreciate.
an appeal to uphold freedom and democracy
an appeal to patriotic duty
an appeal to moral duty to help those in need
an appeal to accept Kennedy as a trustworthy president
Parallelism keeps the audience members in a highly emotional state so that the speaker can use their emotions against them.
Parallelism keeps information organized, provides emphasis, and oftentimes adds rhythm.
Parallelism is used to speak to the audience members with the lowest intelligence and most limited education.
Parallelism is used when speakers want to sound scholarly and important so that they can build confidence.
the use of repetition in opposite order with the focus on the structure of the phrasing
the use of repetition at the beginning of sentences or phrases
a reference to something common that most people should recognize
a suggestion that one thing is like another thing when they are actually opposites
“To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery . . .”
“All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet.”
“[T]he torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans . . . .”
“[T]hose who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside.”
protecting human rights
the threat of communism
protecting the environment
the threat of nuclear war
Speeches should be evaluated on both content and delivery.
The best speeches are full of logos and have very little ethos or pathos.
Carefully selected rhetorical devices can add impact and memorability to a speech.
Every word and gesture matters when giving a speech.
Kennedy had several years’ experience working in the medium of television, but Nixon did not.
Many people believe that Kennedy’s presence during the televised debates had a significant impact on his successful election to the presidency.
The debates between Nixon and Kennedy were the first presidential debates broadcast on television.
The medium of television and its accessibility among Americans had a significant impact on politics.
using a loud voice, shouting key words
using well-placed rhetorical devices
using repetition of important ideas
using a strong ending to drive home key ideas