How Personality Affects Situational Behavior
Relative to learning theory; human behavior is associated with cognitive and environmental factors (Feist & Feist, 2009). Bandura (1997) self-efficacy theory supposes a person’s individual perception on if a particular task could be achieved and influence a person’s aptitude to achieve. Bandura deemed the power of personal efficacy profoundly has an effect a person’s reaction in a particular circumstance. Conversely, even supposing an essential influence; it is not, the sole influence on behavior. Personal expectations, previous behavior, in addition to the environment play a role in what causes behavior (Feist & Feist, 2009).
Presupposition of the behaviorist learning theory, individuals obtain learning by experimenting with alternatives; individuals evaluate diverse behaviors until they connect with a specific behavior. Learning theory considers humankind pertain past learned information as a process to acquiring particular expectation and common principles in related circumstances (Feist & Feist, 2009). An individual reviews similar experiences before generating behavior in a new circumstance this method determines the best action and selects one that will suggest a related result (Feist & Feist, 2009). It has been established in some theories; the learner is unreceptive and basically reacts to environmental motivation. Cognitive learning theory supposes individuals are sympathetic logical beings, thus individual behavior is established as a result of conception development.
Personality theories stem from an array of developments; manipulations, effects, and many other aspects. The base of personality theories began with several prominent theorists, Jung, Freud, Klein, and Erikson, and many others. The similarity of influences and the development of personality on behavior remain in psychology today. An individual’s characteristic traits and personality is the combination to one’s uniqueness. The development method of personality transpires through environmental factors, heredity, life experiences, and behavioral changes. The relationship between personality and behavior derive from the internal work of the unconscious drive (Feist & Feist, 2009).
Humanism is a standard approach that considers learning is applied as an individual process to accomplish a person’s individual capability (Feist & Feist, 2009). In humanistic theory, individual learners have an affecting and cognitive necessity; this reaction will motivate a response to a condition (Feist & Feist, 2009). Through a learners encouraging environment, when faced with a situation, an individual will learn and respond appositely. Through a humanistic viewpoint, a response to a particular situation is directed to an individual’s current needs and fulfillment. The ultimate response of the individual is in a way substantial to the fulfillment of current or aspiring needs (Feist & Feist, 2009).
A behavioristic perception of personality is far from specific and accurate. Several theorists consider that even though personality is to some extent foreseeable, a fraction of it is contradictory because of the self-determination within all of us, whereas individuals respond outside of that which is predictable. For example, you may find a person that is moderately stable and unemotional who is all of a sudden confronted with a
trauma or tragedy, such as being witness or victim to a violent crime or the tragic loss of a loved one. This may trigger aspects of their personality such as extreme anger and violence.
Personality Characteristics within the Perspectives
The learning theories support that personality is an accretion of learned tendencies that carry on all through the existence. Skinner considered genetics is a significant contribution in personality development and unique personality’s stems from genetic variance; the ultimate factor of shaping the personality is environmental (Feist & Feist, 2009). Skinner also supposed a person’s environment and personal physical strength in relative to animals assisted with influencing the common personality of human beings; however social environmental factors influences and creates distinctive personality traits. Skinner stated personality as “at best a repertoire of behavior imparted by an organized set of contingencies” (Skinner, 1974, as cited by Feist & Feist, 2009).
According to the theory of Bandura, he believed human nature as “proactive, self- organizing, self-regulating, and self-reflective” (Feist & Feist, 2009). Bandura established observational learning allows individuals to learn devoid of performing behavior. In addition, Bandura supposed “learning theories are considered for accepting individual intelligence, differences, genetic factors or the whole realm of personality” (Feist & Feist, 2009). Humanistic psychology beliefs are determined towards the biological drive regarding personal development, despite of environmental factors; people freely make their own choices (Boeree, 1997).
Free will is a significant origin in personality development. Self-actualization is a dominant purpose for the conception of the personality (Boeree, 1997). Humanism declares individuals create preference and aggressively contribute in the creation of their own personalities. Maslow supposed biological factors supplied the essential factor for the individual; though, cultural and environmental have an effect on shaping the self-image characteristics or personality (Feist & Feist, 2009). Rogers acknowledged self-awareness, and this consciousness allowed individuals to create preferences and partake in creating their own
unique personalities (Boeree, 1997).
According to the humanist/existential viewpoint, Abraham Maslow theory involved satisfying love and acceptance was a primary requirement and must be fulfilled by establishing family, friendships, romantic relationships, and sustaining other personal relationships. Maslow projected contentment at this stage was essential for other stages of the contentment of humans (Feist & Feist, 2009). Carl Rogers’s philosophy involved a child who had a parent or caregiver that had a positive interest for the child encouraged positive psychological growth.
Positive affection from others is essential for healthy development and success toward self-actualization (Boeree, 1997). The common viewpoint of humanism and existentialism observed interpersonal relationships as a essential role of human life, without these interpersonal relationships, growth and development may not be psychologically beneficial (Hoffman, 2004). According to Feist & Feist, (2009), Maslow alleged people content in interpersonal relationships have self-confidence in social affairs and have the knowledge and understanding of how to love.
In a learning perspective, interpersonal relationships are built on shaped behaviors. For example if you smiled at a person, the person will smile back at you, then say I love animals and they smile leading both parties talking more about animals and intensifying those important aspects of the individuals personality that are socially related to conversations about animals. Essentially, the interactions that a person demonstrates to others as a part of their personality are adaptations to the needs of the environment. Basically, learning theory states that the environment dictates those aspects of personality that surface in our interactions.
Personality stems from learning theories which defines human learning and its consequential behavior and is created from environmental factors with
some internal aspects, while humanistic theory supposes in a greater inclination for internal human drive toward an essential human state of self that is ascertained. The distinct viewpoint with regard to the influence of personalities on particular behavior, the unique description of human nature and personality, and the distinct clarification of interpersonal associations all represent a distinctive perception of humanity through psychological thought and relevance.
Essentially, personality, though an excellent guide to what may happen, is highly influenced by outside factors, external threats and even internal traumas that emerge from our past. Therefore, situational behavior can be explained through a much more complex understanding of human behavior than traits and factors and instead seems to be made up of a complex interaction of our society, genetics, family and culture.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Boeree, C. G. (1997). Carl Rogers. My Webspace Files. Retrieved April 27, 2011, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers
Colman, A. M. (Ed.). (2010). Humanistic psychology. In Oxford Reference Online. Retrieved May 7, 2011, from http://www.oxfordreference.com Feist, J. & Feist, G. J. (2009). Theories of personality (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Hoffman, L. (2004). Existential therapy. Existential Therapy Homepage. Retrieved May 08, 2011, from http://www.existential-therapy.com