Philosophical Theories Essay Examples

Philosophical Theories

Socrates’ Impact on Society
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The Trail of Socrates occurs in 399 BCE. This was shortly after the Peloponnesian War where Athens fell to defeat against Sparta. Athens’s government at this time was a democracy. Because of the young Athenians having different people impact their decisions Athens society went through a change. One main person who is a suspect for this change is Socrates. This is why he got the charge for corrupting the youth of Athens along with not worshipping the Gods of the…...
Feminist Criticism on Jamaica Kincaid’s “Girl” and “Two Kinds”
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Women’s Rights is an extremely ethical topic that is surrounded by ethical theories and has a lot of history. While some of the theoretical systems in ethics have helped to gain women their rights, others have assisted in preventing women's rights. Women in America have seen much improvement in our modern-day society regarding Women’s Rights, but what about the women in less economically stable countries? Women continue to fight against abuse, hatred, and discrimination worldwide. I will be discussing not…...
John Locke on Personal Identity
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“According to John Loke, the self is identified as a thinking, intelligent being that has the abilities to reason and to reflect”. (Chaffee, 2016). Self is an individual person as the object of his or her own reflective consciousness. Self is a reference by a subject to the same subject. In chapter 3 of the text, the author talks about “self” and the many different perceptions of it. I chose “The Self Is Consciousness and We Construct the Self. Locke…...
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Realism/neoliberalism
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7 In this essay I will be looking at 2 schools of thought Positivist (Realism/neoliberalism) and the post positivist (social constructivism) the latter emerging from the rejection of the former. As one can imagine with multiple theories there is room for debate, which makes analysing situations in international relations sometimes rather complex. Positivist theories aim to imitate the methods of the natural sciences by analysing the impact of material forces. Positivists mostly focus on characteristics of international relations such as…...
The main idea of Marxism
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The main idea of Marxism is a philosophy of history, outlining why capitalism is doomed and socialism will replace it. He saw this work as a theory of society and a socialist political project. He took a scientific view of history and analysed it using scientific methods. He believed that history had developed through stages - from primitive communism, i. e. tribal societies, through to slavery, then feudalism into capitalism. He then thought capitalism would collapse and society would eventually…...
Explain and discuss the significance of Descartes’ work on Epistemology
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  However, as our senses can be doubt like seeing something far away looks different from seeing something close-up, and that even mathematics and logic can be doubted in the end, he thought there must be an evil demon continuously hypnotizing us to believe false claims. Thus for a brief moment Descartes nearly convinces us that the apple basket of knowledge must remain empty. Although, by going through this process of continuous doubt, Descartes eventually discovered the fact that he…...
The most common criticism of the IQ tests
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Perhaps the most common criticism of the IQ tests, is that most only test two or three different areas of intellectual qualities, such as mathematical, spatial awareness (to a certain degree), and grammar skills, however as there is no accurate or certain definition of intelligence, it begs the question: How can you have an intelligence test when you don't know specifically what to test for? Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences backs up this criticism, and he identified 8 areas in…...
How to Write Critical Review?
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From time to time, all of us need critical reviews. Usually, people refer to them while deciding which movie to choose or whether to go to a famous exhibition. This kind of articles is prepared by experienced writers or journalists, and their opinion should be taken into consideration, but sometimes students also have to implement such a work. What is the point of the task? A critical review aims to demonstrate the way of analytical thinking and the depth of…...
How to Write a Travel Review
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After going on a trip or vacation, you can let others know about your experience by writing a travel review. Your review needs to be interesting while providing reliable information the reader can use to plan a vacation. Be direct when writing the review so the reader won’t have to try to guess if it was a good or bad experience. You don’t even have to be a professional travel writer to write a good travel review. A good review…...
Three Little Pigs Analysis and the Story of the Three Little Pigs
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In The Three Little Pigs, and The Story of the Three Little Pigs, the first two pigs set out and end up making their houses out of unstable materials that, in The Three Little Pigs, the fox, and in The Story of The Three Little Pigs, the wolf, destroyed. However, the third little pig builds his house out of bricks and is able to resist and eventually vanquish the wolf and fox. At the surface these stories appear to be…...
The Usual Practice of Ecocriticism
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Introduction Nature and literature have always shared a close relationship as is recorded in the works of poets and other writers in almost all the cultures in the world, since ages. Now-a-days the intimate relationships is being analysed between the natural and social world. The literary critic tries to analyse that, how is nature documented by the writers in their works. In this connection we have two important terms- ecology and ecocriticism. Ecocriticism is by nature interdisciplinary, it draws on…...
With what success did New Liberalism use state intervention to improve living conditions between 1906 and 1914?
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Before the large Liberal gains that were made in the 1906 elections and subsequent large majority in government the Liberals had maintained a lassiez fraire approach to government which extends all the way back to its implementation with Gladstone, therefore fittingly it was named Gladstonian liberalism. However with the landslide election victory of 1906 the liberals had a working majority to implement social reform. This emphasis on social reform came about in no small part thanks to the tireless work…...
Is reason the source of knowledge?
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What we find is that rationalists find favour with the developments in mathematical and geometrical thinking in the seventeenth century and wish to employ them in regard to our general reasoning abilities. In regards to human thinking and a theory of epistemology rationalists assumed that the best ideas were based on reason, not observation. For example, the perfect triangle is an idea of reason, it can never be observed in the empirical world. Indeed, empirical triangles were thought of as…...
Naturalismo Francés: “Miss Harriet” y “Bola de Sebo” de Maupassant
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Habiendo leído el cuento de Maupassant y luego el texto de Roland Barthes: El Efecto De Lo Real, nos concentramos en los detalles de los que habla Barthes, del uso del detalle. "El detalle absoluto, la unidad indivisible, la transición fugitiva, debe reencontrar fatalmente notaciones (...) que son escandalosas y que parecen de acuerdo con una especie de lujo de la narración." Se habla entonces, de los detalles inútiles, aquellos que aparentan ser una descripción. Pero todo en el relato…...
Analysis of McTeague by Frank Norris
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A discussion of how "McTeague" by Frank Norris is a classic example of naturalist writing. McTeague, a novel written at the turn of the century by Frank Norris, is a classic example of naturalist writing. This novel is written with the harsh realities that were this time period. There are many themes that occur in naturalism. Some of them that appear in this novel are greed, lust, strife, as well as Darwinism and animal imagery. All of these themes help…...
Emile Zola and Henrik Ibsen Plays Review
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Naturalism came into being in the 19th century when authors and playwrights started to do something against the social situation back then. In contrast to the plays people wrote before, naturalists focused their stories onto common problems that happened all the time mostly among middle-class people. Naturalists wanted to rebell against the hierachy of their society and most of all they wanted to show the higher-class people what life was like in poorer classes. They presented them poverty, miserable children,…...
Mental Illness/nature nurture debate
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To what extent are our behaviours, feelings and thoughts innate, and how far are they all learned? For centuries philosophers and psychologists have wondered wither human behaviour is due to genetic (nature) factors or environmental (nurture) factors. There still remains to be no one answer as evidence is continuously being found on both sides. All aspects of a person, their intelligence, perception, personality, aggression levels and even the cause of mental illness can be subjected to the nature nurture debate.…...
What are the main themes of classical liberalism?
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In order to ascertain the main themes of classical liberalism, one must look at the themes of liberalism as a whole, as they are integral to its make up as the classical form was the first to come about. Influenced by the enlightenment and formed between the change from feudalism to capitalism, it formed the basis of liberal thinking, focussing on the primacy of the individual ' liberalism strives to establish the conditions in which people and groups can pursue…...
Blood Diamond: A Marxist Criticism
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The area of my study is the representation of class struggle in the movie Blood Diamond: A Marxist Criticism. The script of the movie is written by Charles Leavitt, collaboration with Gillian Gorfil and directed by Edward Zwick. Edward Zwick is a director who is not anxious to take risks and work on those stories that challenge us to take another look at the ethical choices we make in our lives. Edward Zwick is renowned for his valiant movies that…...
Are liberalism and democracy compatible?
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  The individual, its rights and freedom are the essence of liberalism. John Stuart Mill once wrote "Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign". Liberalism is the belief that we are free to make our own mistakes, decide our own lifestyle, choose our own way of living, pursue our own thoughts and philosophies, provided we don't infringe on other people's freedom. It tolerates and respects differing views, and appreciates diversity as essential to social and…...
To what extent is ‘Frankenstein’ a criticism of society’s attitude to accommodate what it sees as monsters, aliens and exiles?
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‘Frankenstein’ was written in an era when gothic horror was widely read and very popular, especially with women. Discussing gothic horror was a common past time amongst women and it was acceptable for more unorthodox views to be expressed. Writers knew that mystery and horror were important elements that made up gothic horror which would almost certainly have influenced Shelley’s writing. ‘Frankenstein’ contains many characters which could be seen as monsters, aliens and exiles and Shelley is very particular in…...
Discuss Poet Mathew Arnold as a poet of Melancholy?
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Introduction:- Victorian age was an age of industrial revolution. The first railway train was introduced. Science, industry, materialism had progressed. Industries were multiplying and expending. There was more or less general prosperity and the entire society was running after materialistic life. People were just enjoying a life of luxury and material pleasure. Cause of Melancholy in his poem:- But despite materialistic progress, Victorian people were becoming mundane and atheist. The religious faith was declining. People could not believe on anybody…...
Philosophical Thoghts about Freewill and Determinism
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A person's "will" is their ability to decide and choose among different options. The term "freewill" suggests that the choice this person has made, although it may have been influenced by outside circumstances or people, was ultimately his or her own choice. There is a related principle. It generally states that "ought" implies "can". If someone ought to do something that implies that they can do it. After all, if they cannot do something then surely they are not obliged…...
Philosophical Concepts of Capitalism, Communism and Socialism
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What are the major differences between capitalism, communism and socialism? Capitalism is an economic system in which all or most of the factors of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit. Countries with a free market system have four basic rights, unlike socialism and communism where rules and regulations for a person’s business are strictly dictated to them. The right to private property, the right to own a business and keep all of the profits, the right…...
Compare and contrast liberalism and conservatism
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Compare and contrast liberalism and conservatism as traditions of political thought. Which, in your view provides a better explanation of Britain's problems and how they might be solved. Liberalism and Conservatism are seen as the two major political ideologies. Both set out trying to answer the questions; what is human nature? How should we organise the economy? There are similarities and differences to the two traditions of political thought and both offer explanations to Britain's problems and offer suggestions to…...
How Communism Affects Social Classes in Paradise of the Blind and House of the Spirits
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Communism is the idea of a classless society; a society in which there are no distinctions between social classes and where all government systems are abolished. A communist society normally aims to allow individuals to obtain a common political status. Communism, in general, disagrees with old traditions of social classes (What is Communism? ). When communism develops in a society, social classes become affected as demonstrated in the novels of Paradise of the Blind and House of the Spirits. In…...
Ayer and Wittgenstein: Assessing A. J. Ayer’s Criticisms of Wittgenstein’s Rejection of the Private Language Argument
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In an article written by A. J. Ayer, he contends that Ludwig Wittgenstein’s claim in the Philosophical Investigations that there cannot be a private language is mistaken. At the onset of the article, Ayer wrote: “In a quite ordinary sense, it is obvious that there can be private languages. There can be, because there are” (1985, p. 453). This philosophical paper’s task is to answer the question: “Does Ayer misunderstand the idea of a private language? Clearly the way by…...
Analysis: Naturalism and Symbolism
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Write a critical analysis, comparing Naturalism & A ; Symbolism, being careful to joint the similarities and differences between themIn this essay I am traveling to analyze and interrupt down the cardinal facets present within the motions of Naturalism and Symbolism. I will take to demo the advantages and disadvantages of both motions, taking into history two people, that where critical to its development. Stanislavski and Moreas. I’ve tried to expose my findings in a manner that is both analytical…...
Advantages and disadvantages of each alternative from deterministic analysis
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Advantages: By acquiring 8 new machines, the center gets extra funds of $50000 annually from the NKF headquarter. With the increased efficiency of the new machines, this option will allow the center to meet the demand of accepting more patients. By accepting this option, the replaced 8 machines will still have a remaining lifetime of 5 years at the end of year 10; hence only 12 dialysis machines need to be considered for future replacement at the end of year…...
John Locke and His Plan of Tabula Rasa
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John Locke was born in 1632 at Winton, Somerset, and died biennial seventy two-year later in 1704. He's one in every of the foremost cogent philosophers and political theorists of the seventeenth century. Following within the British empiricists’ tradition, his works are dominated by logic and a rigid straight-forward language. Locke's monumental Associate Essay regarding Human Understanding, that became the foundation of empiricism in Kingdom. Basically, he needed to find and decipher the origin, extent, and certainty of human knowledge.…...
Supernaturalism in Works of Oscar Wilde and R. L. Stevenson
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Introduction This paper aims to check how the themes of social and cultural issues of the period are portrayed through the aspect of supernaturalism in the selected works of Oscar Wilde and R. L. Stevenson. The term supernaturalism is closely related to Gothic literature. It stands as the most common theme among the works of this genre. The Collins Dictionary defines it as 'a supernatural agency, the effects of which are felt to be apparent in this world' (Collins English…...
About Ecocriticism
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Ecocriticism is an umbrella term and it has many branches to deal with different aspects of environment. There are several approaches and literary tropes proposed by the students to know the idea and works of ecocritics and therefore the relationship between nature and literature created by many famous writers and thinkers. Since the expansion of Ecocriticsm as a theory form sixties there was a wide variety of constituted in the term ecocriticism. The theory of ecocriticsm grew apart into a…...
Epistemology as a Branch of Philosophy
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I really had no clue what epistemology was until this class, after reading our text it's a branch of philosophy, but not knowing anything beyond that. Epistemology is the study of knowledge within a branch of philosophy. Epistemology tries to find the basic answers to questions about how the world is seen and knowledge gained from it. According to Rayner it's the intake of and the way knowledge is taken in (Rayner, 2011). My thought on the meaning is to…...
Nihilism and Critique
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Philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, in his discourse suggests that man is in a state of normlessness. He makes various assertions that lead to him saying that "God is Dead". This essay explains the "Death of God", Nihilism as a concept and the Ubermensch. It furthermore, however, supplies criticism of Nietzsche's views of Nihilism. Consequently, provides a defense of Nietzsche's views against the criticism. Nietzsche introduces the idea of the "Death of God" through the Madman's speech in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. He…...
According to many existentialism rather had a negative impact on
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According to many, existentialism rather had a negative impact on other philosophies and on the psyche of the people because of its highly subjective nature. According to Truman G. Madsen, American academicians studied this philosophy with neglect and distrust. In his words,This distrust is reflected in the ad hominems that recur in discussion: that the origin of the movement is continental catastrophe; that it is a giant psychic and cultural moan: that it is morbid, even pathological; that its writers…...
Una Excursión a Los Indios
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Lucio V Mansilla's Una excursión a los indios ranqueles is a 19th century literary piece describing different societies and cultures in Argentina, mainly focusing on the Indios ranqueles and the Gauchos. In this piece, Mansilla describes the people he meets and the customs these people have, and whether he understands or approves of these or not. This essay will examine the extent to which his piece constitutes a critique of the idea of 'civilization'. Through the analysis of their different…...
A literary school Marxism
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Marxism was a literary school which its pioneers were Marx and Engels. They divided society into 2 major classes: Bourgeoisie and labors. Bourgeoisies are the minority who rules and set the norms on the society and take benefits while labors are just low class of society and workers who are trying to please that minority. None of these two categories can live without the other one; they just can be explained as living together. Then there appears a third class…...
The term feminism or often referred to as women’s rights has its
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The term feminism or often referred to as women's rights has its unique uses and definitions which are until now being contested. Some writers used to refer feminism as a historically feminist movement in the United States and in Europe that were solicitous about women's rights specifically in their right to vote while other writers might refer feminism as the belief that there are unfair treatments against women. Most people today, misunderstand feminism as man-hating, make women as the dominant…...
Neoliberalism and Regional Development
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The neoliberalisation, and it varying forms (Peck 2001), is particularly interesting in regions that are dependent on manufacturing and that were subject to neoliberal adjustment of their path. Birch und Mykhnenko (2008) found that "neoliberal adjustment has resulted in a striking disparity of long-term restructuring outcomes amongst the European LIDRs. (Birch und Mykhnenko 2008)". In these regions "regional restructuring and economic growth trajectories have followed national trends fairly closely (") that regional restructuring in these LIDRs seem to have followed…...
Naturalism in Of Mice and Men
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Naturalism was rampant during the 1930's. The characters tended to be poor and hopeless. The authors themselves tended to be pessimists. The genre merely reflected the thoughts and circumstances of society. Black Tuesday crushed the nation and the once fertile fields of the Midwest were not yielding enough crops to feed the hungry and poor nation. With its bundle of lonely bindle stiffs and unattainable dreams, Of Mice and Men fits perfectly into this desolate and dreary genre and yet…...
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FAQ about Philosophical Theories

How to Write Critical Review?

...Develop your general knowledge first and expand the vocabulary; this will help to articulate own opinion easily; reading many reviews, you will learn which issues need priority attention and what determines a work as quality. As well, pay some attent...

How to Write a Travel Review

...Provide links to the hotels, rental services, restaurants and places where the reader can go for entertainment in your travel review. This way, they can gather more information about the places and find out where they are located, prices, hours of op...

With what success did New Liberalism use state intervention to improve living conditions between 1906 and 1914?

...Some critics also argue that reform was only really the work of two men Churchill and Lloyd George who dragged the Liberal party behind them. Even men such as Lloyd George were portrayed as men with a shrewd political mind who realized the importance...

What are the main themes of classical liberalism?

...The main themes of classical liberalism were the ideas of the individual and egoism. This idea enabled liberals of the time to expand and develop other key themes such as justice, reason and later on economic liberalism. Without the idea of the prima...

To what extent is ‘Frankenstein’ a criticism of society’s attitude to accommodate what it sees as monsters, aliens and exiles?

...‘Frankenstein’ is clearly a criticism of society’s attitude towards anything it considers ‘wrong’. Shelley is clever in writing this through a popular medium therefore it reaches many people and should make them, at least subconsciously, re...

How Communism Affects Social Classes in Paradise of the Blind and House of the Spirits

...Even though the peasants seek revenge for different reasons, each social class is drastically affected. However, the novel House of the Spirits provides more of a communistic view from the landowning class and the novel Paradise of the Blind provides...