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Philosophical Theories Essay Examples

Sartre, Jean Paul. Existence precedes essence

...It is well examined that Jean Paul Sartre notion of the absurd, it is clearly seen in his philosophy and novel (76). The connection show that Sartre takes certain characteristics arises from the character Anny the Camus does the same to the character of Roquentin. The analogy used is circumscribed as a basic tenet of existentialist humor which consists of the historical irony. The powerful and distinct shape of Sartre literature and life certainly simplifies and reinforces...

Ralph Waldo Emerson

..."Transcendentalism." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House Inc., 02 Dec. 2013. Web. 2 Dec. 2013. < http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/transcendentalism>. Lewis, Jone. “Ralph Waldo Emerson-Texts.” Emerson Central. N.p, 3 September 2009. Web. 4 December 2013. . Folsom, Ed. “About Walt Whitman.” Modern American Poetry. The University of Illinois, N.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2013. Belasco, Susan. “Walt Whitman and Ralph Waldo Emerson.” Classroomelectric.The University of Nebraska, N.d. ...

Voices of freedom Journal Industrialization

...During this time a group of New England intellectuals formed called The Transcendentalists. This group of men believed in the idea of The Free Individual. Ralph Waldo Emerson was a Transcendentalist who believed freedom obtained by the process of self realization transforming ones self according to their own liking. Voices of freedom, Eric Foner document 54. “The American Scholar 1837,” Ralph Waldo Emerson opens his powerful statement “In self-trust, all the virtues are comprehended”. Ra...

Nature is such a beautiful place

...I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner and reduce it to its lowest terms, and if it proved to be mean, why then to get the whole and genuine meanness of it and publish its meanness to the world, or if it were sublime, to know it by experience, and be able to give a true account of it in my next excursion.” ( Thoreau, 701) By living ...

Oates v Emerson

...This statement is reasoning that nature will answer all questions. He proves that nature is greater than man, and that it deserves respect. To conclude, both Oates and Emerson effectively use the appeals of credibility, emotion, and logic to support their position when it comes to nature. They both are complete opposites when it comes to nature. Emerson feels that nature is not only beautiful, but that it holds something different for everyone. Oates on the opposing side dismisses nature and all...

Ethical Theories Within the Film “Crimes and Misdemeanors”

...[Also in the final scene of the film Judah draws Cliff into a supposedly hypothetical discussion that draws upon his morals. Judah says that with time, any crisis will pass; but Cliff morosely claims instead that one is forever fated to bear ones burdens for “crimes and misdemeanors”] Wikipedia. We battle daily for justice. All we can do as human beings is to hope for happiness try to utilize our own moral ideas and meaningful values to again hopeful influence our lives and to reflect upon f...

Simplicity in Walden

...It has a constant and imperishable moral, and to the scholar it yields a classic result.” In a nutshell Thoreau preaches how simplicity and solitude are key values yet he spends his entire mornings out doing a job that is not minimalistic. In conclusion, I believe that Thoreau wanted to create irony through his stylistic work and concepts. I’ve never known a man whom fights for simplicity yet does not live a simplistic life. In the beginning of Walden, or, Life in the Woods, I truly believed...

The Scream by Edvard Munch analysis

...These poses produce the most convincing images of psychological conditions, adding to the painting's monumental and static quality. The composition, colors and dramatic use of perspective, the undulating curves of the landscape and hollow figure personify alienation and anxiety. The image reflects upon human emotions, and how our relationships with others, and with our environment can affect us. The visual also deals with the human need to be acknowledged, and need for a sense of belonging. Expl...

Existentialism & Fight Club

...His decision to shoot Tyler was justified-because he is freely choosing to reject Tyler’s destructive ideas, and to transcend his initial transcendent goal of becoming Tyler. In conclusion, the movie has strong themes of existentialism running through it. The act of shooting Tyler was justified because it signifies the first step of existentialism for the narrator- he becomes fully aware of what he is, and assumes full responsibility of his existence. It also shows how human beings may choose ...

A Dual-Criticism Look at The Birthmark

...He has trouble coping with his own failures, so he instead obsesses over the “failures” of others. This approach of reading helps one feel more pity for Aylmer, and to perhaps connect with him more on a human level. By taking only two different forms of criticism, we can see two completely different sides of the same character. Should we feel sorry for Georgiana or Aylmer? Is Aylmer’s behavior abusive or abused? From even just these two perspectives, the story and its characters take on a ...

To suck the Marrow out of Life: Transcendentalism in Dea Poet's Society

...Neil continues in the performance even after his father forbids it, and Todd eventually discovers his conviction, with the help of an English assignment he neglects. They find that they both are, what Emerson called, artists. The boys are still in high school, they have not yet truly begun their lives. Even though it seems Neil and Todd’s entire futures lay out before them, predetermined by their parents, they, as Emily Dickenson put it, “dwell in possibility.” Because Neil and Todd allow ...

19th Century American Literature

...Edgar Alan Poe also writes in the Dark Romantic genre, he had a great dislike for the transcendentalists calling them, “Frogpondians”, after a pond on Boston Commons, he ridiculed their writings and his piece, Never Bet the Devil in You Head, was a clear attack on the movement. Poe, who is sometimes considered a gothic writer, uses ideas such as dementia and paranoia in his works. Supernatural behaviors of characters and personification grace the pages of many of his best tales. Many of Poe...

Ralph Waldo Emerson vs. Walt Whitman

...It is evident to see that both Walt Whitman and Ralph Waldo Emersonstrongly felt the need to free, warn, or otherwise inform society of their findings and opinions. Thanks to this sense of obligation and perspective liberty, we all now get to enjoy many other informative do-gooders like them, eager to advise and enlighten us in all aspects of life. Ironically, in their attempts to free us of the torture that is society, they have unleashed a quintessential component that makes their fear and opp...

Albert Camus: Written Assignment

...influential effect, however he is impacted by its controlling power. In the end, the sun’s strength forces Meursault to commit an immoral crime and even though his reasons are unintentional, he is rejected by society and is sentenced to a death penalty. The use of the motif of the sun in The Stranger by Albert Camus, develops a powerful atmosphere through the idea that the sun personifies Meursault by influencing his actions and feelings, the intense imagery of the murder scene, and Meursault...

Kierkegaard vs Sartre: An Existentialist Approach

...The meaning of life is determined by its own liver, and this idea encompasses much of the philosophy of existentialism. Jean-Paul Sartre and Soren Kierkegaard both partake in this approach. Significant differences exist in many of the details, but many of these conceptions correlate with one another, and embody that philosophy. After having a more in-depth perspective, I have both agreed and disagreed on some of the aspects. However, I acknowledge and praise both the similarities and differences...

"The Metamorphosis" by Franz Kafka

...All these factors that caused him to become a bug, had ultimately been his choice, as it was he that decided to make his family a priority, allowing them to influence him to become an insect. Kafka intentionally made it clear that it was Gregor's choice to become an insect, and no one else's. He had made the decision to work so hard to support his family, to protect himself from any intimacies, and to do so much and receive nothing in return. These characteristics he held of an insect could only...

Transcendentalism in modern-day society

...As I examined the multiple points of Transcendentalism, I found that even in Thoreau's time, it would be possible for someone to practice some of the aspects of Transcendentalism, while putting other aspects into practice would be nearly impossible. I think living in the true Transcendentalist lifestyle is neither feasible nor very beneficial. The true meaning of what Thoreau discovered while living at Walden Pond was to simplify your life and accept your place in the world. Here are some words ...

Albert Camus The Stranger: Existentialism and Absurdism

...Existentialism and its brother philosophy Absurdism are philosophies that emphasize the uniqueness and isolation of the individual in a hostile and indifferent world, and stress the fact the universe has no discernable purpose. This philosophy is essentially the crux of the novel The Stranger as Meursault, the indifferent and apathetic main character, embodies the tenets of existentialism intrinsically. Existentialism, what it represents, the results of its embodiment in a person, and the valid...

Existentialism in Camus' "The Stranger"

...He is able to dissect himself and examine what his future will bring, and experiences several emotions often grouped with existentialism; the most outstanding being fear and anxiety. Society had declared Meursault absurd because of his unrelenting uniqueness and through this, the title of the book may be derived. Meursault has become a stranger in his own world, a social outcast punished for crimes which are both ridiculous and yet the norm. Camus, through his utilization of Meursault, has thoro...

Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot

...When he is searching for rational explanations the inadequacy of his reason prevent him from doing so. And his body, the medium of action, is unreliable and in constant decomposition. Man is trapped in this meaningless being. It seems that he must wait for death which will finally bring an end to his purposeless and absurd existence. Beckett expressed in this play the senselessness of human nature. He exemplified the limitations of the body and mind which leave man helpless and unable to find a ...

Arnold's Epochs of Expansion

...The poet therefore, takes those ideas and applies them to the later works, which presents the interdependent relationship of both the critic and poet. This concept later on influenced a number of writers and critics and their works and contributed highly to the modern critical theory. I believe that throughout this research paper, I benefited a lot from the information researched and presented and understand Arnold's perspective and theory to an extent that I can agree to his theory of the criti...

Existentialist traits in works of Henrik Ibsen

...Ibsen shows the struggle and "nothingness" of life in his verse play "Peer Gynt". The play echo's many of the characteristics of existentialism. Peer Gynt ,the protagonist of the play , starts out as a highly imaginative, irresponsible youth to find himself only to know in the end that he has no self. He often misquotes proverbs or scripture to justify his actions. The play poses many questions , religious and social , as to how far a man is free to make choices and what kind of choices he has ?...

Self-Reliance and transcendentalism

...There are many examples of transcendentalism and Emerson's Self Reliance in today's modern day society. There are examples everywhere you look; in the media, songs, T.V. shows, and many other places. One strong example of transcendental thought is in the song Prisoner of Society by The Living End. The song lines are, "We don't need no one to tell us what to do. Yes were on our own and there's nothing you can do" saying that they are out by themselves and they will not be influenced by what other...

Social Philosophy

...Donald, M (1996) Martin Buber: Prophet of Religious Secularism. New York, Fordham University Press Martin Buber: The Life of Dialogue by Mourice S. Friedman. Retrieved on 22nd April 2007 from, http://www. religion-online. org/showchapter. asp? title=459&C=393 Mourice, F (1991) Encounter on the Narrow Ridge: A life of Martin Buber. London, Paragon Press. Paul, A & Mourice , F (1967) The Philosophy of Martin Buber. Open Court Publishing Ronald, A (1986) Communication and Community. Implica...

Marxism in Literature: Conflict in the Classics

...Michael Delahoyde, Class Website for Introduction to Literature, “Marxist Criticism”, Accessible online : http://www. wsu. edu/~delahoyd/marxist. crit. html. Last accessed 15, November, 2008. Roberta Gardner, “Walter Benjamin” in Social Theory: Continuity & Confrontation. (2000), Toronto, Ontario, CA: Broadview Press. 249. Michael Moriarty, “Ideology and Literature” in Journal of Political Ideologies (February 2006), 11(1), 43. James Pickering, “Questions for Study” in Fictio...

The Historical Context of Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky

...“Crime and Punishment (Historical Context). ” Notes on Novels. 2006. Answers. com. 3 June 2008 <http://www. answers. com/topic/crime-and-punishment-novel-5>. Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. London, England: Penguin Popular Classics, 1997. Pratt, Alan. “Nihilism. ” The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 3 June 2008 <http://www. iep. utm. edu/n/nihilism. htm>. Rode, Sonia. Raskolnikov's Philosophical Evolution. 30 Dec. 2007. 3 June 2008 <http://anilrode. c...

Dostoevsky’s Notes from Underground

...He did and thought as he pleased, whether or not it was in his best interests. Indeed, he had escaped, and is completely free. REFERENCES Dostoevsky, F. (1992). Notes from Underground (M. Ginsburg, Trans. ). New York: Bantam. (Original work published in 1864). Madden, C. (n. d. ). SparkNote on Notes from Underground. Retrieved March 29, 2008, from http://www. sparknotes. com/lit/underground/ Marder, J. , Meyer, M. , & Wyshak, F. (n. d. ). Dostoevsky’s Notes from Underground Study Guide. Re...

Integrative Essay on diversity in Education

...Connecticut: Praeger Publishers Bowman, B (1994) Cultural diversity and Academic achievement NCREL’S Urban Education Program, Urban Education Monograph series. Retrieved January 21, 2009. <http://www. ncrel. org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le0bow. htm> Rupp, G. (2001). Religion, Modern secular culture and Ecology Daedalus, 130, 23 Lim, W. S (1999). Development and culture in Singapore and beyond Sojourn: Journal of social issues in South East Asia 14, 249. Jaspers, K (1952). Exis...

Hamlet: Context of the Original Version

...The meaning, context and complexity of the words as used in the original version disappear when translated into the modern version. Modern versions of the text are usually taken in its literal sense, thus, the author’s real purpose in using the words disappear. Furthermore, the art of using words by applying figurative speech was not preserved in the modern version. Modern translations of the text, while easier to understand, fail to meet the complexities of Shakespeare’s words and come shor...

Henry David Thoreau and Resistance to Civil Government

...Thoreau’s idea of civil disobedience to a government that is not of the people has been successful for several generations after Thoreau’s death. He impacted the lives of such great men as Ghandi and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. King used Thoreau’s method and turned a nation around and forced it to recognize the civil rights of all people by Resistance to Civil Government. Thoreau and his idea of peaceful protest will remain an affective way to change governments for generations to...

Theatre of the Absurd

...The characters speech is conventionalize speech and slogans and technical language disorganized sometimes and contradictory in other times. There is a lot of symbols in this play for example the tree is the only outstanding piece in the stage. Some critics said that is this tree is a symbol for the cross and Godo is a symbol of Jesus. Although there is a lots of plays applied theater of absurd but Waiting for Godot still remains the best. Theater of absurd create a new style in writing plays and...

Reflection Paper In Philosophy Of Man

...For an instance, a famous Book Publisher Erich Fromm write a book “the Art of Loving”. In his book, He says that the popular notion of love at the present is “Falling in Love” but there are also reasons that I have read in the article. First the “Love is equated with Romance”; love has something to do with romance. Because love without romance is just like you are holding a match box without match stick. The match box there will never spark without that match stick. Second is the Lov...

King Lear - Existentialism

...Moreover, and their father at this time now does not have any power to control them. King Lear experiences anxiety and anguish after having seen that his daughters are ungrateful. This issue makes him to be enraged. He thus recalls the facticity that he gave to his daughters and feels very infuriated. He thus summarily denounces the daughters. At the end, King Lear is very embarrassed due to his two daughters who now do not respect him until he becomes mad. Cordelia and Kent, whom he thought as ...

The Loss of Humanity and Understanding in Kafka’s Penal Colony

...Yet, there are those that do not realize how their societal roles trap, imprison, and eventual destroy them. Such is the true tragedy at the symbolism of Kafka’s work. Resources Gutman, Les. "A Curtain Up Review - In the Penal Colony. " Curtain Up. Available from http://www. curtainup. com/penalcolony. html. Internet; accessed 11 May 2010. O'Farrell, Clare. "Key Concepts. " Michel Foucault. Available from http://www. michel- foucault. com/concepts/index. html. Internet; accessed 11 May 2010....

I and Thou

...To sum it up, Buber’s book “I and Thou’ provides modern researcher with new concepts and ideas, many of which seem controversial and paradoxical. Basic deficiencies found in Buber’s philosophy are linked with his utopianism and idealism and lack of attention to modern developments in social science, social psychology. The unnecessary reduction of human society to individual level makes it impossible to see a broader picture of inter-group relations and general social institutions role in...

Margaret Fuller's Influence

...Any reader can learn from Margaret Fuller about personal growth, self discovery, and equality between all individuals. Fuller’s works were influential enough in society in her era, that they are best explored by the incorporation in English literature curriculums throughout America. Fullers influence extended to many women including women’s rights activists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Grace Greenwood, and Ida B. Wells. Through Fuller’s influence women such as these were able to push wo...

Eugene Ionesco's Existentialist Views

...Not only do Guil and Ros constantly repeat each other when they lack the originality or purpose to say something new, Stoppard takes lines directly from Shakespeare’s Hamlet, and has Guil and Ros unknowingly change to Shakespearean English and speak Shakespeare’s words whenever they converse with other characters from Hamlet, for example when first meeting Claudius, they say “We both obey/ And here give up ourselves in the full bent/ To lay our service freely at your feet/ To be commanded...

Waiting For Godot Theme

...It explores extensively the mystery of existence, the unnamed fear and the anxiety of the human subconscious that defy rationality. Estragon and Vladimir have wasted their lives waiting by this tree for someone they may or may not know, to decide something they are unsure of, that will benefit them somehow. Thus the apparent theme of the play is waiting which Vladimir and Estragon do throughout the two acts. It is with time that the play is obsessed and it stresses that all action is futile. Exi...

The Dichotomy of Self Reliance and Conformity

...He believes that America’s history is still part of the country and he acknowledges human fault. When the devil reassures Goodman Brown, “I helped your grandfather, the constable, when he lashed the Quaker woman so smartly through the streets of Salem;” Hawthorne illustrates through real events in American history how the Quakers were persecuted by the Puritans in the 1650s, and also refers to King Philips War between the Puritans and Native Americans, when the devil tells Brown that he he...


FAQ about Philosophical Theories


❓ Explain what Jean-Paul Sartre meant by the statement "Man is condemned to be free".

...Although we are free to make this choice, we are in a way forced to make it. So, Sartre's claim of humans being condemned or damned to be free does not appear so ludicrous. Even when we ask someone for assistance with an ethical dilemma it is not the ...

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