Philosophical Theories Essay Examples

Essays on Philosophical Theories

Similarities and Difference between Humanism and Existentialism
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In the 20th century, psychology began to boom with different methods of therapy for individuals from many backgrounds. Along with these different approaches, many of them differed on specific viewpoints such as understanding one’s purpose in life. Two approaches that circle around this viewpoint are humanism and existentialism. These two approaches emerged before the 20th century, but modern day psychotherapy from these two approaches have influenced society to think about their purpose and role in the world. Humanistic psychology emerged…...
Existentialism and Character Development in Hamlet
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In the play “Hamlet” William Shakespeare uses the character of Prince Hamlet to pose conversant existential questions. Existentialism is defined as “a philosophical theory or approach that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will.”, this definition holds its validity when considering the ideas brought up in “Hamlet”. Existential philosophers since the late 17th like century Soren Kierkegaard have been studying questions like “How should we…...
Marxist’s Perspective on the Holocaust
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The Holocaust was a period in history marked by the destruction of millions of Jews and others by factions of imperialists and believers who had different religion, social and political ideologies. The Holocaust had a great impact in global history and transnational characterization of nations (Assman, 2010). Historical experts perceive the event as a byproduct of undying fascism and strong inclinations toward the ideology of social Darwinism. It was perceived that belonging to weak societies meant that they were limited…...
Karl MarxMarxismSocial DarwinismThe Holocaust
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Development of Scoring Rubric of Writing Literacy Criticism Based on Critical Thinking Skills
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Learning Indonesian is one of the most important lessons taught at all levels of education in Indonesia. The implementation in the school requires students to be able to study critically the texts taught according to the level of critical thinking including identifying, interpreting, describing, analyzing, evaluating and assessing the texts in verbal and in writing both in language and literacy competencies. Critical thinking becomes an important part of learning. One of the Indonesian learning materials that emphasizes students' critical thinking…...
Critical ThinkingCriticismCriticism Analysis
American Dream and Materialism in The Great Gatsby
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Have you ever wanted a part of the American Dream so bad that materials are the things that make you happy instead of people? In “The Great Gatsby”, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, this is seen happening sometimes. “The Great Gatsby” was published on April 10, 1925. This novel is famous for capturing the theme of the 1920s. It also shows how America was obsessed with social status and wealth after the war. I think the theme of this story is…...
American DreamMaterialismThe Great Gatsby
Effects Of Materialism In The Great Gatsby
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F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel The Great Gatsby portrays and critiques the concept of the American Dream during the 1920s and highlights that at the root of the dream is just extreme materialism and consumerism. Fitzgerald depicts this time period’s ideal “American Dream” as virtually devoid of moral values and full of materialism, avarice, and the never-ending search for small meaningless pleasures—a corrupt society and era were making a “quick buck” outweighed morality and virtuous principles. Prior to this time period,…...
American DreamMaterialismThe Great Gatsby
Socrates’ Impact on Society
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The Trail of Socrates occurs in 399 BCE. This was shortly after the Peloponnesian War where Athens fell to defeat against Sparta. Athens’s government at this time was a democracy. Because of the young Athenians having different people impact their decisions Athens society went through a change. One main person who is a suspect for this change is Socrates. This is why he got the charge for corrupting the youth of Athens along with not worshipping the Gods of the…...
Ancient GreeceEuthyphro DilemmaPhilosophySocrates
Feminist Criticism on Jamaica Kincaid’s “Girl” and “Two Kinds”
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Women’s Rights is an extremely ethical topic that is surrounded by ethical theories and has a lot of history. While some of the theoretical systems in ethics have helped to gain women their rights, others have assisted in preventing women's rights. Women in America have seen much improvement in our modern-day society regarding Women’s Rights, but what about the women in less economically stable countries? Women continue to fight against abuse, hatred, and discrimination worldwide. I will be discussing not…...
CriticismGirl By Jamaica Kincaid
John Locke on Personal Identity
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“According to John Loke, the self is identified as a thinking, intelligent being that has the abilities to reason and to reflect”. (Chaffee, 2016). Self is an individual person as the object of his or her own reflective consciousness. Self is a reference by a subject to the same subject. In chapter 3 of the text, the author talks about “self” and the many different perceptions of it. I chose “The Self Is Consciousness and We Construct the Self. Locke…...
ConsciousnessIdentityJohn LockePersonal IdentityTabula Rasa
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7 In this essay I will be looking at 2 schools of thought Positivist (Realism/neoliberalism) and the post positivist (social constructivism) the latter emerging from the rejection of the former. As one can imagine with multiple theories there is room for debate, which makes analysing situations in international relations sometimes rather complex. Positivist theories aim to imitate the methods of the natural sciences by analysing the impact of material forces. Positivists mostly focus on characteristics of international relations such as…...
The main idea of Marxism
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The main idea of Marxism is a philosophy of history, outlining why capitalism is doomed and socialism will replace it. He saw this work as a theory of society and a socialist political project. He took a scientific view of history and analysed it using scientific methods. He believed that history had developed through stages - from primitive communism, i. e. tribal societies, through to slavery, then feudalism into capitalism. He then thought capitalism would collapse and society would eventually…...
Explain and discuss the significance of Descartes’ work on Epistemology
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  However, as our senses can be doubt like seeing something far away looks different from seeing something close-up, and that even mathematics and logic can be doubted in the end, he thought there must be an evil demon continuously hypnotizing us to believe false claims. Thus for a brief moment Descartes nearly convinces us that the apple basket of knowledge must remain empty. Although, by going through this process of continuous doubt, Descartes eventually discovered the fact that he…...
The most common criticism of the IQ tests
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Perhaps the most common criticism of the IQ tests, is that most only test two or three different areas of intellectual qualities, such as mathematical, spatial awareness (to a certain degree), and grammar skills, however as there is no accurate or certain definition of intelligence, it begs the question: How can you have an intelligence test when you don't know specifically what to test for? Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences backs up this criticism, and he identified 8 areas in…...
How to Write Critical Review?
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Paper Type:Critical essays
From time to time, all of us need critical reviews. Usually, people refer to them while deciding which movie to choose or whether to go to a famous exhibition. This kind of articles is prepared by experienced writers or journalists, and their opinion should be taken into consideration, but sometimes students also have to implement such a work. What is the point of the task? A critical review aims to demonstrate the way of analytical thinking and the depth of…...
ArtCommunicationCritical ThinkingCriticismPay It ForwardPhilosophy
How to Write a Travel Review
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After going on a trip or vacation, you can let others know about your experience by writing a travel review. Your review needs to be interesting while providing reliable information the reader can use to plan a vacation. Be direct when writing the review so the reader won’t have to try to guess if it was a good or bad experience. You don’t even have to be a professional travel writer to write a good travel review. A good review…...
CommunicationCritical ThinkingCriticismThe NotebookTraveling
Waiting for Godot
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Waiting for Godot, by Samuel Beckett, portrays a nihilistic philosophy through two protagonists, Vladimir and Estragon. Throughout Waiting for Godot the two tramps convey a lack of morality, understanding and a lack of purpose. Vladimir and Estragon incessantly persist in chatting about meaningless matters with no intent of acting upon their decisions. Beckett's use of nonsensical circular language expresses the existentialist theme that is consistent throughout Waiting for Godot. Nihilism is the belief that existence is not real and that…...
ExistentialismPhilosophyWaiting For Godot
Three Little Pigs Analysis and the Story of the Three Little Pigs
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In The Three Little Pigs, and The Story of the Three Little Pigs, the first two pigs set out and end up making their houses out of unstable materials that, in The Three Little Pigs, the fox, and in The Story of The Three Little Pigs, the wolf, destroyed. However, the third little pig builds his house out of bricks and is able to resist and eventually vanquish the wolf and fox. At the surface these stories appear to be…...
Karl MarxMarxismPig
Theory Analysis Dead Poets Society
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The Marxist theory targets the flaws in capitalism where the bourgeoisie, who are rich owners, are able to control the proletariats (working class). According the Karl Marx, the bourgeoisie can control education, politics, media, etc due to their wealth. Due to the inequality, Karl Marx predicted that the proletariat would start a revolution. Karl Marx believes that capitalism leads to commodification where society only cares about impressing others and conspicuous consumption. Karl Marx believes that communism would make the bourgeoisie…...
CapitalismCommunismKarl MarxMarxismSociety
The Usual Practice of Ecocriticism
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Introduction Nature and literature have always shared a close relationship as is recorded in the works of poets and other writers in almost all the cultures in the world, since ages. Now-a-days the intimate relationships is being analysed between the natural and social world. The literary critic tries to analyse that, how is nature documented by the writers in their works. In this connection we have two important terms- ecology and ecocriticism. Ecocriticism is by nature interdisciplinary, it draws on…...
CriticismEnvironmental CrisisPhilosophy
The Phenomenon Of Gated Communities Cultural Studies Essay
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This paper explores the topic of gated communities being a globally prevailing urban or quasi-urban signifier: which comparatively late have quickly become widespread within Polish metropoliss.The writer 's involvement in analyzing the subject arose from a echt concern over the hereafter of metropolitan layouts and how they are worryingly being determined by the lifting figure of bastioned enclaves. The inclination of enveloping communities does non merely use to new lodging, but besides bing streets, flats built in the yesteryear, standalone…...
“The Curious Incident Of The Dog In The Nighttime”
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In some perspectives the belief in a God is being superstitious. By definition being superstitious is creating a false certainty instead of being left with none which is what most scientists would explain for the existence of religion, just an explanation for the way things are as well as a sense of security for people. When first introduced to Christopher Boone in the novel, "The Curious Incident Of The Dog In The Nighttime" his dismissive attitude towards religion seems to…...
DogEpistemologyThe curious incident of the dog in the nighttime
Ten Commandments
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Introduction Hale begins to question Proctor about the 'Christian character' of his house to which Proctor simply replies that he has 'no fears of questions'. Miller is setting up the audience, at this point, for a major dramatic climax in the scene. Despite his 'no fears' comment, John appears uneasy when asked and tries to avoid questions of religious awareness and belief. Miller has planted hesitation in this play, like mines in a minefield; the most are trodden on in…...
Book ReviewBooks And ReadingDialogueLiteratureSkepticism
With what success did New Liberalism use state intervention to improve living conditions between 1906 and 1914?
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Before the large Liberal gains that were made in the 1906 elections and subsequent large majority in government the Liberals had maintained a lassiez fraire approach to government which extends all the way back to its implementation with Gladstone, therefore fittingly it was named Gladstonian liberalism. However with the landslide election victory of 1906 the liberals had a working majority to implement social reform. This emphasis on social reform came about in no small part thanks to the tireless work…...
Steven Lukes ‘Power; a Radical View’
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Introduction There has been much discussion concerning the various faces of power. Steven Lukes' classical essay entitled: 'Power; a Radical View' was written in 1974 and although the essay was based on the context at the time, it still provides political analysts with a robust and rigorous method to approaching the concept of power and how it operates. However, much criticism has arose bringing attention to various flaws in the three dimensional model of power. There are three key arguments…...
EmpiricismMotivationPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophyPowerScience
Schema Theory Essay
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Schemas are mental representation of cognition built through experiences from people. state of affairs or object. Schema Theory is divided into three phases to acquire a better apprehension of the memory processes which are “1. Encoding- Transforming sensory information to meaningful memory 2. Storage- Creates a biological hint of the memory. which is either amalgamate or lost 3. Retrieval- utilizing shops information all the time” . “Schema is seen as a sort of model where some information is filled in…...
“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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In his famous work The Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau proposes an absolute rule of the general will (Melzer 1983, p. 633). He argues that the general will 'is always rightful and always tends to the public good' and that it can never 'err', i.e. that it never makes mistakes (Rousseau 2006, 1762, pp. 30-32). In my essay I am going to evaluate this statement. Firstly, I am going to outline Rousseau's vision of society and government which he described in…...
EthicsPhilosophical TheoriesRousseauSocial Contract
Is reason the source of knowledge?
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What we find is that rationalists find favour with the developments in mathematical and geometrical thinking in the seventeenth century and wish to employ them in regard to our general reasoning abilities. In regards to human thinking and a theory of epistemology rationalists assumed that the best ideas were based on reason, not observation. For example, the perfect triangle is an idea of reason, it can never be observed in the empirical world. Indeed, empirical triangles were thought of as…...
CultureEmpiricismEpistemologyKnowledgeKnowledge Is Key To SuccessPsychology
Raskolnikov VS Svidrigailov
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Introduction Dostoyevsky’s Crime and Punishment is a psychologically charged novel in which the primary element that plagues the protagonist, Rodion Raskolnikov, is not a person but rather an idea; his own idea. Raskolnikov has an unhealthy obsession with rendering himself into what he perceives as the ideal, supreme human being, an ubermensch. Raskolnikov forms for himself a theory in which he will live purely according to his own will and transcend the social norms and moralities that dominate society. Raskolnikov…...
Book ReviewBooks And ReadingCrime And PunishmentLiteraturePhilosophical Theories
The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli AndThe Education of a Christian Prince by Desiderius Erasmus
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The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli, and The Education of a Christian Prince by Erasmus of Rotterdam provide precisely opposite point of views regarding the conduct and purpose of princely rulers for effective government. Machiavelli discussed the qualities that applies to a prince so that he can maintain the best control of the power to which he has laid claim. For him, military power is one of the most important qualities a prince can have. He writes about it, saying: “...…...
ChristianEducationEthicsMachiavelliPhilosophical Theories
“People Are Becoming More Materialistic. They Are Concerned with Making More Money and What Money Can Buy.” What Is Your Opinion on Being Materialistic You Should Write at Least 350 Words
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They say that money makes the world go round. And indeed it does as without money, life would be very difficult as in today’s society, nothing is free. The side effect however is that people are becoming more materialistic; more concerned with making money and what money can buy. But how much money is enough? Is it ever enough? To some, it will never be enough. In my opinion, I truly believe that this statement is true and that people…...
Oration on the Dignity of Man
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In 1486, Renaissance philosopher Pico della Mirandola spoke the Oration on the Dignity of Man through which he called into question the primacy of the human creature. He held that God endowed man with the ability to choose his own destiny and his own perspective with which to view life and everything around. His contention was that those abilities distinguished man from all other beings. He further argued in the Oration, that animals come into the world with everything they…...
Philosophical TheoriesPhilosophyThe Gettysburg Address
“No One Knowingly Does Evil” by Socrates
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The argument which I am focusing on is titled “No One Knowingly Does Evil” and is written by Socrates. This argument concludes that those who do evil things do them involuntarily. That is, people do not necessarily want to do evil things, but do them against their will. A very important point is presented by Socrates in that evil deeds are not done willingly. It is thought by many that some people are simply evil-natured and commit evil deeds because…...
EpistemologyPhilosophical TheoriesSocrates
Naturalismo Francés: “Miss Harriet” y “Bola de Sebo” de Maupassant
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Habiendo leído el cuento de Maupassant y luego el texto de Roland Barthes: El Efecto De Lo Real, nos concentramos en los detalles de los que habla Barthes, del uso del detalle. "El detalle absoluto, la unidad indivisible, la transición fugitiva, debe reencontrar fatalmente notaciones (...) que son escandalosas y que parecen de acuerdo con una especie de lujo de la narración." Se habla entonces, de los detalles inútiles, aquellos que aparentan ser una descripción. Pero todo en el relato…...
Analysis of McTeague by Frank Norris
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A discussion of how "McTeague" by Frank Norris is a classic example of naturalist writing. McTeague, a novel written at the turn of the century by Frank Norris, is a classic example of naturalist writing. This novel is written with the harsh realities that were this time period. There are many themes that occur in naturalism. Some of them that appear in this novel are greed, lust, strife, as well as Darwinism and animal imagery. All of these themes help…...
Emile Zola and Henrik Ibsen Plays Review
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Naturalism came into being in the 19th century when authors and playwrights started to do something against the social situation back then. In contrast to the plays people wrote before, naturalists focused their stories onto common problems that happened all the time mostly among middle-class people. Naturalists wanted to rebell against the hierachy of their society and most of all they wanted to show the higher-class people what life was like in poorer classes. They presented them poverty, miserable children,…...
Henrik IbsenNaturalismPlays
Misuse of Statistics
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Statistics can be very helpful in providing a powerful interpretation of reality but can also be used to distort our understanding. Discuss some of the ways in which statistics can be used or misused in different areas of knowledge to assist and mislead us, and how can we determine whether to accept the statistical evidence that is presented to us. These days statistics are used everywhere. Whether it is in politics, economics, sciences or as pure mathematical discipline, much data…...
Mental Illness/nature nurture debate
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To what extent are our behaviours, feelings and thoughts innate, and how far are they all learned? For centuries philosophers and psychologists have wondered wither human behaviour is due to genetic (nature) factors or environmental (nurture) factors. There still remains to be no one answer as evidence is continuously being found on both sides. All aspects of a person, their intelligence, perception, personality, aggression levels and even the cause of mental illness can be subjected to the nature nurture debate.…...
Mental IllnessNature Vs NurtureTabula Rasa
What are the main themes of classical liberalism?
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In order to ascertain the main themes of classical liberalism, one must look at the themes of liberalism as a whole, as they are integral to its make up as the classical form was the first to come about. Influenced by the enlightenment and formed between the change from feudalism to capitalism, it formed the basis of liberal thinking, focussing on the primacy of the individual ' liberalism strives to establish the conditions in which people and groups can pursue…...
Blood Diamond: A Marxist Criticism
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The area of my study is the representation of class struggle in the movie Blood Diamond: A Marxist Criticism. The script of the movie is written by Charles Leavitt, collaboration with Gillian Gorfil and directed by Edward Zwick. Edward Zwick is a director who is not anxious to take risks and work on those stories that challenge us to take another look at the ethical choices we make in our lives. Edward Zwick is renowned for his valiant movies that…...
CommunismCriticismKarl MarxMarxismMarxist CriticismSocial Class
Are liberalism and democracy compatible?
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  The individual, its rights and freedom are the essence of liberalism. John Stuart Mill once wrote "Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign". Liberalism is the belief that we are free to make our own mistakes, decide our own lifestyle, choose our own way of living, pursue our own thoughts and philosophies, provided we don't infringe on other people's freedom. It tolerates and respects differing views, and appreciates diversity as essential to social and…...
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FAQ about Philosophical Theories

How to Write Critical Review?
...Develop your general knowledge first and expand the vocabulary; this will help to articulate own opinion easily; reading many reviews, you will learn which issues need priority attention and what determines a work as quality. As well, pay some attent...
How to Write a Travel Review
...Provide links to the hotels, rental services, restaurants and places where the reader can go for entertainment in your travel review. This way, they can gather more information about the places and find out where they are located, prices, hours of op...
With what success did New Liberalism use state intervention to improve living conditions between 1906 and 1914?
...Some critics also argue that reform was only really the work of two men Churchill and Lloyd George who dragged the Liberal party behind them. Even men such as Lloyd George were portrayed as men with a shrewd political mind who realized the importance...
“People Are Becoming More Materialistic. They Are Concerned with Making More Money and What Money Can Buy.” What Is Your Opinion on Being Materialistic You Should Write at Least 350 Words
...While this may spur individuals to work harder to improve their standard of living, overspending due to materialism may cause the downfall of a country’s economy and their morality. In my opinion, I still firmly believe that materialism has a stron...
What are the main themes of classical liberalism?
...The main themes of classical liberalism were the ideas of the individual and egoism. This idea enabled liberals of the time to expand and develop other key themes such as justice, reason and later on economic liberalism. Without the idea of the prima...
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