Philosophers Essay Examples

Essays on Philosophers

An Analysis of the Accusations against Socrates in Plato’s The Apology
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Pages • 10
Introduction The Apology is Socrates’ defense speech that was presented to the jury after he was presented in a court of law for allegations of being a corruptor of youths, a non-believer of the gods of the land, and sophistry (Danzig 13). He begins by swearing to Zeus that he will tell the truth and let the judges decide his fate. Socrates then states that he suspects that the minds of the judges have already been poisoned by the speeches…...
The Importance of Natural Law in Aquinas’ Political Theory
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Pages • 7
Natural law is central to Aquinas' political theory, it is the fundamental aspect to explaining how humanity's free will and God can co-exist within his work. This essay will attempt to showcase the importance of natural law within his political theory by looking at two main areas. The first will consider how natural law relates to divine providence and the importance of natural law in explaining positive and negative attributes of human action. The importance of natural law within Aquinas…...
Natural LawThomas Aquinas
A Discussion on Marx’s Critique of Commodity Fetishism and Its Influence on the Enslavement of Humans
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Pages • 15
Abstract "Man really attains the state of complete humanity when he produces, without being forced by physical need to sell himself as a commodity." (Guevara: 1965a.) One of the basic premises of Marxian works, that economic relations have been established by the capitalists to their own benefit, and at times to the disbenefit of the proletariat is a well known one. The fetishism of commodities, as set out by Marx in Capital, volume 1 (1867) is but one way of…...
Karl MarxMarxism
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Socrates and Modern Social Morality
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Pages • 5
Introduction Socrates is credited as the father of modern philosophy because of his arguments and views on various matters like morality, the soul and obedience to the law. The purpose of the paper is to show that Socrates has successful arguments when he supports morals in society. In demonstrating the validity, strength, and relevance of his claims, the essay reconstructs the claim, discusses the significance and explains why the argument is successful. Besides, the essay shows possible objections to my…...
Free EssaysSocratesTruth
A Critique of St. Augustine’s Philosophy on Sin and Political Order
Words • 1860
Pages • 8
Saint Augustine is one of the most influential and important thinkers of all time. His works influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. At an early age, he became attracted to a dualist Christian sect known as the Manichaeans, whose theology centred on a battle of Good and Evil. After moving to Milan, he was introduced to Platoic books, in which he claimed he found that God and his words were implied everywhere. As Neoplatoism was not far…...
The Perspectives of Thomas Hobbes on Justice and an Introduction of Augustinian Critique on the Hobbesian Sovereign
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Both Thomas Hobbes and Saint Augustine wrote with monumental goals in mind. Hobbes’ treatise reads as a textbook on how to run a state. Professor Emeritus, Edwin Curley calls the Leviathan a “scientific treatise” and writes that Hobbes is “making civic philosophy… scientific for the first time.”[1] Augustine intended City of God to be an intellectual defense of Christianity after his lifetime of reflection on philosophy. This essay’s goal is to provide a brief overview of Hobbes’ view on justice…...
Thomas Hobbes
The Ideas of John Locke on the Preservation of Property
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Locke says that the state has a responsibility to preserve people's private property. He (1688) says "The great and chief end, therefore, of men's uniting into common-wealths, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property" (p. 262). The state has to set laws which establish the rights of the people to own property. It has to have judges to decide between disputes. And it has to have people to execute the law once it's passed. The reason…...
John Locke
Jonatan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels through the Lens of the Theory of Alienation by Karl Marx
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Power, Politics, and Swift There's no doubt that Swift's life and works are heavily influenced by the politics of his day. As eager as he was to be involved with them, he was quick to criticize the political workings around him. This discontent with England's political underbelly is shown, through witty satire, throughout Gulliver's Travels, specifically in parts one and two and can be related to Marx's idea of estrangement and the division between mental and material labor. Understanding this…...
Gulliver'S TravelsJonathan SwiftKarl Marx
Philosophy of Plato the Republic: Is Justice Intrinsically Good?
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Pages • 5
What exactly is justice? According to Velasquez, we can view justice as the fairness within a punishment or the fairness in which society itself “distributes benefits and burdens” (p. 538). The nature of justice is seen as whether a person should compromise with being just and be “good” while suffering through the injustice without being able to fight back or to become injustice and be considered “evil” while not being punished. There are different views on what justice is along…...
JusticeJustice In LiteraturePlato
John Locke and the Declaration of Independence
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In 1689, John Locke published, what proved to be, a valuable document for the American Revolution as well as life in present day America, known as the Second Treatise of Government. In his document he creates a model of his ideal civil government, which is created by the people to ensure their “natural rights” of life, liberty, and property. This government may also be dissolved upon the decision of the people, when it is believed that the sovereignty has ceased…...
EthicsGovernmentJohn LockeLawSocial ContractThe Declaration Of Independence
Rousseau and Jefferson
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Introduction “The Declaration of Independence,” written by Thomas Jefferson, is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. “The Origin of Civil Society” is an article written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Jefferson writes about human rights because all men shall be equal and free; Rousseau writes about social contracts because by understanding the concepts of social contracts, the people will live with better security and significance. Understanding the concepts from previous generation of writers By analyzing these two…...
JusticePhilosophyRousseauThomas Jefferson
Socrates and Sophist Debates
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The Republic by Plato follows a series of philosophical debates between Socrates and several of his colleagues. These debates attempt to decipher the meaning of justice and determine its role in Athenian society. The Republic reiterates a lot of the same themes as Plato’s earlier works, Protagoras in particular. One of such themes is Plato’s blatant aversion to sophism. In both The Republic and Protagoras, Socrates primarily serves as a conduit to express Plato’s grievances with sophists, which is why…...
Marxist’s Perspective on the Holocaust
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The Holocaust was a period in history marked by the destruction of millions of Jews and others by factions of imperialists and believers who had different religion, social and political ideologies. The Holocaust had a great impact in global history and transnational characterization of nations (Assman, 2010). Historical experts perceive the event as a byproduct of undying fascism and strong inclinations toward the ideology of social Darwinism. It was perceived that belonging to weak societies meant that they were limited…...
Karl MarxMarxismSocial DarwinismThe Holocaust
Philosophers and The Concept of Supreme Being
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Absolute stability in philosophy refers to the concept of the unconditioned, ultimate, Supreme Being or wholly other. The term is used to describe anything that is free from restrictions and thus upholds independence, while rejecting relativism. On the other hand, relative stability is established as the thesis that all points of views are equally valid. The position holds that all moralities are equally good and all belief systems are equally valid. This essay discusses the concept of modernity and philosophies…...
Immanuel KantPhilosophersPhilosophical conceptsPhilosophy
Why did Socrates Despise the Sophists?
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In order to fully understand the context behind why Socrates despised the Sophists, their individual philosophies must be understood in order for the distinction to be clear. For a brief introduction, the sophists were nomadic professors and intellectuals who frequented cities such as Athens as well as other Greek cities and for a price, the sophists offered Greek men a form of education and therefore gained a considerable amount of wealth and fame while also raising significant hostility towards them…...
Comparison of Philosophy of Aristotle and Plato
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Throughout life, one will encounter many different people some with similar views and others with contrasting perspectives on reality. This topic and discussion on life and reality continues to rise debate since ancient times. Some of history’s most influential philosophers that attempt to describe life and reality are Aristotle and Plato. A student may choose to accept the teachings of a mentor or reject, question, and modify what is taught. Aristotle was a student of Plato’s and chose to reject…...
AristotleMans Search For MeaningMeaningPhilosophyPlato
What is Aristotle’s Golden Mean?
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One world view that harmonizes particularly well with self action leadership is Aristotelian philosophy, and more specifically Aristotle’s concept of the Golden Mean. This concept holds that virtue or the good is to be found within a balance between extremes. Aristotle’s famous philosophy posits that right thinking and doing cannot occur in the presence of either deficiency or excess. The implication of course is virtually that all extremes can be labeled in the very least as incorrect and at the…...
Overview of Aristotle’s ideologies and theories
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Discussing Aristotle’s ideologies and theories regarding morality and ethics, its seen that these concepts seem to adhere to the idea of rationality, pleasure and their coercion to an individual's happiness and how an individual's actions are dictated by moral virtues and rational thought. The integration of pleasure and rationality in Aristotle’s ideas reflect the discussion that if pleasure and rationality both dictate and individuals actions on a daily basis, that the theoretical response of those actions should positively affect a…...
Aristotle: Idea of Final Cause and Chance
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Aristotle’s works cover a variety of ideas, claims, and theories. The one I will be discussing is his idea of final cause and chance. Specifically, the idea of final cause in nature and the role of the accidental cause chance. Aristotle states at stephanus pagination 199a around line six, that things which come to be by nature or exist by nature have a final cause. The way I interpret his logic and explanation on ensuing pages is that essentially function…...
Aristotle’s “Natural” City
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“For just as man is the best of the animals when completed, when separated from law and adjudication he is the worst of all” (1253a32). Aristotle believes that humans are the best animals when they are being ruled and following a set of laws. For this reason, Aristotle chooses to describe cities as being “natural.” The nature of the city arises from Aristotle’s belief that cities came “…into being for the sake of living, it exists for the sake of…...
Aristotle: Human Function
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In the book of “The Basic Works of Aristotle”, Aristotle begins Nicomachean Ethics by trying to answer the question of 'What the ultimate purpose of human existence is?”. He explains that there must be one end of all human actions, because a human action is one which is done on purpose and as an end goal. Aristotle suggests that we might arrive at a clearer beginning of happiness if we could first establish function of a human being (NE 1.7…...
Why the Meaning of Life is Exploration?
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I believe that the meaning of life is to explore in order to find our truths and being able to learn from them. As we continue to live, we tend to long for the truth as we are all curious about our lives and the world around them. In Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave”, he explains how the person that escaped the cave did not only discover the truth of the shadows but also was able to face the realities…...
PlatoStephen HawkingThe Allegory Of The CaveThe Meaning Of Life
Socrates Trial: Guilty or Not Guilty?
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Socrates (469 – 399 BCE) was a classical Greek philosopher, known as one of the founders of Western philosophy. Socrates’ trial and execution in 399 BCE still remain controversial to this day and divides historians. If I was a member of the Athenian jury hearing the case of Socrates, I would vote to acquit Socrates. The basis of philosophy means to question. The people of Athens grew up being taught things and told exactly what to believe. Socrates gave a…...
Ancient GreeceApologyPhilosophySocrates
The Ideas of Socrates
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Socrates was unlike most Athenians of his time. Socrates was morally radical and intellectual. During his trial for impiety and wrongdoing the youth Socrates felt that the people of Athens should concern themselves about their wellbeing of emotions rather than their family. Socrates ideas affected the views towards the knowledge politics and virtue of the Athenians society. He also believed that one should give attention on the growth of himself than on physical things and encouraged people to develop a…...
Ancient GreecePhilosophySocrates
Defense of Socrates – The Charges
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In “Plato, Defense of Socrates”, Socrates was in trial for his charges for not recognizing the gods of the city or that he was religious or an atheist. Socrates disputed that he is innocent of both charges; corrupting the youth and impiety. Socrates' defense is failed at the end and he is sentenced to death. He concludes that a simple man should have no concern when it comes to death. Socrates defends himself towards the costs delivered in opposition to…...
Ancient GreecePhilosophical TheoriesPlatoSocrates
Does Socrates Allow his Enemies to win by Staying and Accepting his Sentence?
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Socrates allows his enemies to win by staying and accepting his sentence. From the onset of the case, Socrates fails to put a strong defense on his innocence. Rather, he appears unconcerned about the case brought against him. He is rude, arrogant, and fails to empathize with the prosecutor and Athens’ society. As a result, he is unable to convince more than 50% of the jurist that he is innocent. In addition, he appears to be unconcerned with his first…...
Socrates’ Impact on Society
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The Trail of Socrates occurs in 399 BCE. This was shortly after the Peloponnesian War where Athens fell to defeat against Sparta. Athens’s government at this time was a democracy. Because of the young Athenians having different people impact their decisions Athens society went through a change. One main person who is a suspect for this change is Socrates. This is why he got the charge for corrupting the youth of Athens along with not worshipping the Gods of the…...
Ancient GreeceDemocracyEuthyphro DilemmaPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophySocrates
The Trial and Execution of Socrates
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In Plato’s Apology, the reader finds much interesting information about the philosophic thought that is derived from Socrates’ defense speech. Socrates, Plato’s teacher, and friend is ready to defend himself. Socrates’ mission is to help people to better understand the meaning of life in order to change their lives, placing emphasis on virtue and souls. He says, It is the greatest good for a human being to discuss Virtue every day and the other things About which you hear me…...
Ancient GreeceApologyPhilosophical TheoriesPlatoSocrates
Aristotle and the Highest Good
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What is “the good”? “The good” is defined as the ultimate place where everything makes sense and falls into place. In order to have a good life, a person must do something in their life. As Aristotle explains his views and thoughts on pleasure and why it is not good, he tends to be grey with his points (Curtis, lecture notes). According to Aristotle, he believed that pleasure is good but not “the good”. Aristotle’s views as to why pleasure…...
AristotlePhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophyPsychologyVirtue
Aristotle’s Poetics and Sophocles’ Antigone
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Aristotle outlined six main fundamentals of tragedy: plot, character, diction, thought, spectacle, and music or song. He reflected on plot and character as the first two components or the primary components. In his Poetics, he explained the proper mix of these fundamentals using instances from various tragic dramas, specifically those of Sophocles, amongst other playwrights (Rizzoli, 3 - 6). Previous to reading Aristotle, Sophocle’s Antigone was similar to any of the previous stories I have read — the protagonist’s character…...
AntigoneAristotleTragedyTragic Hero
Education and Plato’s Allegory of the Cave
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The cave taping that we listened to in class was a metaphor that contrasted real life and the things that we believe to be true. In the tape, Plato has Socrates describe a group of prisoners who are chained to a wall of a cave. They are facing a bare wall, watching the shadows that are cast from objects passing in front of a fire. The imprisoned people believe that the shadows are real and give them names. The named…...
EducationPlatoThe Allegory Of The Cave
Understanding the truth of Reality in the light of Plato, Aristotle and The Matrix
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Have you ever had the feeling where you are uncertain if you are awake or is still dreaming? Those are not phrases from a metaphysical book but perhaps a popular Hollywood film "The Matrix." Nevertheless, freedom is not about having a really good illusion, but about realizing it's all just an illusion. Furthermore, the philosophies in the movie and the truth borrowed from eastern philosophies from the great philosophers including Plato and Aristotle. There are several similarities between Plato's "The…...
AristotleMindPhilosophical TheoriesPlatoThe MatrixTruth
Plato’s Conception of Reality
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In Plato's Allegory of the Cave, Socrates depicts a gathering of detainees being affixed to a divider watching these shadows which are truly individuals strolling behind them, making them believe them to be anything they desire them to be. They know nothing else with the exception of what they believe is their very own world. When one of the detainees is discharged he understands that what he thought was the truth, was extremely simply his own mind going on with…...
Philosophical TheoriesPhilosophyPlatoTruth
Connections to Social Media Realities to the Cave
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The ways people connect have changed with the use of social media. People throughout the world use social media to network and interact with family and friends. Social media has so many aspects that most users can see that it has become the entertainment source, the key form in which some people can communicate. It is one of the applications to share your life. While social media may seem like a good place to view other people’s life and show…...
BeliefPerceptionPlatoSocial MediaTruth
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave: Life Lessons
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Pages • 3
The cave taping that we listened to in class was a metaphor that contrasted real life and the things that we believe to be true. In the tape, Plato has Socrates describe a group of prisoners who are chained to a wall of a cave. They are facing a bare wall, watching the shadows that are cast from objects passing in front of a fire. The imprisoned people believe that the shadows are real and give them names. The named…...
Life LessonsPlatoThe Allegory Of The Cave
Tragic Hero As Defined by Aristotle
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According to Aristotle’s theory of tragedy, a tragic hero is a person with high social status and somebody who has a confidential flaw that could in the end lead to facing a downfall with courage and dignity causing the audience to feel sympathy. Generally, a tragic hero is a grievous legend that is seen as an honorable character. A tragic hero experiences a change from not bad to good, but from good to bad. To go moreover, the character Macbeth…...
AristotleTragedyTragic Hero
How is Oedipus a Tragic Hero According to Aristotle?
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What is a tragedy? A tragedy is an event that causes great suffering, destruction, and distress, sometimes a catastrophe. Aristotle's characterization of a tragic hero is through his ability to preserve his virtue, despite his flaws. Oedipus is considered a tragic hero because he is not perfect but has many tragic flaws. Oedipus shows many flaws and braveness throughout this story. A tragic hero is the protagonist of a tragedy in dramas. This tragedy shows where a person suffers from…...
AristotleOedipusTragic Hero
Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship
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From the time of Aristotle (384-322 BCE) , the notion of friendship and even the term friend have fascinated philosophers. Aristotle, a famed philosopher himself, opine that ‘Without friends, no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods.’ (Aristotle, and Ross. 2016: 307) In elaboration, every man seems to be quite iffy when the term ‘loner’ is discussed at length. A loner is in his essence someone without any friends or even acquaintances and humans as species…...
AristotleFriendshipPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophy
John Locke on Personal Identity
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“According to John Loke, the self is identified as a thinking, intelligent being that has the abilities to reason and to reflect”. (Chaffee, 2016). Self is an individual person as the object of his or her own reflective consciousness. Self is a reference by a subject to the same subject. In chapter 3 of the text, the author talks about “self” and the many different perceptions of it. I chose “The Self Is Consciousness and We Construct the Self. Locke…...
ConsciousnessExperienceIdentityJohn LockePersonal IdentityPhilosophical Theories
Why did Plato think women could be legitimate political Guardians?
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Pages • 8
  Thus, though he asserts that women in general are not as capable as men in general, especially in physical strength, individual members of both sexes will be capable of performing all the functions needed by the city, including guardianship and philosophy. The only way to ensure that persons are assigned the jobs for which they are best suited is to asses the merits of each, independently of sex (gender)'. 4 The three primary types of desires are divided into…...
Philosophical TheoriesPlatoPoliticsTruthWomen
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FAQ about Philosophers

Why did Socrates Despise the Sophists?
...Socrates and famously coined the Socratic Method which is a form of an argumentative dialogue between individuals, which centres on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presuppositions. It...
What is Aristotle’s Golden Mean?
...The golden mean is relative to us in our particular situation but it is objective relatively. People must normally be held responsible for what they do, that compulsion and ignorance may be excusing conditions, and that he is rather severe in his est...
Why the Meaning of Life is Exploration?
...We all have different opinions towards the meaning of life as Stephen Hawking mentions in his video that it “is what you choose it to be” (“Stephen hawking’s Grand Design: The Meaning of Life”, 51:10-51:13). There is no clear answer to what...
How is Oedipus a Tragic Hero According to Aristotle?
...Jocasta is the only person that felt pity for him. She knew the answers that Oedipus needed, but did not want him to find out. Jocasta told many lies to Oedipus. Oedipus is certainly a tragic hero. His determination and faith to search and find the t...
Why did Plato think women could be legitimate political Guardians?
...3 Christopher Rome, Political thought from Plato to Nato (London: BBC books, 1987) 4 Susan Moller Akin, Women in Western Political thought, (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1979) pp. 39-40. 5 Christopher Rome, Political thought from Plato to N...

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