Philosophical Theories Essay Examples

Essays on Philosophical Theories

A Discussion on Marx’s Critique of Commodity Fetishism and Its Influence on the Enslavement of Humans
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Abstract "Man really attains the state of complete humanity when he produces, without being forced by physical need to sell himself as a commodity." (Guevara: 1965a.) One of the basic premises of Marxian works, that economic relations have been established by the capitalists to their own benefit, and at times to the disbenefit of the proletariat is a well known one. The fetishism of commodities, as set out by Marx in Capital, volume 1 (1867) is but one way of…...
Karl MarxMarxism
An Analysis of Henry David Thoreau’s’ Life and Views as a Transcendentalist
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Pages • 7
Fuller, Randall, “Natural History: Thoreau's Debt to Darwin" Henry David Thoreau was born on July 12, 1817, in Concord, Massachusetts. He was an American poet, essayist, philosopher, naturalist, and transcendentalist. As a transcendentalist, he thought that reality existed only in the spiritual world, and the solution to people's problems was the free development of emotion (Fuller). The article 1 starts by telling the reader about a dream that Thoreau was having about two ungovernable horses. Fuller uses the dream about…...
Henry David ThoreauTranscendentalism
An Analysis of Communism
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Pages • 13
Communism is gone. And with it, the whole programme of "climbing on the upper stairs of history" (by political, economic and cultural transformations) failed, too. Interestingly enough, it could be asserted that, during the 1989 changes, we have all witnessed the failure of, not one type of communism, but to that of more. By this statement, I am referring to the fact that these total transformations - as the main declaratory purpose of the communist regimes - have been pursued…...
Communism
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Comparing the Three Major Religions: Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism
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Buddhism, a major world religion, founded in northeastern India and based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who is known as the Buddha, or Enlightened One. Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, was born in 563 BC in Kapilavastu near the present Indian-Nepal border, the son of the ruler of a petty kingdom. The young prince was raised in sheltered luxury, until at the age of 29 he renounced earthly attachments and embarked on a quest for peace and enlightenment. At first…...
BuddhismConfucianism
Social Darwinism, Auto-Segregation and Political Symbolism in George Orwell’s Novel “Animal Farm” and Charles Johnson’s “Menagerie, a Child Fable”
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Nearly every character and event in Charles Johnson's short story Menagerie, a Child's Fable can and should be interpreted to signify the social and political ways in which American lives operated in the 1980's. Much like George Orwell's Animal Farm, the allegorical fable uses animal characters to convey very human themes, especially those pertaining to religion and politics. Johnson's application of a captivating literary style to a simple history lesson brings to life ordinarily dull themes like fascism, social darwinism,…...
Animal FarmGeorge OrwellSocial Darwinism
An Analysis of Article: Neo-Liberalism
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Pages • 8
Neo-liberalism has been one of the most influential ideologies over the last two decades that has had significant influence in the change of power and politics, at both global and national levels. Neoliberalism theories are based on ideas and values that stem from the social tenets of classical liberalism that promote the free market, individualism, the pursuit of self-interest and the proposition that these will lead to the social good. Acceptance of the values and ideas of classical liberalism does…...
Liberalism
Bertolt Brecht’s Approach in Theatrical Art
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Introduction Bertolt Brecht's approach in theatrical art is inclusive of science, politics and his ever evidently upheld ideas of Marxism. In the play titled “Life of Galileo", all three subjects are vivid as artistically principled, societally educational as well as politically sensible literary instruments without separating any one of these from the other. In an attempt to make art an educational platform and not just about entertaining, Brecht developed the Verfremdungseffekt (V-effect) to capture, create an interest and facilitate the…...
MarxismPlays
Determinism and Compatibilism as Two Main Contemporary Positions in the Problem of Free Choice
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The problem of free choice is in essence a fundamental question of whether we have the ability to make choices or not? Though the answer may seem simple at first glance, the answer is much more complicated than it may intuitively seem. To support this claim, although this problem can be traced back to the Greek and Roman era, today it remains in virtually the same state as it did back then, and is still without an adequate solution. Therefore,…...
DeterminismFreedom
A Universal Perspective on Belief in Epistemology
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Pages • 8
The approaches given by Pierce and Nagel to the epistemological questions of doubt and belief, though diverse in that they are strictly pragmatist and Cartesian, contain a similar underlying principle. They both serve to show that belief cannot come from any source that appeals to one's feelings or purposes, experiences or impressions. Beliefs must arise from a non-personal means. Although this is a commonality between the two approaches in epistemology, they are greatly different arguments in their focuses. Pierce's pragmatist…...
Epistemology
Because I could not Stop Death
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Modern critic, Bernhard Frank, says: “The speaker, in correcting herself, may have come to understand that whereas the sun, depicting circular time, will keep revolving, her own journey is destined to come to an abrupt, irreversible halt.” (Bernhard Frank 712) Another critic, Frost, said: “For Emily Dickinson, death, God, and the eternities were regarded too conventionally, even lightly, by those around her, but her poetic stance and her themes--interpretations of mortal experience.” ( Carol Frost 712) Both of these critics…...
CriticismCriticism Analysis
“Alice in Wonderland” directed by Tim Burton
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Pages • 11
“Have I gone mad?” asked the Mad Hatter. Alice replied, “I am afraid so. You are entirely bonkers. But I will tell you a secret. All the best people are.” The use of this quote in ‘Alice in Wonderland’ establishes a mystic atmosphere which gives the audience not only an idea about Underland but also about the adventures they are going to witness as the film progresses. Alice in Wonderland (Walt Disney, 2010), directed by Tim Burton, is one of…...
CriticismCriticism Analysis
OSHA and Personal Protective Equipment
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I chose the topic of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Specifically the advancements of PPE over time and the way it is enforced. I chose this topic because I am hoping to learn about what it took for these rules and regulations of PPE to go into effect. For example, why a certain piece of PPE was made and the injuries that occured before it was made and how often it happened before the law and how often those same injuries…...
CriticismCriticism Analysis
Sartrean Existentialism in the Road
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Pages • 6
Michael Ross Jeff Bell 1,365 words 21st Century Lit. Sartrean Existentialism In The Road McCarthy tells the story of a nameless father and son struggling to survive in the aftermath of an apocalyptic happening. Religious elements are deeply interwoven with the text and form much of its basic thematic construction. McCarthy writes with a particular focus on existential themes; paying particular attention to the existentialist views of Sartre, Kierkagaard, and Camus and integrating them deeply into his own text. It…...
ExistentialismThe Road
The essay is about Transcendental themes in the movie “Dead Poets Society.”
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The movie "The Dead Poets Society" is about a group of private school boys in the North East. They encounter a teacher, Mr. Keating, whom is a little different than most teachers. He wanted to instill the motivation to look past what society was telling them to do rather than teach the normal curriculum. He used Thoreau's ideas on transcendentalism by showing them to transcend or go beyond the rules that society poses and create their own independence. Mr. Keating…...
MovieRalph Waldo EmersonSocietyTranscendentalism
Transcendendalist theories and beliefs, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thoreau, transcendentalism today
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In the world of Ralph Waldo Emerson, "nothing is more simple than greatness, to be simple is to be great". Emerson believed in simplifying life, he believed that the less possessions a person had the less they had to worry about. He developed a new and creative way of philosophy titled transcendentalism. Transcendentalism dealt with finding joy in nature, simplicity, and individualism. Simplicity is the state of being simple, uncomplicated, or uncompounded. Simplifying life cuts back on stress and worries.…...
BeliefMetaphysicsRalph Waldo EmersonTheoriesTranscendentalism
Democracy and developing countries
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  The "old" and "new" powers involved in negotiations during transition period can span from military and political parties in Latin America, state and civil society in Eastern and Central Europe to ethnic tribes in Africa. Until the general consensus about the democracy as the only desirable regime is achieved, the country can be driven back to regression, as it happened in Nicaragua or Algeria. 5 Two main schools of thought emerged regarding the relationship between democracy and development. Some…...
CommunismDemocracyPolicy
Are liberalism and democracy compatible?
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  The individual, its rights and freedom are the essence of liberalism. John Stuart Mill once wrote "Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign". Liberalism is the belief that we are free to make our own mistakes, decide our own lifestyle, choose our own way of living, pursue our own thoughts and philosophies, provided we don't infringe on other people's freedom. It tolerates and respects differing views, and appreciates diversity as essential to social and…...
DemocracyLiberalismPhilosophySociological Theories
Freud’s Psychodynamic Theories: Validity and Cultural Utility
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Freud’s area of interest in delving into psychodynamics is to study personalities: Id, Superego & Ego. These three distinctions help school counselors at a high school level to understand the functions, reactions, and desires of their students in a better light, as Banks states, “Psychoanalytic theory and the works of Freud in the first part of the twentieth century coincided with and reinforced, the counseling professions’ emphasis on the individual traits” (Banks 138). To further prove the validity of this…...
Philosophical TheoriesPhilosophyPsychologySigmund FreudTheories
Chinese Religions and Beliefs: Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism
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Religion Three Major Religions or philosophies shaped many of the ideas and history of Ancient China. They include: Taoism Confucianism Buddhism Taoism Was founded during the Zhou Dynasty in the 6th century by Lao-Tzu. Tao Te Ching is a book that has his beliefs and philosophies. At that time under this religion, one of the beliefs was that people should be with one nature and that all living things have a universal force flowing through them (Yin and Yang). These…...
BeliefBuddhismChinaConfucianismReligion
Administrators and Accountability: The Plurality Useful Systems within the Overall Public Domain
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Pages • 3
The article, 'Administrators and Accountability: The Plurality useful Systems within the general public Domain', by Udo Pesch seeks to affect how accountability and value systems interact within the alternatives made by public administrators. The research problem being ad dressed is whether or not or not public administrators are free from accountability for his or her decisions and what are the varied influences which can affect their decisions. It is clear from the abstract of the article that this is often…...
AccountabilityPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophyPsychology
Communism During The Cold War History
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Pages • 5
Communism is a system of government in which ownership of property is ascribed to the community. Cohen (4) defines communism as a system of organization in which all social and economic activities are controlled by a totalitarian state dominated a self-perpetuating state. Communism became a major concern of the U.S during the cold war; a period when the U.S was committed to contain domination of Russia in the eastern and central Europe. Although there were only a few American communists…...
Cold WarCommunismHistoryWar
Indian Thought in Emerson Thoreau and Whitman
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Pages • 9
VEDANTA philosophy was one of several thought currents from abroad that reached New England in the early decades of the 19th century and contributed to the thinking of Emerson and Thoreau. Emerson’s interest in the sacred writings of the East probably began: . ring his Harvard days and continued throughout his life. He knew Laws of Manu, Vishnupurana, the Bhagvad- Gita, and Katha Upanishad: There are numerous references to these scriptures in his Journals and Essays. Thoreau, too, was introduced…...
Henry David ThoreauHinduismIndiaRalph Waldo EmersonThoughtTranscendentalism
The Original and the Modern Transcendentalists
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The transcendentalist Emerson, Longfellow, and Thoreau in the 1850’s in Massachusetts did not like modernization, science, and technology. But they did believe in nonconformity, self-reliance, and confidence. These transcendentalist believed in nonconformity and confidence. An example modernization in our world can be found in the song “Soundtrack to my life”, by KiD CuDi and in another song “Drop the World”, by Lil Wayne. In Emerson’s nonconformists quote, “but if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars”,…...
Philosophical TheoriesPhilosophyTranscendentalism
Self-Reliance and transcendentalism and how they relate to modern day life
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Many individuals in our world are frequently attempting to be self-reliant; trying to make it on their own and be original in idea and true to themselves. Much of those people end up conforming and doing what has actually been done in the past. They end up walking down the worn path that many have actually strolled before. However, a popular author called Ralph Waldo Emerson believed that you require to venture off the main course and explore brand-new concepts…...
Ralph Waldo EmersonTranscendentalism
Anti Transcendentalism in the Literary Works of Edgar Allan Poe 1
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Anti-Transcendentalism in the Work of Edgar Allan Poe Life and death are concepts that are widely known by men and women of all cultures. Many pieces of literature are written about these topics since they are well known but not everyone understands the meaning of living and dying. Death seems to be the tougher of these two concepts to be discussed. This is most likely due to the fact that once a person dies they are gone forever. While many…...
Edgar Allan PoeThe Masque Of The Red DeathThe RavenTranscendentalismWork
Romanticism: Transcendentalism and Henry David Thoreau
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The Romantic Era followed the Age of Reason. While the Age of Reason involved emphasis on science and rational thinking, Romanticism was the exact opposite. Romantics valued feeling and intuition over reason. They recognized the worth of the individual, and praised beauty, imagination, and innocence. Some of these writers were Margaret Fuller, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau. Through this paper the writer intends to present the reasons that these three authors are considered Romantic writers. Margaret Fuller demonstrated…...
Henry David ThoreauRalph Waldo EmersonRomanticismTranscendentalismWalden
Similarities and Difference between Humanism and Existentialism
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In the 20th century, psychology began to boom with different methods of therapy for individuals from many backgrounds. Along with these different approaches, many of them differed on specific viewpoints such as understanding one’s purpose in life. Two approaches that circle around this viewpoint are humanism and existentialism. These two approaches emerged before the 20th century, but modern day psychotherapy from these two approaches have influenced society to think about their purpose and role in the world. Humanistic psychology emerged…...
ExistentialismHumanismPhilosophy
Existentialism and Character Development in Hamlet
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In the play “Hamlet” William Shakespeare uses the character of Prince Hamlet to pose conversant existential questions. Existentialism is defined as “a philosophical theory or approach that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will.”, this definition holds its validity when considering the ideas brought up in “Hamlet”. Existential philosophers since the late 17th like century Soren Kierkegaard have been studying questions like “How should we…...
ExistentialismHamletPlayShakespeare
Marxist’s Perspective on the Holocaust
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The Holocaust was a period in history marked by the destruction of millions of Jews and others by factions of imperialists and believers who had different religion, social and political ideologies. The Holocaust had a great impact in global history and transnational characterization of nations (Assman, 2010). Historical experts perceive the event as a byproduct of undying fascism and strong inclinations toward the ideology of social Darwinism. It was perceived that belonging to weak societies meant that they were limited…...
Karl MarxMarxismSocial DarwinismThe Holocaust
Development of Scoring Rubric of Writing Literacy Criticism Based on Critical Thinking Skills
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Learning Indonesian is one of the most important lessons taught at all levels of education in Indonesia. The implementation in the school requires students to be able to study critically the texts taught according to the level of critical thinking including identifying, interpreting, describing, analyzing, evaluating and assessing the texts in verbal and in writing both in language and literacy competencies. Critical thinking becomes an important part of learning. One of the Indonesian learning materials that emphasizes students' critical thinking…...
Critical ThinkingCriticismCriticism Analysis
American Dream and Materialism in The Great Gatsby
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Have you ever wanted a part of the American Dream so bad that materials are the things that make you happy instead of people? In “The Great Gatsby”, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, this is seen happening sometimes. “The Great Gatsby” was published on April 10, 1925. This novel is famous for capturing the theme of the 1920s. It also shows how America was obsessed with social status and wealth after the war. I think the theme of this story is…...
American DreamMaterialismThe Great Gatsby
Effects Of Materialism In The Great Gatsby
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F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel The Great Gatsby portrays and critiques the concept of the American Dream during the 1920s and highlights that at the root of the dream is just extreme materialism and consumerism. Fitzgerald depicts this time period’s ideal “American Dream” as virtually devoid of moral values and full of materialism, avarice, and the never-ending search for small meaningless pleasures—a corrupt society and era were making a “quick buck” outweighed morality and virtuous principles. Prior to this time period,…...
American DreamMaterialismThe Great Gatsby
Puritanism and Transcendentalism
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Pages • 3
American literature is characterized by several genres of literature which represent many different phases in American history and culture.  Among these are Puritanism and Transcendentalism.  These two movements share certain characteristics while they oppose each other for other reasons. The Puritans were a group of individuals that were very strict, radical Protestants that gathered as a type of religion after the Reformation in England.  They came to American for the freedom to practice this type of religion.  Writers of the…...
Anne BradstreetReligionTranscendentalism
Defense of Socrates – The Charges
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In “Plato, Defense of Socrates”, Socrates was in trial for his charges for not recognizing the gods of the city or that he was religious or an atheist. Socrates disputed that he is innocent of both charges; corrupting the youth and impiety. Socrates' defense is failed at the end and he is sentenced to death. He concludes that a simple man should have no concern when it comes to death. Socrates defends himself towards the costs delivered in opposition to…...
Ancient GreecePhilosophical TheoriesPlatoSocrates
Socrates’ Impact on Society
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The Trail of Socrates occurs in 399 BCE. This was shortly after the Peloponnesian War where Athens fell to defeat against Sparta. Athens’s government at this time was a democracy. Because of the young Athenians having different people impact their decisions Athens society went through a change. One main person who is a suspect for this change is Socrates. This is why he got the charge for corrupting the youth of Athens along with not worshipping the Gods of the…...
Ancient GreeceDemocracyEuthyphro DilemmaPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophySocrates
The Trial and Execution of Socrates
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Pages • 3
In Plato’s Apology, the reader finds much interesting information about the philosophic thought that is derived from Socrates’ defense speech. Socrates, Plato’s teacher, and friend is ready to defend himself. Socrates’ mission is to help people to better understand the meaning of life in order to change their lives, placing emphasis on virtue and souls. He says, It is the greatest good for a human being to discuss Virtue every day and the other things About which you hear me…...
Ancient GreeceApologyPhilosophical TheoriesPlatoSocrates
Ethics: What is Moral Absolutism?
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Pages • 3
Absolutism is making ethical decisions based on objective rules. The concept views issues in a binary, black-and-white way, without leaving much room for any nuance. A downside to absolutism is that it considers neither the complexities of the individual situation nor cultural factors. An example of the limits of absolutism is apparent in the discussion of murder. The traditional Divine Command Theory explains that one should love their neighbor because God commands it. God determines what is right and wrong,…...
AbsolutismChoices In LifeCultural RelativismDecisionsEthicsMorality
A Framework for Making Ethical Decisions
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Pages • 4
Ethical theories are used every day to make decisions and solve practical solutions. They determine what is right and what is wrong, and what is just and what is unjust (VÄYRYNEN, 2006). There are various theories and each of them emphasize different points which will require an induvial to take a different approach according to the theory that one believes in. To understand ethical decision making one must recognize that individuals have different. Thy are certain goals that decision-makers seek…...
Decision MakingDecisionsEthicsMoralityPhilosophical Theories
The Truth Under Fairy Tale: The Reflection of The Little Prince
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Pages • 7
The Little Prince, the book with most of the human emotions in the world, is just like my life story. Actually, I have read this book several times from the first time I got it at age of 10. The Little Prince, is a fairy tale for children, a fable for adults, a memoir for the old. The author is Antonine de Saint-Exupery from France. It was written in 1942 and published in 1943. The author, Antonine, was an existentialist.…...
ExistentialismFairy TalesLonelinessLoveNovelsSymbolism
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
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The theory of cognitive stage development by Kohlberg is mainly viewed as an advancement of the moral theory by Piaget. In analyzing the two theories, it is seen that Kohlberg tries to explain the elements of moral thought rather than the formation of the single moral function. However, in his later findings and those done by his followers, he approaches Piaget, in efforts to study the aspect of moral learning in just societies, they reintroduce the Piagetian element of unity…...
Behavioral TheoryLearning Theories In EducationMoralityPhilosophical TheoriesSocial Learning Theory
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FAQ about Philosophical Theories

Self-Reliance and transcendentalism and how they relate to modern day life
...We use Microsoft products day by day all because of him sticking with original thought. Emerson brought up many points in Self-Reliance that are still extremely valid in today's society, and there are many examples of people who demonstrate these tra...
Ethics: What is Moral Absolutism?
...Ethical relativism and the subjective aspects of Christian ethic are not all the same. 2Christian ethic is the study of the way to live life and is taught by God through the Bible. They are applied problems and decisions of society that we encounter ...

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