Essays on International Relations

An Argument Against the Assumption of The Twenty Years Crisis Being Considered as the Foundational Text of International Relations
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This essay will critique the assumption that The Twenty Years’ Crisis can be considered the foundational text of International Relations. This essay will argue that this book can be considered as a foundational text for the discipline, without necessarily considering it as the only text that had a major influence. One of the key points to consider when making this argument is that The Twenty Year's Crisis cannot be considered as a book that was written ex nihilo, rather this…...
International Relations
WHY AND HOW THE COLD WAR WAS FOUGHT AND ITS EFFECTS?
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The Cold War was the persistent tension that existed between the United Sates and some of its Western supporters and the Soviet Union together with other Communists countries. This tension was witnessed between the time the Second World War was coming to an end and the Soviet Union dissolution in 1991. The Cold War featured military, economic, and geo- political rivalries between the West and the Communism international supporters which resulted to several wars. Even though there was a result…...
Cold WarInternational RelationsJoseph StalinPoliticsWarWar And Its Effects
The Kim Dynasty and North Korea’s Power Structure
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The Kim Dynasty has controlled North Korea for over 7 decades. Rule by the Kim leaders has been characterized by rebellion, division, and atrocity. The first ruler in the 3-generation lineage was Kim Il-Sung who created the People’s Republic of North Korea in 1948. Under his rule North Korea adhered to a strict ideology of autonomy and seclusion. Il-Sung’s participation as a revolutionary soldier against Japan and later as a soldier in the Soviet army likely influenced the philosophy with…...
HistoryInternational RelationsNorth Korea
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The U.S. Role in the Middle East
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Introduction Throughout history, America has habitually interfered and intervened in international conflicts with motivations that rarely if ever based were in anything but self-interest. The countries of Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan once held flourishing cities and were prominent hubs for art and literature in the Middle East. Each of these countries experienced violent conflict and were faced with irrelevant American intervention, interference, and sometimes even invasion. My research for this paper will be qualitative and focus on the political consequences…...
International RelationsMiddle East ConflictMilitary
Political Structure Of The Roman Empire
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Roman Empire was an ancient empire, situated in the city of Rome and which was established in the 27 BCE following the decline and loss of the Roman Republic and continued till the end of the western part of the empire in the 5th century CE. Roman Empire was basically established and founded when Augustus Caesar announced himself as the first ruler of Rome in 31 BC and therefore survived till the decline of the roman empire by following the…...
Ancient RomeHistoryInternational RelationsRoman empire
How did the First World War Start?
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World War 1 also known as the Great War was a global war that was centered in Europe and fought by two opposing alliances, the triple alliance which consisted of three countries; Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy the other alliance was triple entente which consisted of three other countries; Britain, France, and Russia. World War one was fought from July 1914 to 11th November 1918. The war lasted 4 years, 3 months, and 14 days. There were over 15 million people…...
ImperialismInternational RelationsNationalismWarWw1
What Caused the First World War?
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The three most significant causes that lead to the outbreak of WW1 were alliances, imperialism, and assassinations. The alliance system and imperialism were both long term causes. They both caused friction and competition between the powers of Europe as they fought to gain allies and land. The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand was a short-term cause that caused anger and arguments between countries, dragging their allies into conflict as well. These long and short-term factors were ultimately the most significant causes…...
ImperialismInternational RelationsWarWw1
Africa Independence and Arab-Israeli Conflict
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African countries have become independent nation-states late compared to other nations across the world. This may be attributed to the late colonization with African countries gaining their independence in the latter years (Brower & Sanders, 2013). One determining factor in the colonization process was the presence of valuable materials that most European nations were searching for. Most of these countries got their freedom after the Second World War (Brower & Sanders, 2013). Although other Asian and European nations had gained…...
AfricaConflictIndependenceInternational RelationsNation
American War of Independence – Brief History
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The War for Independence happened through 1775-1781. Chapter 6 lesson 1 is about Two Armies Face-Off; and it’s about Early Campaigns; and last of all, British Strategy. Chapter 6 lesson 2 is about Gaining Allies; and it’s about Life on the Home Front. Chapter 6 lesson 3 is about Fighting in the West; and it’s about The War at Sea; Fighting in the South. Chapter 6 lesson 4 is about Victory at Yorktown; and it’s about Independence Achieved. This paragraph…...
AmericaAmerican RevolutionGeorge WashingtonIndependenceInternational RelationsWar
The ICRC During The Cold War
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Following the Cold War, the intra-state conflict has brought about instability in many countries; undermine peace and security, lead to human rights abuses and retard socio-economic development. These clashes are mostly between state forces on one hand and armed groups on the other, or among two or more armed groups. Women and children have been the most victims of many atrocities, human rights abuses and the harsh climate conditions during these conflicts. The devastating effect of these conflicts takes a…...
Cold WarDiscriminationInternational RelationsPolicyWar
American History: The Cold War
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The Cold War was a period of tense rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union. It took place after World War II as differences between the U.S. and the Soviet Union continued to escalate. Much of the disagreement came from not agreeing on what would happen to postwar Europe. Winston Churchill’s famous “Iron Curtain” speech is said to have been one of the main factors announcing the Cold War’s start. Joseph Stalin, a Soviet politician, swiftly responded to…...
AmericaCold WarCommunismHistoryInternational RelationsJoseph Stalin
The War of 1812: The Treaty of Ghent
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The War of 1812 began on June 18, 1812, and ended two and a half years later in February of 1815. This conflict was between the United States and Great Britain, over the British’s defiance of the United States maritime rights. The question is, what led to this horrendous, most pivotal war? To begin, there were commercial restrictions that the war between Britain and France (French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars) inflicted on the United States inflamed the U.S.’s relations with…...
GovernmentInternational RelationsWarWar of 1812
Needless Conflicts & Disputes in History
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Throughout history and despite the civilization, conflict and disputes which eventually escalate to war have been a tragic part to the past. A world without darkness would be blinding. A world without light would be pitch black. Likewise, there cannot be blessing and comfort without hardship and difficulty. A look at a few of the hardships that happened in the past can demonstrate that they most likely did not need to occur. Hundreds of people suffer and even lose their…...
Cold WarConflictHistoryInternational RelationsWar
Was The US Right To Drop Atomic Bombs on Japan
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At the beginning of my research, when I started to build my paper I had the idea that it wasn’t necessary to drop the atomic bomb in Japan cities, I thought it was a cruel and an inhuman action, that United States should’ve looked for other alternatives in order to protect their American soldiers but also the Japanese civilians as well, but then as I read a couple of sources I get to the conclusion that it was necessary, that…...
Atomic BombAtomic Bombing Of JapanInternational RelationsPearl HarborThe Attack On Pearl HarborWar
The Attack on Pearl Harbor
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Pearl Harbor is a naval base located in Hawaii near Honolulu. The attack on Pearl Harbor happened on December 7, 1941 at eight in the morning. Without declaring war, Japanese Commander Mitsuo Fuchida attacked Pearl Harbor with 353 aircrafts and 60 ships. There were two waves that hit Pearl Harbor. The first one took off from Japan at 6 A.M., 183 planes. The second wave had 167 planes and they took off from Japan at 7 A.M. While some of…...
AttackInternational RelationsPearl HarborThe Attack On Pearl HarborWar
Japan’s Attack on the United States
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Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 prompted the United States to officially enter World War II. The attack by Japan was the result of years of hostility brought on by Japan’s aggression in Asia in an attempt to expand their empire. Hostilities with Japan initially escalated beginning with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and it is declared the puppet state of Manchukuo CITATION Mer10 l 1033 (Merriman, 2010). Japan viewed Manchuria as a resource…...
AttackInternational RelationsPearl HarborThe Attack On Pearl HarborWar
Pearl Harbor: The United States and Japan
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The attack on Pearl Harbor is one of the most important dates to remember, it’s known to be an awful part of American History. The United States and Japan had been leaning towards war for quite a while before the war actually started. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii is located towards the center of the Pacific Ocean. Many people were shocked that a war broke out all the way out towards the pacific ocean. Pearl Harbor is quite far from Japan as…...
AmericaInternational RelationsPearl HarborThe Attack On Pearl HarborWar
America’s Failed Strategy in the Middle East
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Why did the USA fail to achieve its primary strategic objectives in Iraq after 2003? The war in Iraq of 2003 was and remains one big controversy that the foreign policy has ever undertaken by two countries the United States and the United Kingdom. The international community was divided into two parts, countries like France, Germany, Russia, and China were against this conflict. It’s been 16 years since the beginning of the most unfortunate episodes of the last century: the…...
AmericaForeign PolicyGovernmentInternational RelationsIraq WarMiddle East
UN Secretary General
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By October 7, President Clinton withdrew the U. S. forces from Somalia and abandoned the pursuit of Aidid. Weeks later, General Garrison accepted responsibility of the bloody operation. The costly U. S. -led UN mission in Somalia, originally a humanitarian mission gone awry for the American troops, became a specter surrounding the Clinton administration. Human Rights and Labor from 1993- 1998 According to John Shattuck, Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor from 1993- 1998 during the…...
GovernmentInternational RelationsSecrets
Why did a stalemate develop on the Western Front?
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A stalemate on the Western Front A stalemate is a situation where neither of the opposing parties can progress or do any further action. Often defence is stronger than attack on both sides and there is usually no way to break the deadlock. This is what happened when The Schlieffen Plan failed. Instead of the Germans racing out of France and back to Germany, they chose to "dig in". Trenches were dug over 700km, reaching from the sea to the…...
All Quiet on The Western FrontArmyInternational RelationsTacticWar
The UN General Assembly
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Fresh witness to wars of the 20th century, the United Nations under a Millennium Declaration in 2000 strives for the eradication of poverty, access to clean water, sanitation, and access to clean energy sources as an added emphasis to the provision of human security (Krasno, 2004:4). Such goals coherently work with its notion to include human security and as an international body that sees to its implementation in a state level. Its landscape along with six principal UN bodies is…...
GovernmentInternational RelationsJusticeOtherPolicy
Napoleon’s place in French history
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Napoleon’s place in French history Napoleon’s rise to power began when he was made Commander of the French army in Italy. The time period was after the French Revolution and France was not as stable as it had once been under the monarchy of its past. It was a country still searching for a foundation on which to build, and Napoleon Bonaparte was a strong, decisive leader who was a master at military strategy. In 1796, Napoleon put down a…...
French RevolutionGovernmentHistoryInternational RelationsNapoleon
Realism/neoliberalism
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7 In this essay I will be looking at 2 schools of thought Positivist (Realism/neoliberalism) and the post positivist (social constructivism) the latter emerging from the rejection of the former. As one can imagine with multiple theories there is room for debate, which makes analysing situations in international relations sometimes rather complex. Positivist theories aim to imitate the methods of the natural sciences by analysing the impact of material forces. Positivists mostly focus on characteristics of international relations such as…...
International RelationsLiberalismPhilosophical TheoriesPhilosophyRealismScience
A new world power in a new world order?
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  This picture is, perhaps, unsurprising considering Japan's unparalleled technological sophistication: a reflection, in part, of the vast sums of money spent on non-military research and development (R&D). Such expenditure has resulted in innovations, such as flexible technology (robotics, numerical machine-tools etc. ), that have resulted in great cost advantages. Similarly, such expenditure has meant Japan has taken the lead in the search for a fifth generation computer which many people believe will cement it's (almost) hegemonic status (Rosecrance, 1986,…...
InnovationInternational RelationsPowerWorld
Unifying Germany
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‘Coal and Iron’ For unifying Germany, the states decided in the beginning, to take on an economic approach, leading to what was known as ‘Coal and Iron’. ‘Coal and iron’ refers to economic ties unifying Germany. The unification of Germany did not just mean that many states had become one country; there were problems such as varying languages, currencies, and ethnic minorities etc., which needed to be countered with diligence and wisdom. For this, various unions such as Zollverein were…...
GermanGermanyInternational Relations
Balance of Threat and the Ottoman-German Alliance of 1914
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Balance of Threat and the Ottoman-German Alliance of 1914 Toward the outbreak of the Great War the Ottomans were facing multiple threats. The Entente forces constituted major threats for the Empire, especially Russia. Besides there were mounting internal threats of the Armenians, the Anatolian Greeks, the Arabs. British and French were steadily and aggressively colonizing the Ottoman territories in the Middle East and North Africa. France was involved with Syria and Lebanon in addition to North African territories of the…...
FranceGermanInternational Relations
Zionism and the Creation of Israel
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Introduction 100 years ago if someone were to mention a country named Israel, a country that was founded as homeland for Jews, people would laugh at the idea. Let 40 of those years pass and that idea came into fruition when the United Nations voted to spilt a strip of land known as Palestine into two separate states, a Jewish state and an Arab state. Thus Israel was born after years of Zionists promoting the idea of the state, the…...
EthnicityInternational RelationsIsraelJudaismNazi Germany
Was the Weimar Republic doomed from the start?
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Introduction In August 1914, Germany and her allies plunged into World War 1 with patriotism and bravery, yet they were somewhat uncertain. This uncertainty was justified as they were entering one of the bloodiest wars in history and the fighting was not going to stop until November 1918, when they "withdrew" from the battlefield. With little help form their allies, and their army being split in two on both Eastern and Western fronts, this was a difficult war to fight…...
GermanyGovernmentInternational RelationsNazi GermanyRepublicTreaty of Versailles
We Shall Fight on the Beaches
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We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; e shall never surrender, and even if, which I…...
BeachGovernmentInternational RelationsWar
Should the United States Have Dropped Little Man and Fat Boy on Japan?
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History holds many controversial events. Some may even be considered injustices to the citizens of the world. I believe that the Atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan in World War II were one of the most heinous crimes. The bombs were inhumane, thus causing much suffering. Even if there was no other way to end the war I feel that there should have been more publication and publicity about the atomic bombs. The American people were mislead when the…...
International RelationsJapan CountryStateThe Bombing Of Hiroshima
The Tsarist Regime Since 1825
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Introduction By 1917 Russia was a vast empire made of many countries and people, ruled by an autocrat. The collapse of the Romanov dynasty and the Tsarist regime was all in time to be expected due to the incompetence and ignorance of the Tsars since 1825. Generally to succeed a political leader must have the support of the majority of the people or have a military force that must be able to overwhelm the populace. The last Romanov, Nicholas II…...
Book ReviewBooks And ReadingGovernmentHistoryInternational RelationsLiberalism
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: US – Mexican War History
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The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the U. S. -Mexican War. Signed on February 2, 1848, it is the oldest treaty still in force between the United States and Mexico. As a result of the treaty, the United States acquired more than 500,000 square miles of valuable territory and emerged as a world power in the late nineteenth century. Beyond territorial gains and losses, the treaty has been important in shaping the international and domestic histories of both Mexico and…...
GovernmentHistoryInternational RelationsManifest DestinyMexicoWar
Why did Totalitarian Regimes achieve power in Europe in the first half of the 20th century?
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Totalitarianism is political systems, which one political party is in power and have rights over public and private matter. In the beginning of the 20th century most country with the exception of France, Switzerland and Czechoslovakia was ruled by a King or Queen. The monarch either is a Democrat allowing a Parliament or an Autocrat having unlimited power without anyone holding them back. These weren't working as well as it should, as people weren't happy. Consequently comes the failure of…...
CommunismGovernmentInternational RelationsNazi GermanyPower
‘Total War is as much a myth as total victory or total defeat’ 
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Total War is believed by some, to be the culmination of all warfare that was to be achieved before and up until the end of the twentieth century. The concept of Total War itself, when victory is believed to be the only option, is achieved through every aspect of a nation being mobilised and covers a wide range of criteria that must be fulfilled before the criteria of Total War can be met. A country’s economy, technological development, organisation of…...
ArmyInternational RelationsWarWeapon
The Horn of Africa
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Introduction The ceding of Eritrea to Italy, and the arbitrary division of the Somali people among the participating colonial powers, provided the opportunities for foreign intervention and intra-regional enmity, which did so much to destabilise the Horn more than eighty years later. To the outside world Ethiopia was a Black Christian state which had not only retained its independence but profited from it. Thus Ethiopia enjoyed a prominent position not only on the African continent but on the world stage. The…...
AfricaInternational Relations
The collapse of Tsarism
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Introduction The collapse of Tsarism came from many different directions I am going to use the books "Lenin's Russia" and "Russia revolution and counter revolution" to try and find out the main cause of the collapse I am going look at the short term causes and the long term causes. February 1917 In February 1917 there was a revolution the people of Russia thought it was a spontaneous outbreak by an exhausted population not planned buy freemasons or Bolsheviks, there…...
ArmyGovernmentInternational RelationsRevolutionRussiaSocial Class
Was Stresseman successful in Germanys Economic Problems?
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Gustav Stresseman was born in 1878 and died in 1929. In his life he played a massive role in controlling the economic problems in Germany. He became Chancellor in August 1923 and Foreign Minister in 1924. During the period 1923-1929 (when he died of a hart attack) there were huge changes in Germany's economy. Stresseman's time in these positions marked a real turning point for the economy of the failing country. There are arguments that he didn't really do much…...
EconomicsGovernmentInternational RelationsStress
Similarities Between Hitler and Mussolini
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History had many corrupt and powerful rulers. Many of them were evil and sought out to control a vast stretch land. Whether if it were kings, monarchs, tyrants, or emperors they all had similar goals. These rulers were very controlling but the most powerful of rulers had to been dictators. These people had such an intense greed for power they would do anything to obtain it, they would even kill millions. During the 1900’s many dictatorships were born in Europe.…...
HitlerInternational RelationsNationalismNazi GermanyThe Holocaust
Sierra Leone
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Introduction A tiny country on the Western coast of Africa, Sierra Leone is home to a beautiful coastline as well as a breathtaking mountain range from which the country derives its name. However, the country has never been a hot spot for tourists. This is probably due largely to the civil war which ravaged the nation during the 1990's, as well as Sierra Leone's poor showing in the UN Human Development Index in 2000: dead last. Sierra Leone was impoverished…...
AfricaCountryCrisisFinanceGreece Debt CrisisInternational Relations
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
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The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) consists of 12 countries that include Venezuela, the UAE (United Arab Emirates), Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Angola, Qatar, Ecuador, Nigeria, Iran, Libya, Iraq and Kuwait and is headquartered in Vienna. The organization was founded in the year 1960 and Founder Members of OPEC include Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. The organization was then subsequently registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations in the year 1962 through the United Nations Resolution Number…...
International RelationsOrganization
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FAQ about International Relations

WHY AND HOW THE COLD WAR WAS FOUGHT AND ITS EFFECTS?
...On the other hand, the Western Allies were not in a position to dictate the Eastern Europe reconstruction under Soviet terms considering the Red Army position throughout the region. The Allies also wanted to come up with the area to the west of Berli...
How did the First World War Start?
...The war ended on the 11th of November, at the 11th hour of 1918. The cost of the war was substantial both in dollars and in human life. The Treaty of Versailles which ended the war with Germany was to lay the seeds for WW2. The War reshaped Europe, d...
What Caused the First World War?
...The three most significant causes of WW1 were alliances, imperialism and the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Alliances were created to keep the peace but ended up splitting Europe into two opposing sides competing to be the more powerful. ...
Why did a stalemate develop on the Western Front?
...A single shell could kill as many as 40 men. I think that the two most important factors in a stalemate are barbed wire and machine guns. When combined these two lethal aspects could stop any army in advancing. The machine gun could slaughter any inf...
Why did Totalitarian Regimes achieve power in Europe in the first half of the 20th century?
...1926 Portugal when it's economy, overseas territory were giving them trouble at home and from an invasion threat from Spain. The first Republic wasn't strong enough. The 28th May Revolution broke out. From 1926 to 1974 Portugal have risen from a very...

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