Essays on Enzyme

Investigating the effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis
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Before starting my investigation on how temperature affects the rate of photosynthesis I carried out some research into photosynthesis. From this initial research I made a prediction based on the evidence that I found about the enzyme rubisco that is used in the dark stages of photosynthesis, and also on the limiting factors of light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. I then went on to carrying out a preliminary experiment from which I learnt the factors that made the…...
Enzyme concentration
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If the temperature is too high then the enzyme will denature. This means that the active site will be damaged, and will no longer fit with the substrate. This means that no reaction will occur. pH Independent - If the pH is very different to an enzymes optimum pH then the enzyme can be denatured as the hydrogen ions (of which pH is a measure) can interact with the amino acid R groups and affect the way they bond with…...
Utilise different carbon sources as substrates for cellular respiration
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The purpose of this investigation is to compare the ability of two different strains of yeast to respire, when using different sugars as respiration substrates. Considering the lengths that have been reached to develop varieties of yeast with greater suitability and effectiveness for very particular fermentation purposes, it seems reasonable to suppose that two different strains of the same species of yeast, selected for their different fermentation properties, have developed requirements that are not uniform. As a result of the…...
Anaerobic RespirationCellular RespirationChemistryEnzymeTitration
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The Affect of Hydrogen Peroxide on the Liver
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Aim: "To see what factors affect the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by the enzyme catalase which is found in the liver" Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up the chemical reactions which go on inside living things. Without them the reactions would be so slow that life would grind to a halt. Enzymes work by when a substrate molecule bumps into a molecule of the right enzyme, it fits into a depression on the surface of the enzyme molecule.…...
Shirley Tomato Plants Investigation Analysis
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When looking at the graphs to show how the Shirley tomato plants grew, it is clear to see how each plant differed according to the feed used. Plants 1 and 2 were fed with Tomorite, plants 2 and 3 with Bio and plants 5 and 6 were controlled (only the nutrients found in the soil). From the ratios, we can see that Bio has three times the amount of nitrogen as Tomorite. In addition, Tomorite has double the amounts of…...
BiologyCellular RespirationChemistryEnzymePhotosynthesisPlants
The Effect of Temperature on the Anaerobic Respiration of Yeast
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Aim: To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of respiration in a suspension of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Background Knowledge: Yeasts are a form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species known. They reproduce asexually by budding mainly, although some species reproduce by binary fission. They are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular due to way in which they normally reproduce. Typically the size of a yeast cell is approximately…...
Anaerobic RespirationBiologyCellular RespirationChemistryEnzyme
How Temperature Effect On Anaerobic Respiration In Yeast?
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Enzymes are the tools of life. They do almost everything in a cell. Virtually every one of life's chemical reactions is driven by some enzyme. Enzymes are organic catalysts that work like a starter on a car. With a small input of energy from the starter, a car can run on its own energy all day. They don't get not used up or changed when they "jumpstart" another molecule. They can perform the same task over and over working very…...
Anaerobic RespirationCellular RespirationChemistryEnzymePhysicsWater
How different concentrations of the enzyme pectinase affect the degradation of the substrate pectin?
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Aim: My aim is to find out how different concentrations of the enzyme pectinase affect the degradation of the substrate pectin, and hence the volume of clarified apple juice produced in a specific duration of time. Hypothesis: Will different enzyme concentrations have different effects on the yield of clarified apple juice obtained from apple pulp of equal masses, in a given time? Biological Knowledge: Enzymes are a class of proteins, which are biological catalysts responsible for speeding up and controlling…...
Research on Eukariotic Cell Structure
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A complete introduction to the cellular world Cells There are many parts of a cell, they all have specific duties, and are all needed to continue the life of the cell. Some cells exist as single-celled organisms that perform all of the organism's metabolism within a single cell. Such single-celled organisms are called unicellular. Other organisms are made up of many cells, with their cells specialized to perform distinct metabolic functions. One cell within an organism may be adapted for…...
Bioluminescence in Treating Tuberculosis Disease
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INTRODUCTION What is Bioluminescence The current paper main focus is on bioluminescent Fungi but the basic features of bioluminescence discussed are common to all bioluminescent organisms. Bioluminescence is simply light created by living organisms. Probably the most commonly known example of bioluminescence by North Americans is the firefly, which lights its abdomen during its mating season to communicate with potential mates. This bioluminescent ability occurs in 25 different phyla many of which are totally unrelated and diverse with the phylum…...
The Role of Blood Vessels in Insulin Secretion
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Insulin is a hydrophilic ligand that is incapable of traveling across the hydrophobic plasma membrane unassisted. Because of this, insulin must use a protein receptor located on the plasma membrane to communicate with cells. These receptor proteins on the transmembrane are made by transmembrane polyribosomes and is part of the glucose transport channel that acts as a 'lock and key' model. Once activated by the process of phosphorylation, the phosphate groups on the interior part of the receptor are released…...
Extinction Coefficient
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The extinction coefficient that was found of the phenolate ion was 19.825M^-1cm^-1 and the pKa of the p-nitrophenol was 7.05. This was found from the previous lab Photometry in order to demonstrate the Kinetics lab. The kinetic assay used the enzyme; alkaline phosphatase, the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate, the product p-nitrophenolate ion, and the inhibitor used is orthophosphate. A concentration equation was used to identify the concentration of substrates that were used in the cuvettes. In order to determine the equation.…...
Protein Kinase
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Abstract Kinases are important enzymes in many biological reactions as they catalyze the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to an acceptor. Protein kinase A is a type of kinase that is activated by cAMP (Berg, Tymockzo, Gatto & Stryer, 2015). Measuring protein kinase A activity is important for accuracy when set amounts are used in subsequent experiments. A fast-reliable method to measure protein kinase A activity is with an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Lin, 2015). Protein kinase…...
The Backdrop Of Genetically-Engineered Proteolytic Bacteria For Functional Foods
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Proteases are important for living organisms and they can be found everywhere. Proteases are the key enzymes in industrial applications. Microbial protease plays an important role in the biotechnological process. Proteases constitute one of the most important groups of enzymes both industrially and academically. Proteases are the enzymes that hydrolyze proteins by the addition of water across peptide bonds and catalyze peptide synthesis in organic solvents with low water content [Sookkheo et al., 2000; Ishtiaq ahmed et al., 2010]. Proteases…...
BiologyChemistryEnzymeFoodGenetic EngineeringGenetics
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
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An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantify IgM, IgE and IgG, as shown in figures 1 and 2. The optical density measured was the result of a colour change during the assay. This was due to antigens binding to the immobilised antibody coating the ELISA plate wells. This allowed horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated secondary antibodies to also bind to the antigens, which when the chromogenic TMB substrate was added caused a reaction resulting in a colour change…...
The structural composition of purified noroleanane
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From the structural composition of purified nor-oleanane triterpenoids compounds, it is noticeably that inhibitory activities decline after the substitution of C-28 by sugar moieties. According to Liu et al, 2016, a free carboxylic group at C-28 is essential for XOD inhibition. The compounds brachyantheraoside B4 and L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)- ? -L-arabinopyranosyl-30- norolean-12,20(29)-dien-28-oic acid) demonstrated the highest XOD inhibitory activities in comparison to (brachyantheraoside D1) since the hydroxyl group oxidation (brachyantheraoside B4), or exocyclic double bond (L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)- ? -L-arabinopyranosyl-30- norolean-12,20(29)-dien-28-oic acid) at C-20…...
CompositionEnzymeOrganic Compounds
1854 Broad Street Cholera Outbreak
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Journal Entry 1: Cholera is a disease that was widespread in the London cities during 1852. They had "night soil" men which took their waste, which is waste recycling. Often there was flowing waste which had affected the city with a horrible stench. It was an unknown vector wreaking havoc upon the people. Not only was the waste part of the stench industrial fuels contributed. However, bacteria was decomposing at this organic matter constantly. The organic matter is then turned…...
Mast cell peptidases (CPA and chymase)-mediated hydrolysis of
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3. ResultsAs shown in Figure 1, a highly pure (purity ?98%) radiolabeled human 125I-Ang-(1-12) substrate was used in CPA and hrChymase-mediated hydrolysis studies. The purity of radiolabeled 125I-Ang-(1-12) was routinely checked on the HPLC to make sure that 125I-Ang-(1-12) peptide was not degraded at the time it was used for enzymatic hydrolysis.Figure 2, illustrates the HPLC chromatogram of the hydrolytic products generated from 125I-Ang-(1-12) substrate by CPA alone. We found that CPA sequentially metabolized the 125I-Ang-(1-12) into Ang-(1-9) [53% (major…...
Peptide Drug Development Lab Report
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New generation of compstatin family attributed with sub-nanomolar affinity and enhanced PK properties were reported (Qu et al 2013, Primikyri et al 2017, Berger et al 2018). Peptide drug development has traditionally been obstructed by factors such as restricted administration routes, poor cell penetration, low metabolic stability and rapid plasma elimination (Craik et al 2013). While cell penetration is of inadequate importance in the compstatin, because the target molecules are primarily found in the circulatory system, the other features have…...
Concentration of Catalase Report Final
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The Effect of Concentration of the Catalase Research Question: Does the concentration of liquid catalase affect the amount of oxygen gas produced?Rationale Many variables can be implemented to increase the rate of a chemical reaction. The presence of an enzyme can be used to help aid in increasing the rate of reaction. The type of enzyme being investigated is the catalase in its liquid form. The purpose of the liquid catalase of any enzyme is when it reacts with hydrogen…...
The elodea specimen
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Ribulose Bisphosphate It is this light independent stage which is affected by the temperature because it involves an enzyme, Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase (rubisco), which catalyses the reaction between carbon dioxide and a five-carbon sugar known as Ribulose Bisphosphate (RuBp). Enzymes are catalyst made of protein. They convert substrate molecules into products by possessing an active site where the reactions occur. The optimum temperature of rubisco is 45o C. Exceeding this temperature causes the bonds that hold the polypeptides in specific…...
Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration on Enzyme Catalase
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Indroduction: Enzymes are proteins. They function as biological catalysts. They lower the energy barrier of a reaction so that the reaction can take place at body temperature. Also, they can speed up Metabolic reactions without being changed or used up. During a reaction, an enzyme molecule combines temporarily with the substrate. When the reaction is complete, the enzyme molecules returns to its original dorm and the product is released. So enzymes are never wasted and always recycled. Due to enzymes…...
The Effect of the enzyme Catecholase on the Catalysis of Catechol to Benzoquinone
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Enzymes are defined as proteins that catalyze, or speed up chemical reactions Enzymes work on molecules known as substrates, and change them into different molecules. Enzymes have been used in a variety of ways since their discovery from the making of high-fructose corn syrup by processing starch into sugar (2) to manipulating DNA for use in PCR reactions and tissue browning. Most enzymes are very specific as to which substrates they work on (3). The reason enzymes are specific to…...
Biology: Experiment
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Aim: The aim of the experiment is to test the effect temperature has on the activity of the enzyme rennin. Hypothesis: I believe the rate of reaction will speed up as the temperature increases until it reaches about 37oC, which is the body temperature, where it will begin to slow down and stop reacting. I believe this will occur because enzymes have a temperature range at which they work best in and once the temperature goes out of this range…...
Lab report on pineapple and jello
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Enzymes are very efficient catalysts for biochemical reactions. They speed up reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy. Like all catalysts, enzymes take part in the reaction - that is how they provide an alternative reaction pathway. But they do not undergo permanent changes and so remain unchanged at the end of the reaction. They can only alter the rate of reaction, not the position of the equilibrium. Enzymes are usually highly selective, catalyzing specific reactions…...
Apple IncEnzymePineapple
Lab report on enzyme activity
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Enzymes are a protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of the reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Enzymes are proteins made up of long chains of amino acids. These form complex shapes. The enzymes are individuals, like the different players on a ball team, they have different specific structures and jobs. As one ball player may be very tall and one short, the specific different shape of the active site on an enzyme…...
Mastering Biology Suggested Answer Book
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The rate of reaction increases when the polyphenol oxidase concentration increases. 1m b Rate of reaction = 1/18 = 0.056 1m From the graph, the enzyme concentration is around 1.15%. 1m c Use boiled enzyme in the tube. 1m d The enzyme does not work in acidic medium. / The enzyme is denatured in acidic medium. 1m e The colour change becomes faster at start 0.5m as enzyme activity increases with temperature. 0.5m When temperature becomes too high, no further…...
BiologyEnzymeThe Chrysanthemums
Effects of pH on Amylase Activity
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Abstract: Amylase is an important enzyme in the human body as it allows for the consumption of starch by breaking the polysaccharide down into maltose units. All enzymes, including amylase, function best at a certain optimal pH. Therefore, in this experiment, the effect of different pHs on the reaction rate of amylase is studied. It was hypothesized that the amylase-starch reaction would proceed fastest at a pH closest to that of the body, or 7.0, since that is where the…...
Scientific Investigation of the Peroxidase Enzyme & Temperature
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Abstract In this lab we tested the effect temperature has on the rate of enzyme activity. The way we figured this out was by taking four different temperatures and testing the different absorbance levels they produced every 20 seconds for two minutes straight using a spectrophotometer. The important part of this experiment was the temperature the enzyme concentration was made at. What we got from the experiment was at lower temperature we got very low numbers for the absorbance, which…...
Factors Affecting the Rate of Enzyme Activity
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The Purpose of doing this experiment is “how factors affect on the rate of enzyme activity.” “We examine the affects of enzyme activity when exposing enzymes to different substrates, PH and temperature. In this experiment a type of enzyme called Peroxides has been used. Peroxidase is the enzymes are found in living organism so, it can be founded in both liver and potato. For measuring the rate of enzyme activity in each experiment the height of the frothy foam column…...
Liver Enzyme Lab Report
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What temperature does the enzyme really work correctly in? (Hypothesis) If the temperature is below 40 but above 20, then the liver will show bubbles. If the temperature level is raised higher than the maximum temperature level, then an extreme decline in enzyme activity would occur following by the fast denaturing of the enzyme, rendering it is permanently useless. Also about 37 ° C is body temperature. The liver that was at 25 ° C had a substantial quantity of…...
Test for enzyme activity Lab
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Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to test for enzyme activity, look at enzyme specificity, and how temperature affects enzyme activity. Hypothesis: I believe that the room temperature activity will produce the most activity. Materials: 3% hydrogen peroxide, a household blender, potatoes (3 medium size potatoes, that are peeled and quartered), tap water, 8 test tubes, 8 transfer pipets, sugar packets, salt, a small saucepan, a refrigerator with a freezer, stove, 4 clear plastic cups, tongs (to remove test…...
Scientific Methodology & Enzyme Activity
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Laboratory 2: Scientific Methodology & Enzyme Activity Objective: The purpose of this experiment was to simply measure oxygen production rates released from decomposed hydrogen peroxide under different conditions (concentration of enzymes, temperature, and PH level). Hypothesis: Part a: If different amounts of enzyme solution are added to the hydrogen peroxide, then the highest amount of enzymes will have the greatest reaction rate because enzymes catalyze reactions, meaning more oxygen will be produced quicker. Part b: If different temperatures are used…...
ActivityEnzymeScientific method
Enzyme catalysis lab
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Enzyme catalysis was observed in order to analyze how changes in temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration affected an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. This experiment analyzed the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and observed the correlation between catalase activity and products formed. It was found out that the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction starts off rapidly, decreases, and levels off or completely stops, and can be further affected by environmental factors, which play a crucial role in regulating enzymes and metabolic processes.…...
The Effect of pH on Enzymatic Reaction Rate
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Abstract Enzymes are affected by changes in pH. The most favorable pH value— the point where the enzyme is most active—is known as the optimum pH. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of pH reaction rate on an enzyme, catalase, from yeast. The experimental results indicate that the catalase worked best at a neutral pH level of seven (7). Introduction An enzyme is a protein molecule that serves as a catalyst. “The basic function of an enzyme is…...
Effect of Enzymes
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Introduction The enzyme catalase is present in cells in order to speed the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is a toxic chemical to the human body. When hydrogen peroxide is broken down, the end products are Water (H2O) and Oxygen (O2). In this report, the reaction of catalase to hydrogen peroxide is being tested. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, concentration, and pH level on this reaction are being considered. We hypothesize that he experiments will show that Catalase speeds…...
Enzyme Lab Report
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Enzymes are proteins produced by living cells that act as catalysts, which affect the rate of a biochemical reaction. They allow these complex biochemical reactions to occur at a relatively low temperature and with less energy usage. In enzyme-catalyzed reactions, a substrate, the substance to be acted upon, binds to the active site on an enzyme to form the desired product. Each active site on the enzyme is unique to the substrate it will bind with causing each to have…...
Biology on The Performance of An Enzyme
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Enzymes are considered catalysts; substances that increase the rates of reactions. Enzymes are responsible for thousands of metabolic processes that involve the sustainment of life, one common one is simple food digestion. Without enzymes, digestion would occur too slowly for life to continue. Enzymes maintain a protein structure consisting of one or possibly more than one polypeptide chains of defined primary structure, and take up a characteristic folded form in the native state. Should the structure be modified by an…...
Effect of Temperature on Lipase
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Pages • 4
Theory The higher the substrate concentration the more quickly product is produced (rate of reaction increases) until enzyme saturation is reached at which time more substrate has no further effect. Enzymes such as Catalase are protein molecules which are found in living cells. They are used to speed up specific reactions in the cells. They are all very specific as each enzyme just performs one particular reaction. Catalase is an enzyme found in food such as potato and liver. It…...
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FAQ about Enzyme

How Temperature Effect On Anaerobic Respiration In Yeast?
...Despite the various ways in which I could improve my experiment, I still can depend on my results. I got the data I set out to get and achieved my aim. Even though I got two anomalies' I managed to spot them and exclude them from the experiment, givi...
How different concentrations of the enzyme pectinase affect the degradation of the substrate pectin?
...I have to be more precise when measuring the volume of pectinase solution and distilled with the syringe, taking care look at the lower meniscus; and doing the same when noting down the result from the measuring cylinder. I ought to rinse the chopped...

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