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A Proposal on Solid Waste Management And Disposal in Dhankuta Municipality Submitted By: Atit Shrestha MSWSHD/068/901 Department of Civil Engineering 1 Background of landfill technology Until recently, the concept of land filling was used to dump waste material for disposal. Therefore, not much care was taken about their construction. Placing the waste in the Earth’s upper crust was considered as the safest practice of waste disposal.
But with rapid industrialization and urbanization, land filling has metamorphosed. As uncontrolled landfills have shown potential of polluting various parts of the environment and many accidents have also happened, regulations have been imposed on landfill location, site design and their preparation and maintenance.
A certain degree of engineering was made mandatory for landfills. Landfill location was based on many factors and an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is mandatory for the siting of landfills.
Land availability for longer dumping periods and availability of cover material are some of the important guiding parameters in LF site selection.
Due to these engineering inputs, landfills have been tightened up leaving much better environment in the . cells. for better waste decomposition. As a result of careful sealing of cells with daily cover, public nuisance could be reduced along with improved anaerobic conditions within the cell and the life of the landfill could be reduced. Introduction Dhankuta is a small municipality located in the hills of eastern Nepal. It is the head quarters of Eastern Development Region. The municipality was established in the year 2035 BS. The Municipality is bordered by Bhirgaon VDC to the east, Belhara VDC to the west, Hattikharka VDC to the north and Tamor River to the south.
The municipality has nine wards out of which, wards 1, 5, 6 & & are located in relatively urban settings, while the remaining wards are in rural areas.
Hile a major market centre in the region is located in ward 1. The municipality is an administrative and commercial centre and has potential for tourism. Table 1: Background Information NAME | DHANKUTA MUNICIPALITY| District | Dhankuta | Year of Establishment | 2035 B. S. | No. of Wards | 9 | No. of Urban Wards | 5 | No. of Rural and semi urban Wards | 4 | Total Area | 48. 21 sq. km| Major Rivers and Ponds | NA | Population (2001) | 20,668 | Annual Population Growth Rate (1991-2001) | 1. | Estimated Population for 2010| 24484 | 3 OBJECTIVES The SWM project strives for maximum waste recovery through composting, recycling, and reuse, and aims at zero waste to be disposed onto landfills. The longterm objective is thus to reduce the environmental degradation caused by solid waste. By using composting methods to manage the biodegradable waste, we are able to: * Minimise waste that needs to be disposed in centralised landfills, thus extending existing landfill capacity; Reduce the environmental impact of disposal sites as the bio-degradable waste fraction largely is to blame for the polluting leachate and the methane problems; * Benefit the soil by using organic compost instead of chemical fertilisers. Furthermore, decentralised composting schemes as suggested in this proposal have advantages to centralised schemes, as they * Divert biodegradable waste from the municipal waste stream, thus reducing transportation costs and the environmental costs; * Enhance environmental awareness in the community; Create employment in the community; * Ensures sustainability of the project at the local level; * Are more flexible options for SWM since they can adapt rapidly to changes in userneeds; * Are close to the residents, allowing close quality surveillance of the waste processingservices and products; * Are mostly small-scale, based on labour-intensive technology, and better adaptedto the local socio-economic situation; * Decrease the problems caused by malfunctioning municipal services when decentralized composting is combined with primary collection services. A properly run decentralised SWM project will contribute to a cleaner local environment,maintaining pure surface and ground water, healthy soils, and clean air. * Noteworthy, a clean local environment will immediately benefit the most vulnerable groups of society whose livelihoods often depend on the natural resources available locally. 3 Methodology According to a field survey done in 2003, the average per capita household waste generation rate in Dhankuta was 0. 2 kg/person/day.
This is slightly lower than the average waste generation rate in urban areas of Nepal, which is 0. 25 kg/person/day. According to the municipality, total household waste generated comes out to be 4. 8 tons per day. If we assume that 75 percent of the municipal waste is generated by households, then the total municipal waste generated by Dhankuta becomes 8. 4 tons per day. The actual amount of household waste generated is probably a bit lower because about half of Dhankuta’s population live in relatively rural areas and their waste generation rate is probably lower.
The field survey also indicated that the composition of Dhankuta’s waste is similar to waste composition found in most other municipalities, with organic materials making up almost 70 percent of the waste stream. The field survey also indicated that the composition of Dhankuta’s waste is similar to waste composition found in most other municipalities, with organic materials making up almost 70 percent of the waste stream. The loose density of household waste in Dhankuta was calculated to be 108. 79 kg per m3. Information on Dhankuta’s waste generation and composition is ased on waste collected from 91 households in Upper and Lower Kopche, Dada Gaon and Saugam in wards 5 and 7, that had waste from 505 people. Similarly for waste collection currently the municipality has one tractor, which has a trailer with a volume of 3 m3. Similarly, the municipality has 10 pushcarts, which have a volume of 0. 15 m3. Dhankuta municipality has 12 sweepers, 4 of whom are permanent employees, who sweep approximately 2 km of city streets twice a week. Sweeping is done using ordinary brooms with long handles and the waste is collected in handcarts and wheelbarrows using shovels.
Once the carts are filled, the waste is placed in containers and temporary open piles. Then waste is loaded on to a tractor trailer for disposal. The municipality has bulk containers, which is emptied every week. But it does not have door-to-door waste collection system. As a result, most of the waste is placed on to the roadside for pick up by the municipal sweepers. Present Disposal Facility Dhankuta municipality is disposing its waste in a crude dumping site in a forest area, about 1 km from the city. The site with an area of 33 ropani has been used for the past seven years.
It is estimated that present site could be used for 20 years more 5 Composting and Recycling At the site, all biodegradable waste will be composted in aerobic composts. Aerobic composting refers to a process where biodegradable waste is biologically decomposed under controlled conditions by microorganisms (mainly bacteria) under aerobic conditions. The product, compost, can effectively be utilised as an organic fertiliser to rejuvenate soils. A key risk associated with composting relates to the product; i. e. compost that is free from environmental hazards.
If composting is not based on segregation at source, the product risks becoming contaminated. There are two advantages of composting and recycling – * Less quantity of wastes is actually dumped in the landfill site and this increases the working life of landfill site. * This can taken as a source of income by selling the compost fertilizer to the farmer which helps in the operation and maintainance of landfill site. 6 RISKS The major risk in this system is that of medical waste. The medical waste generated in the municipality has to be disposed of by the agencies which produce it like hospitals, health post, clinics.
Special care has to be taken that this waste is not mixed with the municipal waste. Segregation has to be done before disposal. 7 Work Schedule SN| Description| 1st month| 2nd month | 3rd month| 4th month| 5th month| 6th month| 7th month| 8-12th month| 1| Environmental Review*| | | | | | | | | 2| Engineering Design,Design Layout and Process Design| | | | | | | | | 3| Environmental Analysis and Final Design| | | | | | | | | 4| Review and Comment| | | | | | | | | 5| Site Clearance| | | | | | | | | 6| Excavation| | | | | | | | | 7| Structural Work| | | | | | | | 8| Review and Comment design, function and mitigation of needs| | | | | | | | | *Environmental Review includes IEE, Field Sampling and survey activities. 8 STAKEHOLDERS Community participation in SWM is the key to a sustainable and integrated project. The aim is to get as many local actors as possible to participate and actively contribute to the project. Most importantly, we want to create a feeling of ownership for the project among the citizens, whose waste is managed and whose local environment is improved by the project. Employees
The present employees of the Dhankuta municipality are the people to be employed in this solid waste management and landfill site handling. If the need of more employees is felt necessary, new employees can be hired under contract basis. The Public It is vital that the public – i. e. ordinary citizens as well as private and public institutions – whose waste is managed and whose environment is improved, is actively involved in the project. An important step to motivate and engage the public is via continuous public awareness campaigns based on an Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) strategy.
In addition, a special feeling of ownership vis-a-vis the project will be created as each household will contribute to the project with a monthly fee of Rs. 100. Volunteers Motivated individuals such as headmasters, local youths, religious leaders, motivitational figure and etcetera, from the concerned communities will be engaged as volunteers and help convey the message to the public as well as function as role-model citizens. NGOs, CBOs, and Local Associations Local nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), community based organisations (CBOs), and associations such as Women’s Associations will be offered training in SWM. Financial Aspect 9. 1Source Of Income Of This Project The income source can be- a)Monthly Fee taken from household that are directly benefitted from this project. Primary target is to collect around Rs. 100 from each household each month which may be increased or decreased according to the expenses of the project. b)Income generated from composting. The compost fertilizer can be sold to farmer which helps in increasing soil fertility. Target set for this aspect is around Rs 20000 which may fluctuate according to the production. )Institution and influential person can donate some money to this project. d)Funding by central government, donor agency, NGO’s and INGO’s. 9. 2Land Acquistion The Municipality had plans to construct a landfill site near Karmitar, Salleri Jungle, and Kalchure Dada and this land can be used for ths purpose. According to the municipality proposed site is located at a distance of 2. 5 km from the city and has an area of about 3 ropani. The Municipality feels that this site, if developed, can be used for about 30years. The municipality can help in the acquisition of the land.
The local people who are directly benefitted by the project should help in this regard. The expenses of the land may come around 10-14 lakh which may also vary. 9. 3Transportation Cost For waste collection currently the municipality has one tractor, which has a trailer with a volume of 3 m3. Similarly, the municipality has 10 pushcarts, which have a volume of 0. 15 m3. The operation and maintenance of these comes under the municipality. The expenses in overhauling, transportation, fuel, repair and maintenance of vehicle may come around Rs. 5000 but it is not fixed. 9. 4Landfill Site Development Cost This includes site clearance, excavation, fencing, structure, etc. Local donors, donor agency, local people and municipality are responsible for the collection of the cost involved in this project. Local people can work in the development of the landfill site. This expenses comes around Rs 3. 5 lakhs which may be decreased if local people, youth of the locality lend some hand in work. 9. 5Employee salary This includes the salary of the employees. This comes under the muncipilaty. 9. Miscellaneous Expenses This portion includes the petty expenses occurring during the operation of the sanitary landfill site and also during the other activities like composting. 10 Conclusion As Dhankuta is a relatively small municipality, solid waste management is a not yet a major problem or a priority for the municipality. But as the municipality grows it is the problem of waste management will also increase. Therefore, the municipality needs to take appropriate steps to handle the waste that is generated in a cost effective and environment friendly manner.
The should be done by effectively mobilizing local communities and initiating innovative programmes such as plastic recycling, medical waste management and household composting. The local staff need additional resources and training and the municipality also requires additional vehicles and collection equipment to improve the present system Annex 1: Photographs Public Container for Waste Collection Hand Cart used for Waste Collection Tractor used for waste collection Traditional Waste Dumping Site Proposed Sanitary Landfill Site
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