Case Study Examples


<macro level concept> (Sample) Computer is traced as a product from the ancient times of computing devices that have been developed through the hands of generations’ pillars. Many did predict the transformation of computer in terms of appearance and potential uses, but no one wonder the phenomenal domination of computer in almost all arenas of man’s life as seen today. The birth of computer paved a way on the present mobility of technological trends in industries because of its enormous assistance and somehow, replacing human works.

<micro level concept>

(Sample) Still, technology is setting breakthroughs as it moves lengthily to ease man’s endeavors because of computer. In communication, technology makes the world just a village for people to live in. Today, resource sharing becomes an important part in utilizing strategies to maximize the use of data and information while minimizing the use of mediums such as computers and efforts. As a product of communication technology, Local Area Network (LAN) is introduced to meet the demand for multitasking due to huge amount of data and information that needs to be handled and manipulated.

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It is used to connect personal computers and other peripherals that cover a limited range, such as a building, to allow sharing of resources and communication among users( <study locale introduction>

(Sample) City Social Welfare and Development (CSWD) is a government agency established in 1991 and intended to be an arm of Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) in Tarlac City in order to give a better focus in the basic needs of Tarlaqueños.

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As direct implementer, one of the programs it offers is providing scholarship and financial assistance to poor but deserving high school and college students but whose parents’/guardians’ monthly income is below the poverty line. Based on Ordinance No. 007-06 of 2006, the program entitled “Enhanced Scholarship Program (ESP) of the City Government of Tarlac City”. It replaced the City Ordinance No. 01-014 of 2001 entitled “Tarlac City Scholarship Program”, after five (5) years of implementation to embrace improvement in providing better service to the people of Tarlac City. <rationale>

(Sample) The researchers considered the number of scholars, financial and disabled grantees records the agency’s maintaining every year and the means of manipulating them in developing this study. The existing storage of these records is the Windows applications like Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel. The unavailability of organized repository for records causes longer time in validating, searching and retrieving data and information of programs grantees. Also, creating and updating records require computers to be monitored physically to assure synchronization among the files. The researchers aimed to develop a computerized system to minimize the manual works of creating and updating of files through the LAN technology, to create a database and have organization of records, to produce correct data and information in reports and to maximize potential use of the computers in the office. Authority to records manipulation should also be established to assure records integrity Statement of the Objectives

This study aimed to create a(n) <title of the study> (Sample) Specifically, the study sought to attain the following objectives:

1. To create an organized computerized recordings of each transaction

2. To generate printed reports of scholars status

<specific objectives of your study based on the general objective> Significance of the Study

In conducting this study, the researcher believes that the system is beneficial to the <the beneficiaries of the study>.

1. (Sample) To the CSWD officer, the proposed system will allow systematic organization of records. To the <beneficiary>, the study can be a <the benefits of the system/study>. Scope and Delimitation

The primary objective of the study is to develop <title of the study> (Sample) The system is networked to the office of the CSWD Head office. <state what are the boundaries of your study> The domain of the proposed system is to develop a computerized creation, processing, manipulation, storing and accessing of records in the CSWD. <state what are the capabilities of the system and what are the constraints of the system> The CSWD officers, scholars, financial and guardians of the disabled grantees would be the respondents of the study on its evaluation phase. The data that will be gathered from the respondents upon evaluation determines the performance of the proposed system against the existing system. <state the respondents of the study> Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined for better understanding the study. (Sample) Accessibility. It refers a term used to describe how easy it is for officer to get use and understand the system (Sample) Window. It refers to a visual area containing some kind of user interface, usually has a rectangular shape. It displays the output of and may allow input to one or more processes. <technical terms used in the study>

Chapter 2


This chapter presents literatures and studies taken from different sources that are essential contributions to the present study.

Related Literature

(Sample) Today’s era is reflected by phenomenal changes in computer and communication technology due to advancements brought by the demands for flexible information management means. According to, the computer holds a vast storage capacity with an ever-shrine king micro chip. It collects and store, analyzes, and systematizes, manipulate, retrieves and transmit data at great speed. <insert related concepts from books, references, websites,etc.> Related Studies

(Sample) A study entitled “A LAN-Based Registration, Information and Monitoring System of Pampanga Magalang Memorial Park and Development Corporation” by Kenneth Manalang (2004) et al. concluded that computerization is critical in meeting the demands of every business entities in the modern era. They pointed that the management’s effectiveness could be utilized by the use of automated systems and the development of the computerized system could lead to faster provision of needed information for clients. <insert related thesis studies> The study is related in the proposed system because of the information it handled are the same to the developed system. While a wider scope is being introduced by the proposed system, as the study concluded that the system could bring ease of work in updating and producing reports, which is one of the goal of the researchers’ proposed system. These related literature and studies serve as a guide for the researchers that the proposed system is feasible. They served as good samples for the researchers that the developed system could be a solution in accelerating and simplifying processes brought by the manual conditions through facts presented. Also, they give a better understanding on the domain of the developed study. <similarities and dissimilarities of the related studies to the researcher’s study> Conceptual Framework

Figure 1 shows the paradigm of study on the development of <title of the study> <narrate in paragraph form the processes in the paradigm of the study> Output



Figure 1: Paradigm of the Study

Chapter 3


This chapter presents the methods of research in developing the system. It also includes the method of gathering data, the research instruments or analytical tools and the statistical treatment of the gathered data. *

* Research Design

In this study, the researcher made used of the Research and Development (R&D) approach where the system was designed, created, tested, and then validated on non-functional/functional requirements.

The study was divided into three main stages which are the analysis and design, development and validation of the system. In the analysis and design stage, the researcher(s) <state the processes undertaken in analysis and design stage> During the development stage, <state the processes undertaken in development stage> The researcher(s) <state the processes undertaken in validation stage> Data Gathering Techniques The researcher(s) used different tools to gather data. These are <data gathering tools used in the study and narrate how they are utilized> Development of the System The researcher(s) used Gantt Chart as project management tool (See Appendix F), and Rapid Application Development (RAD) as the software engineering paradigm. <function of Gantt Chart in the study> <phases of the software development methodology used in the study>

Figure 2: Software Development Methodology of the <title of the study>

Figure 2 illustrates the five (5) stages in accomplishing RAD in accordance of the system development. The first step is the Specification of Requirements Stage, during this stage the researcher met and interviewed stakeholders<narrate what are the processes taken in the study to execute the phase>

In the second phase, <narrate what are the processes taken in the study to execute the phase> The third phase is the Development Phase, which <narrate what are the processes taken in the study to execute the phase> The fourth step is the Evaluation or Testing Phase, which allowed the researcher to validate the capability of the system and determine if it meets its required results. <narrate what are the processes taken in the study to execute the phase> The last step is the deployment or retirement, < narrate what are the processes taken in the study to execute the phase, if applicable>

Tools Used in the Development of the System Systems requirements and specifications were used as basis in developing the system. The system was designed and developed using the following tools: <narrate all the applications and other tools used in the development of the system> Scales Use in Validating the System

To determine the efficiency of the system, Likert’s Scale was in rating the system. Pilot testing and trial runs was conducted to let the respondents in rating the system.

Table 1 Likert’s Scale

Mean Value| Weight| Verbal Interpretation| 4.51-5.00| 5| Excellent| 3.51-4.50| 4| Very Satisfactory| 2.51-3.50| 3| Satisfactory| 1.51-2.50| 2| Good| 1.00-1.50| 1| Poor|

Statistical Treatment

After the collecting stage, the data were organized. The following were used in the analysis and interpretation of data. Tables were used for the presentation of data to facilitate understanding and to clearly show the preferences of the respondents. Frequency distribution a tabular form that ranks the disorganized data from the highest to lowest and weighted arithmetic mean was used to facilitate analysis of the data. Weighted Arithmetic Mean Formula: X = x1f1 + x2f2+…+xn + fn / no. of respondents Where: X = mean xi = number of different values of x in the given set Quantitative responses were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. It provides simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with simple graphics analysis, it forms the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of data. Weighted arithmetic mean and frequency of the questionnaire items were calculated. All computation was done using computer software statistics.


  1. A. Books/Thesis
  2. Alkan, A. and Ozcan, E. (2003) “Memetic Algorithms for Timetabling”, Proc. of 2003 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pp. 1796-1802.
  3. <other materials used>
  4. B. Internet
  5. <other websites used>

The problem and its background

Banana is a tropical plant classified as yearly and it produces really generously. It is cultivated throughout the nation particularly in the provinces. "The king of the fruits", mango fruit is one of the most popular, nutritionally abundant fruit with unique flavor, scent, taste, and health promoting qualities making it a typical component in brand-new practical foods frequently called "extremely fruits". Banana is one of the scrumptious tropical seasonal fruit and believed to be come from the sub-Himalayan plains of Indian subcontinent. Botanically, this unique fruit belongs to the family of Anacardiaceous, a family that likewise includes many types of tropical fruiting trees.

The focus of the researcher is not the fruit but the Banana sap produces stain on the clothes and such stain is difficult to get rid of. This observation provided the scientist the concept of using the mango sap as substrate for pen's ink with the thinking that the banana sap might stabilize ink.

The function of this research study is to use the banana sap as an alternative component which very abundant source of quality ink. In addition, it makes the most of making use of banana which grows generously in any backwoods and that it decrease the problem on waste disposal. The scientist also considers the challenge of doing this task being the very first to do this research study The enjoyment regarding the output will work or not is another point of consideration.

Goals of the research study.

The study focuses on the possible usage of one of the by-products of banana-the sap specifically a component for making ink: 1. To discover if it is possible to produce a much better quality of ink out of banana sap. 2. To compare the ink produced to the commercially offered ink in the market.

Statement of the Problem
The study wishes to respond to the following questions:
1. Is it possible for banana saps to be an ingredient for making ink? 2. Which is much better, the ink produced by the banana sap or the ink commercially produced?

The scientist considers the following hypotheses in her study: 1. Is it possible to produce a much better quality ink from banana sap. 2. There is a significant difference in between the ink from banana sap and the commercially prepared one.

Scope and Delimitation
This study is focused on making an alternative ingredient for ink. It also deals with the assessment of its actual advantages as compared to some commercialized one. It will also determine what we can produce other substantial products of banana.

Significance of the Study
It talks about the advantages this project has for us all and the help can give us to avoid time consumption. If the study were proved credible, awareness on the use of mangoes will be heightened. Moreover, the researcher would like to say that this study is also significant to several groups:

To the members of the family, this study is beneficial. They do not have to buy ink that are made in factories why not use out of nature.

To the students, this study may be very helpful and interesting especially to those who are fond of discoveries. Students can discover a lot as they explore in this head scratching yet cool scientific study.

To the researchers, this study means a lot for they will be able to discover something new in the field of science. Aside from their ideas of how to conduct the study, they can even learn more on how to make other ways to make ink. They can even think of something new on how to innovate this study.

Lastly, the researcher wants you to know that this study is very significant to him, because the concepts expected to be learned here are not just in science but also in the present technology and man’s revolutionary
methods of survival.

Definition of Terms
The following terms listed below are imperative to the comprehension of the study. Some definitions are gotten from “Merriam Webster Dictionary” while others are formulated by the researcher. Alternative. The choice between two mutually exclusive possibilities. A situation presenting such a choice. Botanically. A drug, medicinal preparation, or similar substance obtained from a plant or plants. Came from the Latin word “Botanicus”, also derived from the Greek word “Botanikos”. Cultivated. A land or field prepared for raising crops by plowing or fertilizing. Exotic. originating in a foreign country, especially one in the tropics or not native. Having a strange or bizarre allure, beauty, or quality.

Stabilize. To make stable or steadfast. To maintain the stability of by means of a stabilizer. To keep from fluctuating or to fix the level

An Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments and/or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing and/or writing with a pen, brush, or quill. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluoresces, and other materials. The most common tool in written communication is the pen, which uses ink. The commercial ink is made of oil, polymers, organic soluble dye and solvent. This ink also contains glycerol, commercially known as glycerin (CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH). Glycerin is an alcohol containing acid.

The banana sap contains colloidal liquid and organic compound. Inks employed in printing are prepared from natural and synthetic film-forming resins, and generally use pigments rather than dye to provide color. Earlier investigations were made by a group of students they found out that mango sap ink can be produced in a 1:1 volume ratio of the banana sap to commercial isopropyl alcohol with the addition of 1.75 grams of organic dye for every 10 mL of the solution. Mixture of the three components –banana sap, isopropyl alcohol and organic dye – was heated. However, since application of heat of the mixture containing the alcohol possibly removed the alcohol content, the tip of the tip easily dried up causing the tip to harden.

The study used banana, water, organic dye, isopropyl alcohol, knife, blender, and measuring cup. Procedures

All the components starting from preparing the banana sap. Cut the mango trunk into pieces. Grind the banana trunk pieces with a blender to pour out the sap. After preparing the banana sap start preparing the ink. And finally, mix the organic dye to each of the three liquids: water, banana sap and isopropyl alcohol.

Investigatory projects are projects intended to knowing discoveries in Science. They are being researched, experimented and studied thoroughly. After several attempts and activities, effects have been finally seen by the researcher.

Organic Dye(BLUE) 10mL|
Water 5mL|
Banana Sap 5mL|
Isopropyl Alcohol 5mL|

The table shows the liquids used by the researcher. The organic dye is necessary to achieve the color given. Water is needed to make the content soluble. The mango sap is the leading ingredient for the study because it produces stains and is very sticky, which characteristics are valuable to hold together the materials. Lastly, the isopropyl alcohol is essential because it is used in the study as a solvent and as a cleansing fluid and also to purify the ink desired to be produced.

The ink created by the banana sap together with the isopropyl alcohol and organic dye was light blue compared to the commercially produced ink. Although the ink produced was lighter than the commercially produced ink. The study shows that banana sap mixed with organic dye and water produces ink. Therefore it can be used as an alternative ingredient in making ink.



Based on the study investigated, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. It was possible to produce ink made out of banana sap. With that, hypothesis number 1 is accepted. 2. The produced ink made out of banana sap is more versatile compared to commercial inks. Thus, hypothesis number 2 is accepted. Recommendations

Based on the study done, the following recommendations were made: 1. More trials should be made to determine better proportion of banana sap, isopropyl alcohol and organic dye. 2. Try using different colors of organic dye for possible use in coloring pens. 3. Try other kinds of alcohol.

4. Try looking for another alternative material as substitute for banana sap. 5. Try the ink produced for each trial using marking pen, sign pens and gel pens.


Updated: Sep 29, 2022
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Case Study Examples. (2016, Apr 06). Retrieved from

Case Study Examples essay
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