Any product’s cost and efficiency depends on its production machine’s cost and efficiency. The filling machine’s cost and efficiency depend on the machine’s physical design and the materials used to produce the machine. The material selection process with the objective of maximizing the efficiency and reducing the cost of a filling machine should follow the following steps:
The design requirements include the following items:
It is important to define as many of the criteria as possible to increase the possibility of discovering whether there are suitable materials Some of these standards are not applicable to many products allowing to collect information with more ease.
Nevertheless, the possibility of finding a range of possible materials decreases as the number of criteria increases.
The selection criteria for materials are specific properties of materials obtained from the identification of requirements done previously.
For an instance, the minimum yield stress needed for the material of a machine system can be calculated for a system that must withstand a load. The minimum yield stress will be the material selection criteria.
The selection criteria for materials should be used to eliminate all materials within the range that do not follow all selection criteria for materials. Range of values of the materials for the properties of interest should be taken note of when evaluating if a material might be best suited for the machine system.
It will be important to evaluate and check candidate materials that have insufficient data to determine whether they meet the selection criteria.
Materials selected should be the materials which meet all the criteria to achieve the goal of optimizing reliability and cost of machine system efficiency.
Based on literature references, the materials considered for the body of the filling machine is the grade 304 austenitic stainless steel (SS304). The 18% chromium in grade 304’s element composition provided the stainless steel with high durability and its highly resistant towards oxidation and corrosion properties. The material is acceptable to be used in case of food contact surfaces as the materials are good at withstanding common rusting, organic chemicals, dye solutions and inorganic chemicals. The stainless steel is poor thermal and electric conductor as compared to other type of stainless steels. The reason for the material’s incredible resistivity towards corrosion is due to the passivation phenomenon the stainless steels undergo(Schmidt et al., 2012). The addition of sulphur that is responsible for SS303’s improved machining and galling characteristics reduces its corrosion resistance below that of SS304. The structure gives SS303 excellent toughness as for other austenitic grades, although in SS303 the sulphur slightly decreases its toughness.
The values in the table above are obtained from AZO Materials website. Based on the values above, the SS303 and SS304 stainless steels should be materials that are excellent in corrosion resistance, heat resistant, weldability and machinability. The values here will be used as an input to the analysis of the filling machine using the SolidWorks Simulation.?
The chosen filling material for the designed filling mechanism is the Semperit cookie dough. For the Semperit dough, a non-Newtonian fluid mixture, the liquid phase is made up of an aqueous solution of polymers including gluten, and starch solid particles. The dough mixture at this phase is a suspension of solid particles in a fluid of high viscosity. The particles are flocculated, giving the filling material yield stress that responses differently to different forces applied on it. At small magnitude stresses, dough behaves like a solid because the flocculated particles act like a skeleton. The Van der Waals forces between flocculated particles are weak as when applied moderate stresses onto the dough mixture, the behavioural flow is like the flow of liquid(Mills, 1985). The Semperit dough mixture are best described as a dilatant non-Newtonian fluid.
Soft doughs such as Semperit dough have rich texture and rheological properties with the associated high viscosity. This type of dough cannot be produced by sheeting, printing, rotary cutting or rotary moulding. The said properties make shaping and drawing from moulders difficult. Extruding devices were specially designed to address the soft dough’s shape issues. The machine for extruding and depositing is usually designed with grooved roll feeder or plunger feeder.
SolidWorks software are the most used 3D design and analysis software being used in education and industry nowadays. SolidWorks software provides various types of features suitable to the necessity of machine or product design. Most SolidWorks software features can be run on a normal laptop fulfil the requirements the software needed. The SolidWorks requirement of different versions are as follows:
The SolidWorks design software utilises the 3D virtual design approach. The initial of the design within the will be created as a 2D model. From this model, 3D model can be created. SolidWorks are also very good in creating models that are based on multiple components. SolidWorks has features that enable processes of mating different components to make parts or subassemblies that will make up a complete 3D assembly. The finished 3D filling machine can be the same as physical version of the filling machine after fabrication.
SolidWorks are developed to enable any desired analysis to be conducted on a product or system. The software allowed tests to be conducted via simulation without forsaking a physical prototype to achieve research objectives. SolidWorks analysis can be used without worrying about space within the device memory as the software are integrated within the SolidWorks 3D CAD software. SolidWorks can conduct many types of analysis such as static and dynamics stresses analysis, thermal analysis, fatigue studies, and many more. The description of type of analysis can be conducted using the software for this research are as follows(Dassault Systemes SolidWorks, 2015a):
The SolidWorks analysis tool analyse the stresses or deformation of a product or system and compare it to allowable levels in order to predict possible failure modes. The results of analysis will inform whether there is a need to change the design of any core components of the design. This analysis is done using the SolidWorks Simulation tool.
Figure 3. 5 SolidWorks Simulation Interface(Dassault Systemes SolidWorks, 2010b).
The SolidWorks analysis tool allow the ‘virtual testing’ or simulation of the designed products before the fabrication phase. Any fault in design during concept phase can be easily detected and dynamic interference detection to construct engineering models can be taken. . This analysis is done using the SolidWorks Simulation tool.
The SolidWorks analysis tool are capable of analysing various fluidic systems and help in the system design that consists of nozzles, valving, pump systems and lubrication systems. This analysis is done using the SolidWorks Flow Simulation tool.
Figure 3. 6 SolidWorks Flow Simulation Interface(Dassault Systemes SolidWorks, 2010a).
The SolidWorks tool help the designers that require the analysis run on complex designed machines parts, subassemblies, and full assemblies. The software eases the process of assigning different materials to different parts of the assembly and specify how the components will interact with each other. This analysis is done using the SolidWorks Simulation tool.
The design method utilises the SolidWorks 3D CAD Design to complete the design of the filling mechanism system. The method below focuses on the steps including 2D drawing, 3D extrusion and assembly(Dassault Systemes SolidWorks, 2015b).
Below is the method to apply the 2D drawing tool using SolidWorks 3D CAD Design:
Below is the method to apply the 3D extrusion tool using SolidWorks 3D CAD Design:
Below is the method to apply the assembly tool using SolidWorks 3D CAD Design:
The analysis method utilises the SolidWorks Simulation and SolidWorks Flow Simulation to analyse the fluid flow and the filling machine mechanism. The following steps focuses on the static analysis and fluid flow analysis.
Analysis are crucial designing processes as the results of analysis is used to set the specifications of the design. Basic equations can be integrated into SolidWorks Simulation in order to find the needed data. Some basic equations that can be used for filling machine related issues analysis are as follows:
The flow of fluids is highly dependent on the type of the flow: laminar, turbulent or transitional flow. Each type of flows has different ranges of Reynolds number. Flow with Reynolds number smaller than 2300 are considered as laminar flow in a pipe. Flow with Reynolds number bigger than 4000 are considered as turbulent flow in a pipe. The flow with Reynolds number between 2300 and 4000 is deemed as transitional flow(Cengel & Cimbala, 2014).
v_avg = average velocity (m/s),
D = internal diameter (m),
? = dynamic viscosity (Pa*s) and
?/?= kinematic viscosity of fluid (m2/s)
Pressure drop has a direct relation with the power consumption by the pump to maintain the flow. So, it has been a subject of interest for the analysis of fluid flow. The pressure drop in laminar flow can be calculated by the following formula(Cengel & Cimbala, 2014).
?p=(128?Lv ?)/(?D^4 )=(32?Lv_avg)/D^2
Where V ?=v_avg (?D^2)/4
V ? = Volumetric flow rate(m3/s)
? = Dynamic viscosity (Pa*s)
v_avg =Average velocity (m/s)
L = Length (m) and
D = Diameter (m)
A certain amount of energy is required to move a given volume of fluid through a cylindrical body. The energy is required for a liquid to move; the pressure difference provides that. The resistance to flow costs some energizing force during the flow. This resistance to flow is called head loss due to friction. The formula for the calculation of head loss in fully developed circular flow is below called Darcy’s equation(Cengel & Cimbala, 2014).
h_L = Total head loss (m)
f = Friction factor of pipe internal surface.
L = Length of pipe.
D= Internal diameter of pipe.
V_avg= Average liquid velocity (m/s)
g = Gravitational acceleration (g = 9.81 m/s2)
It is defined as the Volume of fluid that flows past a given cross-sectional area per second. Its SI unit is m3/s. Volumetric flow rate is a part of mass flow rate since mass has a relation with volume by means of density. It can be calculated as the product of the cross-sectional area (A) of flow and the average flow velocity (V_avg )(Cengel & Cimbala, 2014).
Mass flow rate is defined as the measure of the mass of fluid passing through a point. Its unit is kg/s. The mass flow rate is related to the volumetric flow rate as explained above. It can be calculated as the product of density (? ) and volumetric flow (Vavg*A ?)(Cengel & Cimbala, 2014).
Average velocity is defined as the average speed through a cross section of a pipe. For a fully developed laminar pipe flow average velocity is the half of the maximum velocity. The properties of fluid are calculated at an average temperature and treat that as a constant(Cengel & Cimbala, 2014).
Pump efficiency is defined as the ratio of product of volumetric flow rate and pressure
head of the pump to input power. Pump efficiency is the dimensionless quantity and expressed in the form of percentage(Cengel & Cimbala, 2014).
?=((V ??P)/(Input pow?r))^* 100%
V ? = Volumetric flow rate
?P = Pressure head of pump
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