Civilization is the greatest achievement in the history of human beings. While defining the term civilization, Philip Atkinson says, “Civilization is a community that dominates all other communities by violence. ” The things which are essential to make a civilization are cities, governments, armies, and communal achievements like subjugations and inventions. The civilization started from the formation of the cities. And most of the ancient civilization flourished in the bank of rivers. E. g.
Egyptian Civilization which was flourished in the bank of Nile River while Indian civilization prospered in the bank of Ganga River and the Saptasindhu (The land of seven rivers) region.
In ancient world the different civilizations developed. Among them some major and noteworthy civilizations were the Egyptian Civilization, Greek Civilization, Persian Civilization and the Indian Civilization. Indian civilization during the Later Vedic Period is explained in this paper through intuitive, rational, and empirical means India is regarded as the cradle of civilization. Civilization started here in this land very long time ago.
About 3000 B. C. , the civilization shaped in India. This civilization is supposed to be one of the world’s first great civilizations. We can find innumerable amazing things which are the proof of the immensity of this civilization from all perspectives such as literature, art, architecture, science mathematics and astrology. Indian civilization has given a platform to many scientific discoveries. Here in our paper we are considering the specific period for our research and that is Vedic Period which started in 1500 B. C. After the ruin of Harappan cities Indian subcontinent experienced a new civilization.
This new culture was brought in India by the Aryans. Aryans came from central Asia through Khaibar Khind and settled in the region of seven rivers which was known as Saptasindhu. And after that they started settling in Ganges valley which was known as Aryavarta. This particular era is called Vedic period because in this age the religious and philosophical hymns called Veda were composed by the Aryan people. The Vedas composed by Aryans were basically in Sanskrit language. The Vedas were of four types, first is Rigveda which is the oldest hymns The other three are Sam Veda, Yajurveda, and Athharva Veda.
These three Vedas basically laid a strong foundation to Hindu religion and the Hindu doctrines. Rigveda is the mythical text which includes the knowledge in its abstract imagery of what the clairvoyant had realized. Yajurveda is the Vedas of ritual which consisted of 1975 verse mantras. It has divided into forty chapters. Samveda is the veda of song or music while Atharva Veda is the Veda of Chants. The Vedic period is also divided into two different eras, Early Vedic period and Later Vedic Period. Later Vedic period started in around 1000B. C. to 600 B. C.
This age is also known as the Epic age because the one of the greatest epics from the world were composed during this era. They are Ramayana and Mahabharata. Ramayana was written by sage Valmiki while Mahabharata was composed by Sage Vyas. Intuitive Theatre, Music and Drama in Vedic Period: Aryans created Samveda to fulfill their deep predilections and flair for art. The different Gods were worshipped during different times of the days and nights. The Brahmanas who supposed to be the highest topmost Varnas were responsible for teaching the art and literature.
The religion and music were associated with each other and the artist was supposed to give up all worldly pleasures and comforts and devote himself fully to his art. The women basically were expert in fine art than performing arts. Indian Classical dances also flourished in the same period. “Along with the progress in music, the arts of choreography and theater were also in vogue. According to the Linga Puraana, a major disciple of Shivaa named Nandikeshwara wrote a treatise on the subject of dancing called Nritya- Darpan. (Nritya means dance and darpan means mirror).
” In Vedic period the music would be highly esteemed place in every family. Vocal Music, dance, and instrumental music would be performed in strict rhythm. Vedic period was prosperous from all point of views. In music theatre and drama also this civilization had given remarkable contribution. The major book written on classical music dance and drama was by sage Bharata which then became popular as “Natyashastra. ” It is the major dramatic theory of Sanskrit drama. This book has given the proper rules of writing, performing dance, music, and theatre.
The exact period of Natyashastra is unknown but it is predicted that it was written in 200B. C. to 200A. D. Vedic Architecture: There was a strong background of science behind every Vedic Architecture. Vedic Architecture was known as “Vastu Shastra. ” Basically the buildings built in ancient India were based on the scientific parameters. While describing about the Architecture in India Swami B. G. Narasingha in his article “Vastu Shastra and Sacred Architecture” states, “Throughout the world it’s hard to find a place where sacred architecture is as developed a science as is that found in India.
India’s ancient temples and palaces are certainly among the finest ever built. From the Taj Mahal, the seventh wonder of the world, to the Pagodas of Tamil Nadu, from the Himalayan hill shrines to the great temple at Jagannatha Puri, India is a veritable treasure-house of sacred architecture. In fact there are more existing examples of sacred architecture in India than in all other countries of the world combined. ”  Empirical Vedic mathematics: In Vedic period, the major mathematicians like Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta, and Bhaskara II who contributed in achieving the outstanding progress in mathematics.
The Indian mathematics was well advanced and the scholars of mathematics studied basically decimal number system, zero, and negative numbers, arithmetic and algebra. “There was a gap of a few hundred years between Vedic period and the first millennium A. D. when the works of some major Indian astronomer-mathematicians like Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta, Shridhara and Bhaskara I and II appeared. ” The Vedic mathematics was basically composed in Sanskrit language which used to be the official language of Aryans. The mathematical works consisted of the section of sutras.
In these sutras the mathematical problems were stated into verses so that it would be possible for the students to understand them quickly. The special characteristic of Vedic mathematics is that though the bulky texts they were they were preserved by generation through oral tradition. The people in those days used to learn it and thus by learning the sutras and all other mathematical concepts they preserved the mathematics and handed over it to the next generation. It is really an amazing characteristic of Indian culture. “truly remarkable achievements of the Indian pandits who have preserved enormously bulky texts orally for millennia. ”
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Indian Civilization. (2017, Mar 03). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/indian-civilization-essay