Ebola Essay Examples

Essays on Ebola

Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by the Ebola virus, an RNA virus in the family Filoviridae. Symptoms are characterized by high fever, gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain), and unexplained hemorrhage. Ebola gained mainstream coverage when in 2014 when there was an outbreak of EVD in West Africa. This was a global spectacle and of unparalleled scale primarily affecting the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. One of the qualities that makes EVD of high public concern is its potential for extremely high mortality rates (up to 90%) (Bodine, Cook, & Shorten, 2018).

The Rising of Ebola in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone
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The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has alarmed many public health officials as they discover the death toll has risen beyond 3,800 due to Ebola (United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], (2017). According to Aljazeera (2014), this deadly virus kills more than half of its victims and cases amounting to 10,000 a are occurring each week. This can be a health issue if not brought under control. Based on these statistics the need for emergence response is…...
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Histology, Immunohistochemistry in the Ebola Virus
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Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe and frequently lethal affliction of humans brought about by contamination with any of three individuals from the mononegavirus family Filoviridae: Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Ebola virus (EBOV), and Sudan virus (SUDV). A fourth virus, Taï Forest virus (TAFV), has up to this point caused just a single reported human infection, which was nonlethal1. EBOV infection has been recently showed in a wide assortment of guinea pig tissues and cell types, including cells of the…...
DiseaseEbola
Can Ebola be Developed into a Biological Weapon
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Can Ebola be developed into a biological weapon? This question addresses the concerns of many following the most recent Ebola outbreaks in the past few years. The Ebola outbreak could quite possibly be the most deadly of this decade. It has affected many and still lives without a cure. The prospect of concentrating this into a biological weapon would be detrimental to the lives of many. However, the most restrictive part of the possible weapon sprouts from its instability and…...
DiseaseEbola
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Protecting Wild African Apes from Ebola
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Introduction Ebola virus has caused more than 20 human outbreaks throughout Africa. One big epidemic in West Africa lasted for more than 2 years from 2013, killing more than 11000 lives [2]. Ebola is not only a major threat to humans, but also to African great apes who are now classified as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature [2]. Through laboratory and epidemiological testing, evidence has shown a clear link between human Ebola outbreaks and Ebola-infected…...
AfricaBiologyEbolaHealthInfectious DiseasesMedicine
Ebola Virus: Structure, Pathogenesis and Treatment
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Named after the river valley in Zaire, now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo, where it was first recognized, Ebola began its publicity in the spotlight of an epidemic. It is one of two members of RNA viruses called Filoviridae. Filoviridae were first discovered 9 years before the initial outbreak of Ebola, in 1967, in workers who were exposed to blood from African green monkeys imported from Uganda that had the Marburg virus [6]. The family Filoviridae constitutes, together…...
Ebola
“Demon in the Freezer” by Richard Preston
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“Demon in the Freezer” by popular virus expert Richard Preston is the third book in his ‘trilogy of death.’ After zooming in on the dangers of Ebola virus in his best-selling book “The Hot Zone,” and bioengineered monkey pox in “The Cobra Event,” Preston shifts the focus to the lurking threat posed by the deadly smallpox virus in the event that it becomes the new weapon of choice among terrorists dabbling in chemical warfare.             The book is premised on…...
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“The Cobra Event” and the “The Hot Zone”
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Seven books were published by a writer and a bestselling author named Richard Preston who was born on August 5, 1964. Richard Preston was responsible for the release or creation of a “Dark Biology Series” in the field of literature. All his writings or the books that he published are based on his experiences, extensive reviews, field works, and background research.  Preston’s Dark Biology Series included his three bestselling books which are mostly about bioterrorism and the frightening and startling…...
ArchimedesBioterrorismEbolaEvent
Theme of Diseases in The Hot Zone
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A skilled U S journalist and author of the 1994 bestseller The Hot Zone, A Terrifying Real Story, Richard Preston's imaginative abilities revolve around worrying disease epidemics and bio- terrorism. The research study by Preston for his 1992 New Yorker post, "Crisis in the Hot Zone" forms the basis of this non-fiction bio-thriller. The Hot Zone delineates a dramatic, chilling and reasonable tale of an Ebola infection break out, which takes place in a monkey storage warehouse in a rural…...
And The Band Played OnEbola
The Pandemic Virus
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The virologists determined the identity of the virus causing the disease by taking blood samples from the people who were sick or who were getting sick, the n they put them under the microscope and studied them. They tracked the epidemic down by following where people were getting sick; the virologists finally followed the virus back to the ship that was carrying all the animals and the monkey. They conquered the virus by taking the serum from the host after…...
BiologyEbolaInfectious DiseasesMedicineMicroorganisms
Movie: And The Band Played On
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The movie " And The band Played on is about a doctor from world health organisation who is finding the cause of an unknown virus. At first youv'e seen him in the African community where a clinic is near "Ebola River" Central Africa 1976 were they found an african child that showed them the way of Dr. Azis where they found that he's already dead with some of the citizen. They found a woman begging for some medicine then she…...
And The Band Played OnEbolaMovie
Kit Kat Company
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1: INTRODUCTION Kit Kat started in August 29 in 1935 in York by Rowntree, in 1973 Kit Kat entered in Japan market. In 1988, Nestle took over the Kit Kat ( Kit Kat, 2014). Today, Kit Kat is very successful in Japan, Kit Kat has more then two hundred different products in Japan, it help Kit Kat get more and more market share in Japan( Kit Kat, 2014). More and more people think Kit Kat is like a logo in…...
CompanyEbola
Ebola Virus- A Detailed Study
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Ebola Virus is the newest virus which has become epidemic in West Africa and it is being that it is spreading throughout the world as people coming from that region are becoming carriers of the virus. Going into the history if this virus, this virus was first detected in 1976, when it occurred simultaneously in the regions of Nzada, Sudan and Yambuku in Democratic Republic of Congo. It got its name from the Ebola River that flowed near the Yambuku…...
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Advantages of Medical Isolation and Quarantine
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Introduction According to many health experts, medical isolation and quarantine does very little in curbing the spread of contagious diseases (Kliff). Although isolation and quarantine tend to have some similarities, they are very different. According to studies, whereas isolation involves the seclusion of people infected with contagious diseases, quarantine is the seclusion of people who are not sick but have been exposed to a contagious disease (“Diffen”). Although isolation and quarantine are different, they have one main objective, which is…...
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Etiology

The pathogenesis of Ebola is not clear but, once in the human body, the virus replicates in a variety of cell types—including dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages—with consequences including coagulation abnormalities, vascular instability, a robust inflammatory response, and extensive focal necrosis that tends to be most severe in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, kidney, lung, and gonads. Death typically occurs secondary to a septic shock-like syndrome within 10 days of symptom onset; patients who survive ≥ 2 weeks often recover. The incubation period varies from 2–21 days (but is typically 8–10 days), during which time the infected patient is not contagious; the patient is not considered contagious until the onset of symptoms (typically, fever). Early symptoms are nonspecific and can be confused with those of other diseases, including malaria, dengue, and typhoid fever.

Pathophysiological Process and Clinical Manifestations

The Ebola virus is an enveloped single-stranded negative sense RNA virus member of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus, and order Mononegavirales. Five Ebola strains have been identified: Zaire Ebolavirus, Bundibugyo Ebolavirus, Taï Forest Ebolavirus, Sudan Ebolavirus, and Reston Ebolavirus (Borchardt, 2015). The current outbreak is most closely related to the Zaire strain, at about 97% homology. The Zaire strain has the highest reported overall mortality, 60% to 88% for previous outbreaks; mortality from the current epidemic strain is estimated at 60% (Borchardt, 2015). The current virus strain likely diverged from a common central African Ebola virus ancestor about 2004, and probably arose from a single natural reservoir transmission, followed by human-to-human transmission with the outbreak.7 The natural reservoir has not been clearly established, but fruit bats from regions of previous Ebola outbreaks have tested positive for Ebola virus, suggesting zoonotic transmission from a bat reservoir.8 The initial human infection is thought to have occurred following contact with an Ebola virus-infected animal, perhaps through the ingestion of contaminated nonhuman primate bush meat or from direct exposure to infected animal blood or fluids (Borchardt, 2015).

Human-to-human transmission occurs through direct exposure to an infected individual’s body fluids, including blood, urine, feces, saliva, vomit, or from objects contaminated with infected fluids (such as needles and syringes). Patients most at risk for contracting Ebola are those from active endemic areas; those who have traveled to these areas within the last 21 days; and those who have had direct percutaneous (needlestick) or mucous membrane exposure to Ebola-infected blood or body fluids, direct skin contact with infected blood or fluids, or direct contact with a dead body without wearing appropriate personal protective equipment (Borchardt, 2015). High-risk patients include family members and friends who may have come in contact with infected fluids of symptomatic patients and healthcare workers directly exposed to infected blood or body fluids because they were not wearing appropriate personal protective equipment or practicing standard biosafety precautions (Borchardt, 2015).

In the initial disease presentation, symptoms of acute-onset fever (temperature greater than 38.6° C [101.5° F]), chills, myalgia, and malaise can be mistaken for other tropical diseases, such as malaria or dengue fever. Ebola can progress to flu-like symptoms with cough, runny nose, and shortness of breath; however, the disease is not airborne. The more prominent symptoms are of a progressive gastrointestinal nature: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain that result in intravascular volume depletion, hypoperfusion, shock, profound electrolyte abnormalities, metabolic acidosis, and marked hepatocellular injury with aminotransaminase elevation. Other laboratory findings include anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times. Lymphopenia is a marker of poor prognosis.

Diagnosis

Ebola testing to confirm diagnosis is only effective after the viral load has reached a level to where symptoms are present. Although the viral load may not be detectable until the patient has been symptomatic for several days, laboratory tests (white blood cell count, liver function, amylase, and coagulation studies) associated with affected organs may show changes (Richardson, 2015). Therefore, supportive treatment of symptoms usually starts before confirmation of the disease.

No vaccine has been proven to prevent Ebola and no antiviral medicine effectively treats the disease. Treatment is limited to basic symptomatic control, administering IV fluids and electrolyte replacement, maintaining oxygen saturation and BP, and treating complicating infections as they arise. A patient’s immune status determines ability to recover from Ebola. Patients who recover develop neutralizing antibodies to Ebola virus that are detectable for up to 10 years, suggesting a potential treatment role for passive immunity. The WHO has approved the use of serum from convalescing patients to treat new patients with acute Ebola. This decision came after the WHO heard testimony about a 1995 Ebola outbreak during which blood products from five convalescing patients were used to treat eight infected patients, and only one patient died.

Conclusion

In time when worldwide travel is more acceptable thanks in part to technological advancements that have permitted healthcare workers to travel to distant lands and assist in providing state of-the-art care to those who are impoverished. As healthcare personnel educate many who are not up to date on basic lifesaving measures, they simultaneously become more susceptible to foreign pathogens such as Ebola Virus Disease.

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates. The viruses that cause EVD are located in sub-Saharan Africa. People can get EVD through direct contact with an infected animal (bat or nonhuman primate) or a sick or dead person infected with Ebola virus (Center of Disease and Control and Prevention [CDC], 2018). The Ebola outbreak is far from over, so PAs, especially first responders in emergency or urgent care facilities, must remain vigilant and informed of the ongoing developments of this epidemic. (Borchardt, 2015).

References

  1. Bodine, E.N., Cook, C., & Shorten, M. (2018). The potential impact of a prophylactic vaccine for Ebola in Sierra Leone. Mathematical Biosciences And Engineering: MBE, 15(2), 337-359. https://doi-org.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.3934/mbe.2018015
  2. Borchardt, R. (2015). The Ebola virus epidemic: Preparation, not panic. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants, 28(2), 48-50. doi:10.1097/01.JAA.0000459821.32532.10
  3. Richardson, K. (2015). Ebola virus disease. Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal, 37(2), 102-115. doi:10.1097/TME.0000000000000063

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