Colombia and Pakistan Cultures
In Pakistan culture, “family is very important and is the basis for much of a person’s identity” (Stuart, 2011). It is common for extended family to live together in one home, and the elderly are cared for in the home while shown a great deal of respect. When it comes to family matters the male members of the family are the ones that will make most of the decisions. Another important aspect of Pakistan culture is that they are religious and look to the Qur’an to guide most life and health decisions and practices. (Stuart, 2011). When it comes to matters of death and dying Pakistan culture has a strong resistance against postmortem examination. They believe that bodies are to be buried intact. Therefore, organ donation and transplants are a very debatable matter, it is believed that if organs are removed from the body that is causing mutilation and disrespecting a gift given from Allah. When a person is ill or there is a poor diagnosis, it is generally preferred that the medical provider tells the family members first so that they can decide if and when to tell the patient. This can have negative consequences because it is withholding important information about the patient’s health to the patient. If a patient has a poor diagnosis, by not telling the patient than there is no way for the medical provider to help the patient.
Nutritional Deficiencies and Dirty Water
Living conditions in Pakistan can be inadequate. For example, there may not be any clean water in Pakistan despite the efforts to improve the quality of it. Water in Pakistan may contain harmful components such as parasites, arsenic, nitrates, and fluoride. This can be very dangerous and at times even deadly. As far as it comes to nutrition in Pakistan, “Nutritional deficiencies are common, particularly among women; for example, more than 40% of women in Pakistan are anemic” (Stuart, 2011). This can have negative consequences especially for women in their childbearing years. If a woman is anemic and becomes pregnant, she is at risk for maternal mortality, premature birth, and low birth weight. Another health issue in Pakistan culture is malnutrition. It is believed that nausea and vomiting are beneficial because they help get rid of poisons and toxins in the body. Excessive vomiting can lead to a deficiency of nutrients in the body. When a person is ill, they do not believe in self-care, they are generally very passive when it comes to their care. This can result in delayed healing. Just like in Pakistan Culture, Colombian culture is also a “male-focused” society. The head of the household, a male, makes decisions on behalf of the other family members.
Family and Daily Life in Colombian Culture
The elderly members of the family are often cared for in the home, but nursing homes are becoming more common in Colombia. There are many elderly living in poverty in Colombia because their family members have either died or abandoned them. This can have negative consequences because the elderly may not get the care they require. In Colombia, “Families often focus a great deal of attention on ill members, which can sometimes interfere with plans of care” (Stuart, 2011). When it comes to a patient’s diagnosis just like in Pakistan, family members want to be told first about the patient’s diagnosis, so that they may decide if they should tell the patient or not. This is violating the patient’s rights because they have a right to know ab out their diagnosis so they can get the proper care. In Colombia, legislation has been set in place where there is support for euthanasia for terminally ill patients that are in excessive pain or distress. After death organ donations and autopsies are accepted practices in Colombian Culture.
When it comes to nutrition in Colombian culture, it is very diverse. They incorporate a range of different meats, breads, fruits, fish, and vegetables. A major component of their diet is coffee, which is consumed throughout the day. Excessive consumption of coffee can have serious effects on one’s body. For example, it can cause hypertension, stymie oxygen flow to the brain, insomnia, and can even cause diabetes (Sartorelli, 2010). “Alcohol consumption is also common, with beer being the most common, followed by hard alcohol.” (Stuart, 2011). In Colombia, protein deficiencies and anemia are common, especially in children. This is can have serious consequences when it comes to the growth and development of a child because it can stunt their growth. It can also cause heart problems, nervous system disorders, and congenital disorders. (Brazier, 2017).