Romanticism has very little to do with things popularly thought of as “romantic,” although love may occasionally be the subject of romantic art. Rather, it is an international artistic and philosophical movement that redefined the fundamental ways in Western cultures thought about themselves and about their world (Melani). In the early seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the enlightment, reason, revolution, age of science and technology created a history that could not be compared to any other time. Political, scientific, social and philosophical upheavals were a new part of an improved world.
The romantic period was bought to England through these events which created a whole new world.
The romantic period in England began in the early 17th century; Historians argued over the end of the period. The literature of this time is now considered to have lasted into the 1870’s. There are many major concepts that created the ideas written about by writers of the romantic period (Horst). The imagination was elevated to a position as the supreme faculty of the mind (Melani).
The Romantics labeled imagination as creativity. It created a new way of art feeling and reasoning. Humans began to see the world with a different appearance. “Nature” meant many things to the Romantics (Melani). Nature was used as meditation in romantic poetry; it was itself in art. Nature was not viewed as science but as organically unified whole. Symbolism and myth were given great prominence in the Romantic conception of the art (Melani).
In the period of Romanticism humans believed symbolism made their art more meaningful.
Myth was brought by symbol through the language in art. Other aspects of Romanticism were intertwined with the above three concepts (Melani). Imagination brought importance to feeling and greater attention to the self view in art. Literary history turned poetry into powerful emotions. In Romantic theory, art was valuable for what one saw in them not for what the world viewed. Consequently, the romantics sought to define their goals through systematic contrast with norms of “Versailles neoclassicism” (Melani). Music changed the behavior of human characteristics and individual activities. People viewed themselves different than others. No one wanted to be alike and they expressed it.
The Romantics asserted the importance of the in individual, the unique, even the eccentric (Melani). Religion was forced but during the romantic period people began to reject it and instead chose their own way of life. The attitude of many of the romantics to the everyday, social world around them was complex. They used colors that were always seen but as techniques advanced, so did their colors. Their art form was not based off legends anymore but off their common language. The Romantics were ambivalent towards the “real” social world around them (Melani). Artist began to pull themselves away from the public. Through their own emotions they intercepted finally it should be noted that the revolutionary energy underlying the Romantic Movement affected not just literature, but all of the arts – – from music (consider the rise of Romantic opera) to painting, from sculpture to architecture (Melani). The different types of arts that grew during this period spread to the rest of the world. The Atlantic side manifested the great landscape painters.
The American Revolution, between 1775-1783, was the first war fought for the “Rights of Men.” It was ideas expressed in the “Declaration of Independence” and the “Constitution” that explains the “Enlightened” ideas why revolutions are sometimes necessary (Horst). Based on these new thoughts a nation was built. The first of these ideas was that “All men are created equal…” (Locke). The government was created with only the power that the people in the state give it. During the American Revolution the sugar act, stamp act, and tea act were created. The sugar imported from West Indies was increased. Many items and documents required stamps; price was rosin for the colonies to pay defense. In Boston Harbor colonist dressed as Indians dumped tea over board from three ships.
The French Revolution was the product of social, economic, and religious political conditions. The social cause of the French revolution was that the hard working class had to give the money they earned to finance the foreign wars. The working class was also the treasury that repaid the nations debt. The working class created the oppressive rule of the monarchist regime. It was successful in helping France from foreign invaders but it was unfair to the general public. The economic cause of the French Revolution was that basic necessities and bread prices were taxed very high for the working class so that they can keep the finance government running. Religion was a big role in the French Revolution. During this time, the nobles and priest who took power over the people to maintain their nobility distorted the principles of Christianity.
As a result, religion was blamed for their injustice and was seen as one of the causes that led to the revolt. Society divided into segments. People were told that if they were not in the working class they were a part of the nobles and clergy literature. There was no freedom of speech which affected the nature of literature in expression. Literature at this time was quite restrained. The nobles and the clergy had all the literature material. Art and literature began to take a new turn when the spirit of the revolution caught the nation. Writers at the time were waiting for the right moment to unleash their work. Under a new law the artists and writers were given an amount of freedom to express themselves.
The Industrial Revolution created a new world. During this time new technology was created; women and children worked the machinery. Later, children were given an opportunity to childhood. As an escape of the industrial revolution, romantic writes wrote about feelings, dreams, and fairytales. Romanticism determined the real art in literature, music, and visual expression.
The romantic period created a new era for England. Literature such as poetry was expressed with feeling. Art was viewed with different ideas and new colors. Creators used imagination through the beauty of nature. Things began to evolve which created a whole new.
Essay on Author’s Life, Work and Criticisms
Mary Wollstonecraft lived a remarkable life. She “left her footprints on the stand of time” (Footprints). Wollstonecraft was one of the first advocates for the equal rights for women. Her life spanned the early years of the Age of Revolutions. Mary, born into a wealthy family, was raised with an education only offered to the most important families. Her intellectual, social and inquisitive mind would make her one of the most influential authors in English literature (Horst). Her life, work, and criticism formed the ideas she persuaded in her most famous pieces of writing, “A Vindication of the Rights to Woman.”
Wollstonecraft was born in London in 1759. When she was nineteen she left home and began her own life. Later, Wollstonecraft installed a school at Newington Green. In 1787 she started her literary career. She was hired as a translator and literary advisor for Joseph Johnson. Wollstonecraft became a regular contributor of articles once Johnson’s Analytical Revolution was out.
In 1791 two events took place that promoted Wollstonecraft to write her A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (Cengage). The new French Constitution and the report on education assist her on writing “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.” She dedicated the beginning part of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman to Tallyerand-Perigord asking him to rethink his ideas about education for woman. Wollstonecraft wrote to many other people standing up for the value of woman and their rights. She felt that they shouldn’t just be viewed as a hopeless houses wife but as an individual willing to succeed in civilized work. In “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” Wollstonecraft talks a great deal about power – in terms of the statuesque, in regards to women to have power not over men but over themselves (Cengage).
“A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” was much acclaimed in radical political circles when it was published, but it also attracted considerable hostility (Cengage). For most of the ninetieth century the book was ignored. It was said to be to a disgrace. In the late twentieth century Wollstonecraft’s treatise was founded as the work of feminism. The author’s attitudes towards the subjects in her book made her book foundational feminist text. Horace Walpole called Wollstonecraft a hyena in petticoats because her work on the book had scandalous reputation.
Mary Wollstonecraft was a remarkable woman. She wrote a book called “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” to help people view women differently. Although authors did not like the subjects in her book it help give the sport to women in the world today. “I was born for something greater than I was – – and greater I would become, but greatness at last to my distorted perceptions, was no necessary associate of goodness, and my wild thoughts were unchecked by moral considerations when they rioted in dreams of distinction.” (Shelly).
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was a feminist only insofar as she followed her mother’s ideas about unrestricted education for woman and equality with in a marriage (victorianweb). She wrote “Frankenstein” and became known as one of the most important authors in the early 1800’s. She struggled through most of her life but it never stopped her from being one of the famous authors in literature. Her life, work and criticism help form her structure in writing.
Mary was born August 30, 1791 and died in the year of 1851. Mary was raised by her step mother and her father. The step mom did not want her show any of her mother’s principles. Mary didn’t like her step mother because she saw what her mother had not been. Mary was taught to read and write at home. She was encouraged by her father to use her imagination. She started scribbling at a young age. She used her father’s library and sat quietly listening to her father’s discussions over political, philosophical, scientific, and literary things. Later she reunited with her mother in London but her father found out and forbidden her from seeing her mother. Mary’s first baby was born February 22, 1815 and died two week later. She than gave birth to two other kids.
Mary Shelley’s novel called “Frankenstein” also known as “The Modern Prometheus” was published in March 1818. She started writing this novel at the age of nineteen. The novel opens up with a letter. Robert Walton sends a letter to his sister in England. In the first part of this novel Victor tells his story. He talks about his childhood and his sister. He gives some information on his education but mostly about what he has been though and how much he loves his sister.
Laura Claridge says that she created Frankenstein based off of her troubles in family relationships. She says that Victor was created off being neglected in childhood but Shelley says he is nurturing and warm with family. She says that the story is supported well. The theme to her was based off of connections to Shelley’s own life story just in a different way and setting. Over all the story had viewed Shelley as a victim as being neglected which might have affected her in the long run but helped her create a well written story. Mary Shelley created a great novel. Even though lots of things that accrued during her life time affected her she didn’t let that stop her from expressing in literature. She became a great writer though the work of her mother.
Essay of Analysis’s of both Author’s Work
Mary Wollstonecraft wrote “A Vindication of the Rights to Woman” to help give women the right to be seen as more than the one who cares for the home. She didn’t like the idea of not letting women be involved in education. She didn’t think it was fair she wanted them to be treated equally. Women could be more than what they were seen to do because they had no one to speck up for them Mary Wollstonecraft did what she though what was best and wrote a book that would be remembered for life. Her novel includes hyperbole, symbol, and repetition as her literary devices.
Mary Wollstonecraft used hyperbole as a one of her many literary devices. One of the themes that she used to provide this literary device was liberalism. Liberalism rests on description between the public and private spheres, maintaining that the state guarantees rights and leaves families to make their own choices (Phelan P.3).
Mary Wollstonecraft didn’t want property to be undesirable she just wanted woman to be financially independent instead of always have to wait for everything through their husband and be stuck at home. Symbol is also a part of this theme. Her symbol was women. She didn’t want women to have all the power in the world. She wanted them to be viewed equal. To her men only viewed them as “innocent, delicate, feminine, and beautiful” of courses women are truth to this factor but they weren’t seen for what they could do if they had the chance. (Phelan P.1).
The two themes that were tied into repetition are education reform and the need for a revolution in female manners. In chapter three, Wollstonecraft writes, “It is time to effect a revolution in the female manners – time to restore to them their lost dignity – and make them, as a part of the human species, labour by reforming themselves to reform the world. It is time to separate unchangeable morals for local manners.” (Phelan P.2). In chapter thirteen she says again that women should be more involved in the mankind world everything has a value and women are as important as man.
To her education was a great value. Education reform one of the themes in her novel also used repetition. Education wasn’t set to be for just men it was also be for women. She wanted boys and girls to be in a class room setting together she knew that girls and boys could both be taught the same things.
Liberalism used hyperbole, symbol, and repetition. Wollstonecraft didn’t wont women to be labeled. She wanted girls to know that they weren’t created to be more or less then guys they were to be equal. Education was to key to success for women. She wrote the book hoping to let everyone know that no matter what gender you are you were always meant to be treated the same with all equal right and liberties. Her book opened the eyes of many people. Wollstonecraft had hyperbole, symbol, and repetition as her literary devices included in her novel. Women are not just a piece of art for men to view. If they were given a chance they could do more than men. Every in this world was created equal. With this mind setting later viewed things changed and gave women the chance to vote and be involved in more things than just being stuck at home. Marry Shelley’s story “Frankenstein” is about a man who created a creature that frightened everyone including himself. The book was and still is a story that everyone is amazed by because of its imagination. She wrote Frankenstein in the summer of 1816 and later anonymously published in 1818; she had been inspired from all the things that occurred in her family. Marry Shelley included symbolism, imagery, and tone to create Frankenstein.
Marry used light as a symbol for knowledge. Walton explains the secret of the universe to be unveiled in the North Pole which he describes as “a country of eternal lights (litchart). In the book, Victor feels like he accomplished something when “a light had broken upon him” there for again using light as a symbol of knowledge. Marry also uses fire; fire was the one thing a person wasn’t supposed to have according to Greek mythology because it was something that only belonged to the Gods. He was punished for “playing God” when making the creature. His family was singled out and killed it was a similar way of prolonged torture. Fire appears throughout the novel as a dangerous focused used for sustenance and punishment (litchart).
Mary Shelley uses a lot of descriptive words in telling the story. She uses imagery throughout her whole story. She tells the story in a way where we can see it all that happening. Victor is the narrator in the story; he’s telling the story whole story to Walton. The way it is described creates suspense for the reader. If Mary Shelley didn’t use imagery in her book we wouldn’t be able to imagine the characters. The tone used in her story varies through what’s going on in the book. The tones that the story has are romantic, gothic, tragic, and fatalistic; all these tones are what help create a great story like Frankenstein. Romantic tone is used as an affect to nature. The story ties into begin gothic because of all the supernatural and creepy events that happen throughout the novel. Sadness is how the tragic tone is part of the story because people loose their loved ones. The biggest tragedy is the monster has no outlet for his feeling of benevolence towards humanity (shmoop). A sense of fatalism is used in the novel when people seem to be predestined; one single act sets them in motion.
Mary was able to create a wonderful story because of those literary devices. With her wild and creative imagination she was able to fascinate us. Mary refers to light by using fire for symbolism; she uses descriptive words to create imagery and different tones to help put feeling in her book.
Brief Conclusion Summarizing all the Ideas of the Paper
The Romantic Period was of great help to England. It created know ways of expression in literature. Mary Wollstonecraft and her daughter Escobar 15
became great writers thanks to the changes that happened in the Romantic Period. Marry Wollstonecraft who wrote “A Vindication of the Rights to Woman” was of great help to us women. Thanks to her novel we were able to be seen an equal individual with the right to work, vote, and receive an education to became some one in life. She used literacy devices to help her create her novel. Marry Shelley became a great writer as well thanks to her mother. She wrote “Frankenstein” a novel that is still used today. She had good imagination and created her novel. Literature experience changes during the Romantic period which help create great novels in to day’s life.
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20 March – 1 April 1818