The United States and Inequality
Inequality can be seen in various different contexts. Within the last few years, the public has increased caring about gender inequality through rising feminism, as well as there have always been conflicts over racial inequality and the different treatment of people because of their skin colour or origin. At the same time, huge disparities can be recognized when looking at the distribution of wealth in a country: economic inequality has been rising in nearly all regions in the world over the last decades.
Influence of Progressive Era on Society in USA
The Progressive Era was a period of time when mass groups of people pushed for major changes. Some became successful while others weren't. Many different approaches were used to try and change four areas. They were protecting social welfare, promoting moral improvement, creating economic reform, and fostering efficiency. The Progressives believed in four major principles which are demonstrated in the actions they took to support them. One objective the Progressives enforced was protecting social welfare, which they established in many…...
HandballInfluencePersepolisProgressive EraSocietySusan B Anthony
USA Patriot Act
Since September 11, 2001 the USA Patriot act was put into law, with very few congress reviews and debates. This act was put into place just 43 days after the terrorist attack. The US Patriot act stands for “(Uniting and Strengthening America” (Fritscher, 2007). In order to do so the most suitable tools for this would have to be required to seize and hinder the act of terrorism. The US Patriot is divided into ten sections that are called “titles”,…...
The Death Penalty in the USA
We study history to understand what happened to societies in the past and help know what will affect today's day.. When studying history, you do not only study an event, you also study everything that had to do leading up to the event, as well as the society’s culture, religion, politics, and economics. In this essay, I will be analyzing the history of the death penalty. The early days of the death penalty The first established death penalty laws date…...
Capital PunishmentDeath penaltyDeath Penalty Pros And ConsJusticeMurderUsa
Product Diversification of Tesco in the Usa
Product diversification of Tesco in the USA In the beginning And now….. The world’s third biggest retailer, Tesco, has been open for business in the United States since 2007, trading under the brand name ‘Fresh and Easy’. Tesco’s entrance into the US market was a long time coming, with the company studying US shopping habits for 20 years. The team even sent out researchers to live with 60 American families for two weeks to discover the products they bought and…...
BusinessFoodTescoUsaWorld Wide Web
The President of the USA and the UK Prime Minister
Introduction To say that Clinton faced considerable constraints would be to recognise the setbacks he faced during his Presidency, in terms of sleaze and also in terms of his political agenda. Most infamously, Bill & Hilary's failed attempt to reform the healthcare system in 1993/4. Blair's 'Devolution Act 1997' -which was in essence a major constitutional change- was passed with startling simplicity especially when considered with the difficulty Clinton and countless other Presidents have faced in passing the simplest laws.…...
Legal Education in the USA
A review of the process of gaining a higher education in the legal field in America.LEGAL EDUCATION IN THE US There is no undergraduate law degree in the United States; thus, students cannot expect to study law without first completing an undergraduate degree. Basic admissions requirements for American law schools are a Bachelor's degree in any field and the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). The American law degree is called the Juris Doctor (JD) and usually requires three years of…...
How long does it take for one to become an American citizen? A majority of America’s population has emigrated from various parts of the world for many different reasons. Some immigrants adapt instantly, while others take years. Some may never adapt and never feel at home in the new country that they are living in. In the essay Imagining Homelands by Bharati Mukherjee, the author suggests that that an immigrant is either like her sister, someone who religiously retains her…...
Describe the growth of teenage culture in the USA in the period 1955-75
The average teenager was very different in 1955, to that of 1975. During the 1950's young white middle class people had a lot more money to spend on themselves than any other generation. They were unquestionably better off than young people in other countries and indeed than what their parents had been during the years of the great Depression. Companies were starting to reply with products that were specifically targeted at them and 'teenage fads' were starting to become a…...
Political Parties in USA
There are currently two major political parties in the United States, the Democratic and Republican party. There are many third political parties in the United States but, the Libertarian, Constitutional, and Green party are some of the most currently active. Each party has their different views on how the government should be ran and goals that they would like to achieve if ever elected. Despite their differences, their main interest is to bring forth a form of government that they…...
Democratic PartyGovernmentJusticeLiberalismPolicyPolitical Parties
Deficit Spending in USA
An examination of the trend of deficit spending in the United States over the past decades Deficit Spending "Spending financed not by current tax receipts, but by borrowing or drawing upon past tax reserves." , Is it a good idea? Why does the U.S. run a deficit? Since 1980 the deficit has grown enormously. Some say its a bad thing, and predict impending doom, others say it is a safe and stable necessity to maintain a healthy economy. When the…...
Current Account Deficit
The dynamic interrelationship of investment portfolios of different countries affects each other’s economic processes. On the part of the current account deficit, it can be realized that one economy is starting to lose its power in terms of investment presence in its domestic or global territories. With the current condition of the United States’ current account deficit, there can be seen underlying possible concerns for the economy. Current accounts, especially in the offshore trading domain, provide the relative strength of…...
Comparing the Population of Brazil and the USA
The population of Brazil in 1957 was 52 million. That was approximately a third of the population of The United Sates at that time, whose population was around 151 million. Estimates of the population of Brazil vary between 160 million and 171 million. The most recent census in 1996 gave a total of 157 million, which was believed to be about 5% short of the total. (IBGE Website). Other online sources stated the population for Brazil in July 2001 to…...
Legislation vs Takeover Activities in USA and Australia
Changes in legislation and other policies often have significant impact on the level of M&A activity within US and Australia. In US market, takeovers activities in the 1980s were characterized by heavy use of leverage; LBO's and debt-financed takeovers may have been driven by artificially cheap funding from the junk bonds market. Firms purchased other firms in leveraged takeovers by borrowing rather than by issuing new stock or using solely cash on hand. Other firms restructured themselves, borrowing to repurchase…...
A Trend of Decentralization in the USA Government
Although Congress began as an entity of centralization, it has slowly taken a trend of strong decentralization. The intentions of the founders of Congress were concerned about excessive power in one branch as well as mob rule and on what basis congress was going to be represented. The solution to this was bicameral legislation that resulted in an upper house, the Senate, and a lower house, the House of Representatives. As this high efficiency, less participation program began to fall…...
Government and Constitution in USA
The people who created the U.S. Constitution wanted to form a government that would represent the interests of all citizens, but not at the expense of individual liberties. They also wanted to create balance between a strong national government, which would bring the states together and at the same time have the ability to generate tax revenues, and limit government, which would prevent corruption and tyranny. One main feature of the Constitution is that it clearly separates the powers of…...
Travel Experience in USA
Aside from being a memorable experience, travelling can be quite educative. It opens you up to things you’ve never known before. Many people take frequent trips for holidays or just for the thrill to some of the most popular cities in the world like New York, or Paris. Others prefer going to the not so crowded places like Amsterdam. While some prefer the exotic places like any of these island countries. Our experience should be memorable if only we learn…...
ExperienceUsaWorld Wide Web
Childhood Obesity in the USA
In the US, the rate of Childhood obesity has been on a high rise over the past decades, and today. The United States is known to have some of the most cases of obesity in a child's life. Obesity in children has more than doubled over the past few decades. It has been documented that one out of six children are obese and in the same case, one out of three children are either overweight or obese. Obesity is known…...
Migration from Mexico to the USA
"Look at Mexico. We need to make the government better and end the corruption. If people have a better life in their country, they won't come over here"(Garza,Tony). It's needless to say that the government needs to change. People are going to be looking for asylum because it isn't safe for them in their own country or they are trying to make a better life for themselves and their families. In a recent tweet, President Donald Trump attempts to portray…...
ChildDonald TrumpIllegal ImmigrationImmigrationMexicoMigration
Properties and Usage of Lead and Cadmium
2.2 LEAD Lead is a splendid and shiny metal with an exceptionally slight shade of blue in a dry environment. (Polyanskiy, 1986) Upon contact with air, it starts to discolor by shaping an unpredictable blend of mixes relying upon the conditions. The shade of the mixes can shift. The stain layer can contain huge measures of carbonates and hydroxycarbonates (Tetreault et al., 1998; Thurmer et al., 2002). Its trademark properties incorporate high thickness, delicate quality, pliability and flexibility, poor electrical…...
Solar Energy in USA
This paper contain the solar energy aspect in USA. Solar electric generation have been commercialized for about 25 years. But the utilization of solar electric grids is very poor. The reason behind this failure is that the total cost per kilowatt-hour from the solar generators substantially exceed the cost per kilowatt-hour for electric generated at central generating Stations powered by burning coal, oil, gas or by nuclear power plants .In this project, we are designing a series controller. The most…...
High Costs of Dying in the USA
Health care costs are rising quickly, and it's accepted that a great part of the ascent in the medical expenditures is credited to the utilization of medical advances that are too costly to be in any way legitimized. At the point when assets are restricted and request surpasses supply, allocation turns into an issue. How that issue is tackled depends to a great extent on the idea of the assets themselves. At the point when the assets are understood as…...
Problems with Voting in USA
From the beginning of the United States of America's democracy, voting has been a controversial topic, and laws concerning it have continued to change. Originally reserved to only landowners, the first years of the country were determined by primarily white protestants over the age of 21. After the U.S. Constitution was created, the playing field changed, placing who could vote in the hands of the states. It was not until nearly a century later that the requirement of being a…...
Report on the enron scandal usa
Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services providing company primarily based in Houston, Texas. Before it went bankrupt on December 2, 2001, Enron had employed roughly 20,000 employees and had becomeone of the world's major electricity, gas, communications, and pulp and paper firms, with claimed revenues of nearly $111 billion throughout 2000. Fortune, an American business magazine, named Enron "America's Most Innovative Company" for 6 consecutive years. The story ends with the bankruptcy of one of America's largest firms. Enron's collapse affected the lives of thousands of staff, shareholders and different investors. By 2001 end, it had been disclosed that its reported economic condition was because of a smartly coming up with an institutionalized, systematic,…...
In 2007 Center for Disease Control CDC report stated that in USA
In 2007 Center for Disease Control (CDC) report stated that in USA the most serious and fatal infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA as customarily considered a Hospital Acquired infection but the increased infections of MRSA in Community are not initiating from hospital as the CA-MRSA are genetically distinct and diverse and can be tracked by Genotyping.32The first CA-MRSA infection with unique genetic elements occurred in aboriginal in Australia in early 1990s.33 Later Centers for Disease Control and Prevention…...
The Boston Marathon Bombing Affected the USA
Abstract The Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013 shaped the citizens of the greater Boston, Massachusetts area and America, how police respond to and handle similar situations, and showed the American people how social media has developed in spreading news since September 11, 2001 as well as social medias loss of censorship following this event. This research paper will discuss how the citizens were affected by the events of the Boston Marathon Bombing. This research paper will also explore how the…...
Cocoanut Grove Disaster in USA History
The Aftereffect Behind the Cocoanut Grove Tragedy The Cocoanut Grove was a well-known restaurant and nightclub situated in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. In the early 40s, it was the city's most famous spot. On November 28, 1942, it also became the scene of the deadliest nightclub fire in United States history. On that evening, a considerable number of people were expected there, including militaries and football fans. Earlier in the afternoon, many had attended a traditional football match between Holy Cross…...
Economic Recession in 1930s in USA
The 1920s was essentially a time for changes. To name a few, the decade saw social, political and economic changes. The 1920s was also known as The New Era because America was becoming more modernized. Some didn't like all the new customs and rebelled. The assembly line paved the way for many advancements. With the automobile and motor vehicles it spiked a need for more construction with people being able to get around more efficiently. In the 1920s radio was…...
Economic RecessionEconomicsFeature Of Economic RecessionNew DealSocial DarwinismUsa
USA Current account deficit Surviving but not thriving Essay topic Number 1Submitted
USA Current account deficit Surviving but not thriving Essay topic Number 1Submitted By Kamal Kaushik Submitted to Prof. Mark Hitti Table of Content1. Introduction.......................................................................... 22. Critical Discussion ................................................................. 32.1 Situation of current USA Economy.................................................. 32.2 Reasons for high debts current account deficit..................................... 32.3 How is the US economy sustaining such high debts from so long.............. 42.4 Possible solutions for US current account problems andcountries to come out of deficit............................................................. 43.Conclusion............................................................................... 5 4.Bibliography............................................................................ 6 5.Appendix................................................................................ 8IntroductionThe United States (U.S.) has the…...
Usama AL Towaya analysis
Usama AL TowayaLina ChavesHUM 102017 March 2019Statue of Liberty (1962) by Andy WarholExhibited at Arkansas Arts Center Andy Warhol exhibition (October 26, 2008) An Analysis of Andy Warhol's Statue of Liberty Andy Warhol painted this painting Statue of Liberty in 1962. The painting currently shown at the Arkansas Art Center, but it originally belongs to the Andy Warhol museum in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. The artist used silkscreen ink, spray enamel and graphite on canvas. The dimensions of the painting are (77…...
Unemployment and Welfare in USA
In the United States alone, millions of Americans rely on welfare, or means-tested cash benefits as their primary source of survival. The amount of support American taxpayers generate to fund the sustainability of many citizens lives has been questioned and ridiculed by individuals who believe our welfare system is flawed. Individuals on the other spectrum promote government social policy and view it as something that is owed to the people. Before we analyze this controversial topic more in depth, it…...
Black history month in the USA
Black history month is an important time to celebrate Black people. The history of African Americans is not taught enough. There are many ways to educate society about the experiences that African Americans endured. This information should not only be shared in schools but on television, through social media, and even from parents to their children. If black history is taught more, we would honor historic leaders of the black communities and their accomplishments. Knowing our black history would help…...
Black History MonthHistoryUsa
First Impressions Of College In The USA
Entering college is very exciting for everyone, especially in coming Freshman. This excitement is expressed in the article College (1925), written by Anzia Yezierska. Yezierska talks about her expectation about college and her effort which she did not give up regardless of her ruined expectation about college. Like Yezierska, my story is the similar. Being raised in another country, where English is my second language, the journey to attend a college in American could be described as a dream came…...
The Civil Rights Movement In The Usa History
The Civil Rights Movement was a time dedicated to activism for equal rights and treatment of African- Americans in the United States. During this period, many people rallied for social, legal and political changes to prohibit discrimination and end segregation. Many important events involving discrimination against African- Americans led up to the era known as the Civil Rights Movement. The enslavement of Africans is perhaps the biggest example of inhumanity in United States history. The abolishment of slavery did not…...
Civil RightsCivil Rights MovementUsa
Born in the Usa
The song deals with the effects of the Vietnam War on Americans that can be depicted after going through the wordings of the song. The song is often misinterpreted as a patriotic song as the starting lines and the body of song resembles so. The song was initially written in 1981. It served as a title song for the film maker Paul Schrader. The song became so popular that Springsteen used it for his multi-platinum album. During his concerts, the…...
Customs and traditions in the USA
Customs and traditions are important part of our culture, of our lives. Customs and traditions unite, build community. They provide identity. They tie us to our ancestors and heritage. They remind us of where we came from. Every country and every nation has it's own traditions and customs. It's very important to know traditions and customs of different people. It will help you to know more about the history and life of different nations and countries. Custom is a traditional…...
Early Marriage in USA
Why do Americans get married so early? Growing up in Germany I’ve been living in America for one and a half year and I honestly have to say that I got used to the culture, values and traditions pretty quickly. But one thing I never understood and I’m still doubting about is why Americans get married with an age of 21 or even younger. In European countries and many other ones like China and Japan the average age of marriage…...
Electoral College USA Politics 30 Marker
Evaluate the view that despite criticism’s, the Electoral College is by far the best method of electing the US President. (30) The Electoral College is an institution established by the Founding Fathers to elect the President indirectly. The Electoral College never meets, instead the presidential Electors - whose numbers equals the number of representatives and senators the state has in the United States Congress- meet to cast ballots for the President and Vice President. (more…)...
Electoral College Pros And ConsGovernmentPoliticsUsaVoting
Farmers’ Problems in Late Nineteenth Century in USA
In the late nineteenth century, twenty years after the Homestead Act, farmers used their land in the western plains to produce both crops and profits. The farmers of this time struggled in the agricultural way of life by facing economic and political obstacles that were impossible to avoid, requiring them to do something about their complaints. Although the farmers had plausible arguments for most of their criticisms, their beliefs of the silver standard and overproduction sometimes could not be backed…...
If I Were A FarmerUsa
Food Regulations in the Usa
Everyone has heard the stories about mad cow disease and other food-borne diseases coming into the United States from countries such as United Kingdom and China. Besides that locally, foodborne illnesses are among the top of deaths within the United States. Cause of these deaths, most could be prevented if better rules and regulations were in place federally and locally in the United States. In this paper I will be discussing insight on how the US Government can improve the…...
Obesity Statistics in USA
The population as of 2011 was totaled to 608,453. The majority of this population consisted of people between the ages of 15 and 44 years old. Kent County consist of mostly white persons at 83. 8%. The next larges group consists of African Americans at 10. 3% and Hispanics at 9. 9%. The median household income is $50,801, with 14. 8% of the population being listed below poverty level. The unemployment rate is at 8. 52% (2011, US Census Bureau).…...
Air PollutionObesityStatisticUsaWorld Wide Web
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Inequality Issue in the USA vs Other Countries
This essay has the purpose to evaluate the degree of inequality in the United States to be beneficial or rather of a disadvantage, as well as it aims to find reasons why the USA shows comparatively higher inequality than more equitable societies.
In the following, I am first going to elaborate on further evidence on rising inequality in the USA before the advantages and the disadvantages of having a certain degree of economic disparity in a country are going to be discussed, as well as they will be applied to and weighted for the given case study of the USA. Furthermore, I am going to elaborate on government intervention and the competing aims of enhancing efficiency and equity before taking a closer look at the particular intervention through taxation as a means of regulating income inequality.
Evidence for Economic Inequality in the USA
The disparities between the wealthiest part of the US American population and the rest have been continually increasing within the last twenty-five years (Ornstein, 2007). This development is reflected in Figure 1 displaying the contrasting developments in share of national income in percent for the bottom 50 and the top 1% income group. The incomes of the top 1% collectively rose from 11% of national income in 1980 to more than 20% of national income, whereas the income of the bottom 50% declined from 20% to 12% in the mentioned time span. This reflects that 8% of the national income have been moved from the latter to the former while the top 1% rose even more than that, although the group of people making up the bottom 50% makes up a part of the population which is more than fifty times larger than the group forming the top 1%.
Disadvantages of Economic Inequality
On the other hand, as the group of inhabitants experiencing the disadvantages of disparities through not succeeding in achieving a desirable position in society, inequality can develop to be less beneficial for society as a whole. A high level of inequality is mirrored in high poverty which is also the case in the USA as the poverty rate describing the percentage of the population earning less than half of the national median income before tax reached nearly 30% in 2015 (Acemoglu, Laibson & List, 2018, p.281).
High poverty rates imply a larger part of the population living under worse living standards and increase the risk of rising criminality as crime often appears as a “substitute for legitimate sources of income” (Rosenfeld, 2013). As the sources of income for the bottom 50% appear to fail to increase as the low average income stagnates as described above, the incentives for the less wealthy people to commit crimes as an alternative way to earn money are probable to increase.
Also, “high inequality threatens a country’s political stability because more people are dissatisfied with their economic status, which makes it harder to reach political consensus among population groups with higher and lower incomes” (The World Bank, 2004, p. 31). As the disparities between the wealthiest and poorest further increase in the USA as it did in the past years, this could also become a disadvantage of increasing relevance.
To sum up, the current development of rising inequality in the USA is developing towards exceeding an extent to which it is beneficial and rather bringing along disadvantages not only for the less wealthy part of the population but also for the stability and progress of the nation as a whole.
Taxation: Conflict Between Equity and Efficiency
Trying to avoid or reduce the mentioned disadvantages, governments aim to diminish inequality by means of regulation like taxation although they are in constant conflict between aiming to enhance efficiency on the one hand but improving the nation’s equity on the other hand. High taxation increases the deadweight loss which appears when suppliers increase prices due to for example rising taxes on producers resulting in a decrease in efficiency which leads to a competitive disadvantage which is expressed in a decrease in the quantity demanded (Acemoglu et. al., 2000, p.292). At the same time, a higher level of taxation enables the government to have a higher influence on the distribution of wealth. As there is an increased amount of public capital to redistribute wealth within the population`s different groups of income, the country benefits from increased equity resulting in a higher capability to decrease the nation’s inequality.
Taxation Comparison USA vs. Scandinavia
How different taxation rates allow varying influence on the countries equity can be recognized when contrasting the given case study of the USA with highly equal societies in Scandinavia. Comparing the tax rate of Scandinavian countries which varies at a high level between 38% and 50% of the gross domestic product in 2015 (Acemoglu et. al., 2000, p. 281), the rate in the USA was only 26%.
The higher tax rate allows Scandinavian countries to create a more equitable distribution of income and wealth which is being reflected in the different Gini coefficients. The mentioned index indicates the degree of income inequality in a certain country with a value of 0 reflecting perfect equality as every individual earning the same amount of income, and a value of 1 showing the most unequal distribution possible as only one individual earns the full national income (Acemoglu et. al., 2000, p. 281).
Both the Scandinavian countries and the USA have a relatively high Gini Coefficient between approximately 0.4 for Iceland and about 0.53 for the US comparing inequality of income before taxes and transfers(Acemoglu et. al., 2000, p. 281). How the higher tax rate allows a more equal income distribution in Scandinavia can be discovered when taking a closer look at the Gini coefficient for the income after taxes and transfers. Whereas the highest value in Scandinavia was lower than 0.28 in Sweden, the US American value still nearly reached a value of 0.4 in 2015(Acemoglu et. al., 2000, p.281). Because of lower tax rates, the USA lacks capital for generous social welfare programs transferring and redistributing the country`s wealth between the different income groups.
Education System Causing Inequality in the USA
In addition to the given reason of a comparatively low level of taxation, a huge factor driving inequality in the United States is the education system. The quality of education a person received is determining for future career options and income. Many students from low-income families appear to lack higher education which prevents them from earning higher incomes (Berg, 2010). In comparison, “Oxford University has four times the number of students from low-income families as Harvard “(Berg, 2010, p. 43). Few young adults from low-income families get into or succeed in college because they lack basic knowledge because their high school and parental education was of a lower quality compared to one of people who grew up in wealthier families and received better education at high school (Berg, 2010). Due to this inequality of high schools, many poorer students miss out attending Advancement Placement courses or preparation for standardized entry tests like the SAT test which are of high importance in order to succeed in getting into college.
To sum up, there is early segregation of young people dependent on their income through differences in the quality of education which decreases social mobility and leading to increased economic inequality due to limited career perspectives for people born into less wealthy households.
Effect on The Countries Political Stability
Undoubtedly, economic inequality is comparatively high in the USA compared to other developed regions like for example Western Europe or Scandinavia and disparities between the richest and the poorest parts of the population have been rising even further since 1960. Although a certain degree of inequality can encourage ambition to work hard which might be beneficial for the counties development and improvement of the economy and society in general, it appears to also become less of a benefit as there is an increasing part of the population with low incomes who do not succeed in profiting from the arising competing national conditions. This bears the risk to raise crime rates and conflict between the diverging income groups and the government, decreasing the country’s political stability. Early segregation of income groups through varying access to high-quality education is an important factor driving inequality. Because of comparatively low tax rates in contrast to more equitable societies like Scandinavia, the USA also tends to enhance economic efficiency rather than collecting money for redistribution and social welfare programs which would be a means to reduce the rise of economic disparities. Given the widening gap between the rich and the poor Americans, the government is obligated to reduce the causes of increasing the unequal distribution in order to prevent the country from further dividing.