Scientific method Essay Examples

Scientific method

Scientific Method – How Knowledge is Made
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Throughout the history of scientific develop there have been many a view and reflection on the scientific method and overall nature of science; these reflections and views have been the topic of much philosophical debate. These debates can lead to issues in determining the “apparent” rationality of the scientific method and nature of science (University of Queensland, 2019). Whilst it is commonly understood that science is a way of critically thinking about and analysing the empirical world around us; it…...
Scientific Literacy: Conceptual Overview
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Scientific Literacy is a term that has been used since the late 1950’s to describe a desired knowledge about something related to science on the general public. In the history of science education there has been at least nine separate and distinct goals of science that are related to the goals of scientific literacy. In the history, it has been argued that instead of defining scientific literacy as prescribed learning and outcomes, scientific literacy should be conceptualized broadly enough for…...
The Structure of Scientific Writing
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The structure of a research paper or scientific writing includes several steps. These steps are described below. Abstract It must briefly introduce to reader our aim of study, methodology, results and findings. The abstract is a summary of our research. It is nearly as important as the title because the reader will be able to quickly read through it. In most scientific writing, the abstract can become divided into very short sections to guide the reader through the summaries. Keep…...
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Scientific Management Approach
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Introduction Scientific management may be described as science where workers have specific but different responsibilities. It is one of the first notable paradigm shifts in management style in the 20th century. The main objectives of scientific management can be described as follows: The development of a new mechanism for each part of a job replacing old rule-of-thumb methods. Selecting, training and developing workers in a scientific manner instead of self-selection of tasks and self-training by workers. The development of cooperation…...
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies: Achievements and Challenges
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Behavioural therapy is rare that you can rely on the scientific method. Notions and techniques are examined scientifically and are regularly updated. The therapist and assessment happen all at once and the researched is constant. Assessments always commence at the start of the therapy when goals are set. The therapist’s job is to instruct, however, the client determines which behaviour to require to be modified, and the therapist reaches a decision in what way is best accomplished. The behavioural therapist…...
Scientific Methods and Knowledge
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Introduction Scientific method is a method that scientists use to study natural phenomena, acquire new knowledge, or modify existing knowledge. Scientific methods must be scientific, observable, inferential, measurable, and consistent with the principles of reasoning. Scientific methods are considered to be the best objective framework for constructing the material world, including theoretical research, applied research, and rules, techniques, and models in the development and promotion of science. However, scientific methods are not always reliable. The results obtained using scientific methods…...
Samson Occom and Johnathan Edwards Comparative Analysis
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Samson Occom and Johnathan Edwards discussed the significance of the philosophical movement of the Great Awakening and the Enlightenment Era. During the Great Awakening and the Enlightenment Era, philosophers Johnathan Edwards and Samson Occom informed others publicly about their beliefs. Edwards and Occom were two distinctive men from different upbringing and identity who sermonized religious principles. These preachers who discussed the importance of Christian philosophy, which originated from teachings of puritanism, had focused on principles of religion throughout their preaching…...
The Sociobiological theory
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The Sociobiological theory The Sociobiological theory does however have evolutionary advantages; it offers plausible explanation for the evolution of specific mate preferences that exist today. Women who select men, who were unable or unwilling to invest resources in their offspring, would experience lower reproductive success than those who placed a premium on these qualities. The Reinforcement and need satisfaction theory states that the reason we spend so much time in social relationships is that we find them rewarding (positively reinforcing)…...
Primitive Classifications
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To think about ourselves and the world that surrounds us is a complex activity that can also be thought about. This sentence in itself demonstrates that it would be impossible to do this, to think, if we were not capable of designating all things, concepts, relations and objects to specific categories, and so classifying all that we experience and perceive into a coherent system of organization. Are our representations, our classifications a product of cognitive processes or rather, those of…...
Physical and mental efforts
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Apart from these major issues some other reason can be find in the heart of the text. Going through the essay all these points has been discussed in detail sequence vice. Some of the contents have been taken from different resources. All the references and bibliography has been given at the end. Mankind, by nature, has been occurred curious about it's surrounding. Even from very beginning of mankind history, human being started exploring the things around and tried to make…...
This paper will focus on the Agenda-Setting Theory
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  This study took a look at the 1968 presidential election and the media coverage that came with it. They took in consideration the amount of time the media gave particular issues in which the candidates faced such issues as civil rights and welfare. McCombs and Shaw (1972) conducted the study by asking 100 undecided voters which issues they thought were important. Seeing what the public agenda was the study found very strong correlations with the public agenda and the…...
Mental arithmetic
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The mean time taken to complete the task when dissimilar stimuli are used (condition 1) is shorter than the time taken to complete the task when similar stimuli are used (condition 2).The data was analysed using an independent-samples t-test - this showed that the difference between the mean time taken to complete the task when dissimilar stimuli were used and the mean time taken to complete the task when similar stimuli were used was statistically significant (t = -1.728, df…...
Funding Sources
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Three major classifications There are several funding options available for the present-day researcher. These options can be categorized into three major classifications which are research grants, proposal funding, and business plan funding. Grants are sums of money awarded to a particular researching individual or group in order to fulfill a particular research objective made by the researcher (Mello, 2003). This typically involves a complicated screening process whereby the granter scrutinizes possible grantees backgrounds thoroughly in order to ensure that the…...
Eyewitness testimony Theory
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Ethics: For the field experiment, participants were not made aware of their right to withdraw at first, as doing so would have alerted them to the fact they were in an experimental situation and so would have had a significant effect on our findings. Both the field and laboratory experiments raised the issue of fully informed consent; the first because participants were not made aware of the fact they were part of an experiment and the second because they were…...
What’s Your Definition of Being Well-Educated?
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Introduction Alfie Kohn as well as Nel Noddings, a professor emerita at Stanford University, expresses their thoughts on how we as people have a misconception of “Well-educated people”. Many people have different opinions on what they think can categorize people as being well –educated. Based on my readings of “What Does it Mean to be Well-Educated” by Alfie Kohn, on the readings of What the Bible says well-educated person is, and based on my personal experience, I have come up…...
The weakness of Wegner’s theory
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Introduction While the ancient fossils on different continents were often similar or identical, the exploring naturalists were finding out that living plants and animals on the different continents were often very different. The naturalists were discovering whole new groups of animals and plants on nearly every island and continent they visited. Most biological species seemed to be unique to the region or continent in which they were found. How could these seemingly contradictory observations be reconciled? Plate tectonics provided the…...
Vygotsky’s theory
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Introduction Several aspects of Piaget's theory have been questioned but other aspects remain influential. Piaget's work has encouraged other theorists such as Vygotsky to study children's cognition. Vygotsky took a socio cultural view of development that makes social interaction the centre of his theory. Cognition and behaviour arise from the interaction of a person with other persons and vents in the world, over time with the use of cultural tools. Vygotsky claimed that cultural tools are acquired through interacting with others,…...
Visual Attention
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The three models used to study the covert spatial distribution of attention has been used in experiments on visual attention but since few researches focused on auditory tasks it is presented here as it can possibly used to explain other sensory modalities. The first model The first model says that attention can only be directed to one visual field (Kinsbourne, 1993). This in essence means that we can only attend to one thing at a time; hence we can only…...
Uppsala Theory
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Uppsala theory is the second most important theory which dominates the internationalization of the firm. Carlson’s (1996) reasoning laid the foundation for this model which mainly deals with knowledge acquisition or learning. Central issues concern how organizations learn and how this learning affects their subsequent investment behaviour. The core concepts of this model are market commitment, market knowledge, commitment decisions and current activities. The stages of the development theory This is also known as the stages of the development theory…...
The Universal Grammar theory
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"The extent and type of our language defines our knowledge of the world" The statement above is a composite claim, created by the juxtaposition of two independent notions which must be understood for a proper analysis to be effectuated. The concept of language is thus partitioned into its different varieties (e. g. French) and its utility in helping us understand the world around us. Due to the correlation between language and culture, it is difficult, at first glance, to deny…...
Transaction Cost Theory
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Transaction theory tends to focus on the choice of an individual organization. A central hypothesis of transaction theory is that inter-unit theory relationships in which supplier assets are specialized to have lower transaction costs inside an organization than when the relationship is between organizations. The theory which was proposed by Williamson (1975, 1985), is based on the central assumption that exchange takes the form of a series of transactions. Transaction cost theory forms a common foundation to explain the capacity…...
The theory of Relative deprivation
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All three are similar in terms of the fact that they all illustrate a discrepancy between value expectations and value capabilities. According to Gurr and Robert, decrimental deprivation occurs when value expectations remain constant whilst the institutional capacity to meet the values declines (Gurr and Robert, 1971:47). On the other hand, aspirational deprivation is the opposite movement and involves an increase in value expectations at the expense of institutional capabilities, which remain constant (Gurr and Robert 1971:51). This sort of…...
Agency Problems and the Theory of the Firm
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The article attempts to review the separation of the ownership and control functions such as managerial tools and risk management in terms of the competition`s influence from other firms which forces the evolution of devices for efficiently monitoring the performance of the entire team and of its individual members, in order to understand that we define "Management role" as "Decision making" and "The entrepreneur" as "risk bearers ", in that context there is irrelevance of the concept of ownership of…...
The collision theory
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The results should lie on straight lines. I will know from looking at the graphs, if I have any outliners. As you can tell from the straight lines. There are not any outliers and my results are correct. From this test I have decided that 2cm would be the best length to work with, as it provides a long enough time to record accurately the 2mole acid test, and it is also a reasonably short time for the 0. 5…...
The Bigbang Theory
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Introduction It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. The Big Bang model However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into…...
The Acculturation Theory And Models Cultural Studies Essay
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With increasing Numberss of people immigrating into the United States every twelvemonth,the American population is going more diversified. In 1997 entirely, a sum of 798,378new immigrants entered the U.S. ( U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service 1999 ) .The states ' three largest minority groups, the Blacks, Hispanics, and Asiatic Americansare turning much faster than Anglo Americans. In 1994, the Black population grew by1.5 % , the Latino population increased by 3.5 % , the Asiatic population grew by 3.8 %…...
Structural Adjustment Programs
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Introduction Development economic sciences can be divided into two wide classs which are `` neoclassical economic sciences '' and `` structural linguistics '' . The structuralist sees the universe as inflexible. Change is inhibited by obstructions, constrictions and restraints. Peoples find it difficult to travel or accommodate, and resources tend to be stuck. In economic footings the supply of most things is inelastic. Such general inflexibleness was thought to use peculiarly to Least Development Countries. Entrepreneurs were missing ; and…...
Size Constancy
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Introduction After your brain has perceived what the image it is looking at is, the next task is to decipher where the object is. When you are looking around you can usually instantly tell how far away something is. It is this ability that is essential for any predators in order to catch their prey. However as usual we can be tricked! Both the pictures above are genuine and have not been doctored. The picture on the left is a photo…...
Send In The Clones
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Introduction It is hard to say if cloning is an answer to a problem or just another problem for the human race. There have been books, movies, and even stories about mankind creating their own species of humans. A good example of what could happen if mankind learns to clone itself is Mary Shelly’s’ Frankenstein. A classic novel demonstrating what could happen when mankind takes the power of “God” in our own hands. Cloning is physically a new science but…...
Schema Theory Essay
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Schemas are mental representation of cognition built through experiences from people. state of affairs or object. Schema Theory is divided into three phases to acquire a better apprehension of the memory processes which are “1. Encoding- Transforming sensory information to meaningful memory 2. Storage- Creates a biological hint of the memory. which is either amalgamate or lost 3. Retrieval- utilizing shops information all the time” . “Schema is seen as a sort of model where some information is filled in…...
Roland barthes and his semiotic theory
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Introduction Roland Barthes ( 1915 – 1980 ) is one of the most recognized names in the field of Semiotics. His Semiotic Theory has been the inspiration behind many draw a bead oning pupils and instructors likewise. His rise to fame coincided with the release of his 1957 book Mythologies, which was a aggregation of essays he had authored. The populace was so fascinated by his thoughts that his sentiment was frequently kind in the public sphere. Signs range from…...
The Range of Social Scientific Methods
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Introduction Sociology is the ordered, logical study of human society and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions. It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity, structures, and functions. A goal for many sociologists is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from…...
Max Webers Theory of Bureaucracy
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Introduction The emergence of the management process and organization theory took place in two forms: Fayol's identification of the principles and elements of management and Weber's search for an ideal way of organizing. From different backgrounds and perspectives, both Fayol and Weber attempted to develop methods for managing large-scale organizations. Fayol stressed education for management rather than technical training, the importance of planning, organizing, command, coordination, and control. Weber sought to replace authority based on tradition and charisma with legal…...
Prospect Theory
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From the infamous Dutch tulip hysteria of the 17th century to the Great Depression to the dot-com crash, wild bouts of speculation have occasionally inflated financial bubbles that "soaked investors when they burst". Numerous economists and sociologists have attempted to explain these phenomena using the standard finance theory of expected utility, which has been accepted as a normative model of rational choice2, and widely applied as a descriptive model of economic behaviour. Kahneman and Tversky However, with the emergence of…...
Merton’s Theory of Anomie
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Anomie is a state of normlessness first coined by Robert K Merton, an American functionalist sociologist borrowed Durkheim s concept of Anomie to form his own theory called Strain Theory Merton argued that the real problem is not created by a sudden social change as Durkheim proposed, but rather by a social structure that holds out the sane goals to all its members without giving them equal means of achieving them. It is the lack of combining between what the…...
A Monopoly Exists in Theory
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Monopoly The state may also choose to award an exclusive right to supply to one body, most commonly through franchises or patents. There are many variants of the former. The Post Office, for example, is not overall a natural monopoly, but has always been run as a state monopoly in order to ensure safe delivery of official correspondence. Many professional bodies, such as lawyers, are given exclusive rights to provide specific services, and also the right to govern who enters…...
McClelland’s Three Manifest Needs Theory and Its Practical Implications
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A human need does not stop when his or her sense of physical survival is secured. Humans have to possess clothing, food, and shelter. As social beings, they also have the need to socialize in order to grow, enhance their sense of individuality, and explore their full potentials. David McClelland focused his works on secondary human needs in connection to their nature as social beings. Due to inconsistent level of peoples’ self esteem or self confidence, McClelland recognized that people…...
McClelland’s Theory of Needs
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In late 1960s Edwin Locke determined that the best motivator is to work towards attaining specific goals. Exactly determined goals tell a person what is he/she required to do and what effort he/she needs to achieve that goal. According to the goal-setting theory specific and difficult goals which are supported by feed-back give productively and effectively done work. Self-Efficacy Theory Self-efficacy theory is directed to the individual's belief that he/she is capable to fulfill a task of some level of…...
Manage Theory and Practice
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Communication is one of the most important dynamics in the field of HRM because effective communication in an organization creates better understanding of the company’s vision and goals and leads to the achievement of these goals effectively. Effective communication is highly necessary to achieve positive behaviour of employees in the organization. It can become effective by emphasizing upon the interpersonal communication in the organization to resolve HR issues in the company. This interpersonal communication channel provides better mutual understanding between…...
Jacques-Yves Cousteau
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Jacques-Yves Cousteau, a man who taught an era of people about the wonders of the sea depths. He used his eighty-seven years of life to teach the world as much as he could about the wonders that hid in the water. He invented the aqua-lung to make adventures into the deep easier and easy to use for people who have never done such a thing. He was interested in the ocean at a young age, and working in the Navy…...
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Scientific Method – How Knowledge is Made

...In conclusion, it can clearly be seen that Popper’s Hypothetico-Deductivist Account of Science is far better than Chalmers’ inductive interpretation for deducing scientific knowledge. The claims presented in Alan Chalmers’ ‘Common view of Sci...