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According to Hallinan learning process and academic achievement inherently associated with cognitive and social psychological factors. By considering the fact that teachers are in contact with pupils in one classroom as complex system of interactions, it is inevitable that learning is influenced by various operators such as cognitive, social, cultural, affective, curricular in addition to interpersonal and emotional factors. Given the increasing negative attitudes of students to learning some lessons as science and physics, researchers have examined the reasons related to it.
Some other researchers came to the conclusion that interpersonal skills and establishing a positive atmosphere in classroom are essential to learning.
In other words, interpersonal skills of the teacher is one of the determinants of learning environment and classroom management. Taking this into account, it can be concluded that one of the reasons students would avoid learning specific lessons is the learning environment and interactions of teachers. As far as learning activities are always intertwined with communication and interpersonal sentiments, other experts, Andrzejewski & Davis (2008) asserted that Teacher-student relationships are an essential part of teaching and learning.
In fact, social-psychological relationships are important aspects of the learning environment because of educational, behavioral, and social consequences. As a result,It can be said that the quality of learning environment depends on the teacher-student relationship.
Resilience literature further discussed the positive impact of teacher-student interaction on various outcomes. For example Hughes, Luo,Kwok & Loyd (2008) found that Teacher-student relationship quality ,as the main aspect of the classroom context, can boost children’s achievement.
Other researchers investigated the correlation between teacher-student relationship and students’ motivation. Maulana, Opdenakker, den Brok, & Bosker (2012). They found a moderate correlation between teacher interpersonal behavior and students’ motivation. Recent reviews have also demonstrated that high quality interpersonal relationship plays a significant role in students’ motivation and social outcomes and subsequent school adjustment. Consistent with the previous studies, researchers have shown that provisions of a supportive student-teacher relationship are the vital underpinning of students’ academic motivation, engagement and achievement.
In contrast, Lack of high quality interaction and emotional support would lead to negative emotions such as stress. Keeping the above-mentioned issues in mind, the role of the teacher in achieving educational goals and creating a positive environment for learning should not be underestimated. In other words, teachers can be counted as one of the most important determinants of classroom atmosphere and creating positive or negative climate. While student–teacher interaction and relationship research has been given close attention in the learning environment, research about strategies to initiate, develop, change or maintain this relationship with students is limited. Therefore, Additional research is needed to better understand the practices that would help to qualify the emotional climate of learning environment. As a result, this research plans to shed more light on the strategies that can be used by in-service or prospective teachers to make the quality of classroom more desirable for both themselves and students.
When a student demonstrates inappropriate behavior in the classroom, often the question arises for the teacher that why this student is misbehaving? After this question, the teacher usually comes up with another question as to whether this student is mistreating only in my classroom? and if so, the teacher should look for certain communication patters in his or her interaction that causes annoying or provocative behavior in that specific student. Wubbels (1985). In other words, It can also be said that one reason of the students maladaptive behavior is the psychological functioning of teacher. Therefore, it is important for the teachers to gain enough knowledge to be able to modify undesirable communication situation in order to prevent further negative student-teacher relationships.
In this regard, Researchers have emphasized that developing teachers’ professional knowledge and skill training programs play an important role in enhancing teacher-student relationship. Besides, in designing the curriculum, more attention has been given to delivering the content to the students and few critical components appear to be lacking. It can be said that information about how teachers interact in the classroom and dealing with students has been missing in the curriculum……… In other words, teachers that focuses more on delivering the content of the curriculum, give little attention to the development of social-psychological relationships. In this regard complained that Many teachers are still unaware that creating a positive interaction with students is as important as delivering curriculum content.
Additionally, few attention has been given to educators’ training, while they are studying at universities to be prepared for the teaching profession, regarding the important role they play in the classroom to create a positive or negative atmosphere. As a result, most educators start their profession without enough knowledge about relational pedagogy and interaction with students in order to create a high quality relationship with them, Higgins (2011), or how sustain a stable relationship with their students. More Practical knowledge of teachers about relationship strategies is associated with their interaction and creation of high quality relationship with students.
Despite much research has been done regarding teacher and students’ perceptions about relational matters and interpersonal behavior, less attention has been given to the study of teacher-student interaction strategies. Given the shortcoming in certain key areas within the body of literature regarding teacher-student relationship strategies, the broad purpose of the current study is to extract teachers’ information and knowledge about their interaction perception in addition to relational pedagogies they used or would like to use in order to build a relationship with students. In other words, this research firstly will focus on the self-evaluation of interaction with students rated by Pre-service, in-Service teachers in addition to Education students. Secondly the actual practices that preservice, in-service teachers or education students would take to improve or sustain relationships with students will be investigated. In order to achieve the objectives of this research, the following questions are posed in this study.
As far as this research is a kind of Reflection-focused project, the information gleaned from this study at both qualitative and quantitative sections can be a basis for self-reflection by pre-service, in-service teachers and education students to be aware of the way they behave. The purpose of a reflection-based project is to give teachers the opportunity to think critically about their own behavior, teaching style and feelings and students’ reflex in order to reduce relational conflict. Fonagy, Steele, Steele, Moran & Higgitt (1991). Consistent with empirical studies on reflection-based strategies, the research results of Spilt, Koomen, Thijs & Van der Leij (2012).
Showes that in-depth relationship-oriented reflection can help to change or promote teachers’ perception of their relationship and be the starting point to set up a consultation. Additionally, it can be counted as a descriptive benchmark of possible strategies that can be used as systematic attempts in future in order to improve the quality of learning environment and create a more desirable classroom. In other words, the results van be beneficial in career development plans.
On general level, the results of this study can provide valuable information to teachers and educators by increasing knowledge and improving vision of all those involved in education. This guidance on relationship-building strategies will contribute to relational approaches in education reform or in Teacher Education programs and as a result will lead to more success in the field of education for both teachers and students. Brekelmans, Holvast, & Van Tartwijk (1992) The present study is one of the first of its kind that implies the self-evaluation of interpersonal behavior in addition to relational strategies that are of great importance to foster nurturing and make warm relationship between teacher and students.
Although there is no comprehensive definition of teacher-student interaction and relationship in the research literature in the field, In general, based on the …….. theory, it can be said that interaction is the buildinh block of relationship.
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