Sleep may be one of the most important factors for student success and often one of the most neglected. Many students will sacrifice sleep in order to work, play, or get school projects completed. However, although most people think they can function well when they don‟t get sleep, the truth is they cannot. Sleep is extremely important for ones mental and physical health. Even though enough sleep is necessary for cognitive function and memory consolidation, it did not seem to have any effect on the academic performance contrary to what other studies have shown.
(Source: httpwww.usu.eduarcidea_sheetspdfsleep%20and%20academics.pdf )
Sleep is a vital part of child and adolescent development. Poor or inadequate sleep can have a dramatically negative impact on a child’s daily functioning, particularly school performance. Side effects may include off-task behavior, drowsiness, irritability and an inability to focus. (Jennifer Paige Edwards, 2008)
Adequate amount of sleep is important for one’s mental and physical health, for cognitive restitution, processing, learning and memory consolidation.
Sleep requirements vary from person to person but 7-8 hours of sleep in adults is considered normal. It has been reported that inadequate sleep can cause emotional instability, memory loss, day time sleepiness and decreased concentration. Various researches have been conducted all over the word on this issue so far which shows that sleep deprivation affects the academic performance of student and may also cause mood dysregulation, increased dissatisfaction in day time functioning, obesity and decrease in cognitive functions. (Source: httpweb.mit.eduwriting2010JulyEliassonEtAl2002.pdf)
Sleep and wakefulness are intimately related states, with mutual influences (Ramos Platón, 1996). The present work focuses on the effects of sleep over wakefulness. Among others, sleep is important for cognitive restitution. It influences information processing, learning and memory consolidation (e.g., Lavie, 1996; Li Deming et al., 1991; Ramos Pláton, 1996). Therefore a certain amount of sleep is needed to adequate wakefulness. Besides the amount (or hours of sleep), the timing is also vital for adequate daytime functioning. Therefore, we tend to maintain relatively stable schedules. (Source: httpetd.auburn.eduetdbitstreamhandle104151174Edwards_Jennifer_30.pdf)
Most sleep specialists agree that, although adult humans require approximately 8 hr of sleep per day, sleep patterns of adolescents and young adults differ from those of their adult counterparts in several ways, including a need for increased sleep ( Carskadon, 2002 ). Additionally, research fi ndings suggest that adolescents undergo a phase delay in sleep on set accompanied by increased irregularities in their sleep patterns, further jeopardizing sleep suffi ciency in this population ( Wolfson & Carskadon, 1998 ). These physiologically determined changes in adolescent sleep patterns result in a net increase of 0.5 – 1.25 hr, equating to 8.5 – 9.25 hr of sleep required per night during adolescent and young adult stages of life. (Source:httpmontegraphia.comallisonwp-contentuploads201008Sleep_and_academic_performance.pdf)
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Sleep is an important factor in a child’s life, affecting development, as well as emotional and physical well-being. Sleep problems can have an impact on a child’s daytime functioning, and they are not uncommon. Estimates of the number of children with sleep problems range from as low as twenty percent (Liu et al., 2005), to as high as over fifty percent (Buckhalt & Wolfson, 2006). Sleep is a fundamental part of life. It is not just a function of the body, it is an active process. Sleep is so vital to the body’s daily functioning that a prolonged loss of sleep impairs metabolism, immune function, temperature control and can ultimately lead to death (Rechtshaffen & Bergmann, 2002). As with other functions of the body, sleep cannot be localized to just one part of the brain. Its control mechanisms are entrenched at every level, starting with the cells. The same mechanisms that control autonomic functions, cognition, behavior, arousal and motor functions are all involved with the process of sleep.
Adequate amount of sleep is important for one’s mental and physical health, for cognitive restitution, processing, learning and memory consolidation1-3. Sleep requirements vary from person to person but 7-8 hours of sleep in adults is considered normal. It has been reported that inadequate sleep can cause emotional instability, memory loss, day time sleepiness and decreased concentration4. Various researches have been conducted all over the word on this issue so far which shows that sleep deprivation affects the academic performance of student and may also cause mood dysregulation, increased dissatisfaction in day time functioning, obesity and decrease in cognitive functions2,5-7. A similar study done in Pakistan, on pediatric medicine residents also revealed the fact that continuous work with decreased sleep results in deterioration of cognitive and behavioral status4. (Jennifer Edwards, 2011).
Sleep may be one of the most important factors for student success and often one of the most neglected. Many students will sacrifice sleep in order to work, play, or get school projects completed. However, although most people think they can function well when they don‟t get sleep, the truth is they cannot. Research shows that people who are deprived of sleep perform worse on thinking and performance task than those who are not sleep deprived. Furthermore, those who were sleep deprived judged that they performed better on the task than they actually did. In comparison, the non-sleep deprived group accurately judged how well they did on the task. What this shows is that people lacking sleep think they are doing just fine when in fact, they are not. Losing sleep often results in lower performance on tasks, which frustrates and aggravates the sleep deprived student who thinks his or her performance is just fine. Research shows that people who sleep seven hours a night do better on memory tasks than those who do not. Individuals will vary in terms of how much sleep is the „right‟ amount, but in general most college students need at least six to eight hours a night. (httpwww.usu.eduarcidea_sheetspdfsleep%20and%20academics.pdf)
At a time when several studies have highlighted the relationship between sleep, learning and memory processes, an in-depth analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on student learning ability and academic performance would appear to be essential. Most studies have been naturalistic correlative investigations, where sleep schedules were correlated with school and academic achievement. Nonetheless, some authors were able to actively manipulate sleep in order to observe neurocognitive and behavioral consequences, such as learning, memory capacity and school performance. The findings strongly suggest that: (a) students of different education levels (from school to university) are chronically sleep deprived or suffer from poor sleep quality and consequent daytime sleepiness; (b) sleep quality and quantity are closely related to student learning capacity and academic performance; (c) sleep loss is frequently associated with poor declarative and procedural learning in students; (d) studies in which sleep was actively restricted or optimized showed, respectively, a worsening and an improvement in neurocognitive and academic performance.
These results may been related to the specific involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in vulnerability to sleep loss. Most methodological limitations are discussed and some future research goals are suggested. (2006 Elsevier Ltd.) Sleep is an active, repetitive and reversible behaviour serving several different functions, such as repair and growth, learning or memory consolidation, and restorative processes: all these occur throughout the brain and the body. Thus, during sleep behavioural, physiological and neurocognitive processes occur: these very processes are susceptible to be impaired by the absence of sleep.
Sleep loss is, in fact, one of the most striking problems of modern society. Very often, to cope with our many daily interests, we prefer to sacrifice some sleep time, in the hope that this will not induce dangerous effects but will enable us to carry out several other activities. Unfortunately, this is not true and sleep deprivation has various consequences, such as sleepiness and impairments in neurocognitive and psychomotor performance. More specifically, in their classic meta-analysis, Pilcher and Huffcut claimed that sleep-deprived individuals functioned at a level that is comparable with the ninth percentile of non-sleep-deprived subjects. These decrements in neurobehavioural functioning after sleep restriction or deprivation are well known and common to all people even though some individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss have been shown. (2006 G. Curcio et al.)
Teenagers who fail to get enough sleep could find there’s a trickle-down effect from the bedroom into the classroom. Inadequate sleep, the effect on the brain and the resulting behaviour of adolescents was in focus at the annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies in June. The presentation was led by neuropsychologist Dean Beebe, whose research explores the impact of sleep restriction on teens. Part of his study involves a simulated classroom and having kids watch educational videos while rested and while sleep-deprived. They were also quizzed afterwards and had their behaviour filmed. While there are individual differences, Beebe said, as a group, researchers observed much better attention and mood when kids are well-rested versus when they’re sleep-restricted. (The Canadian Press, 2008) According to principal investigator Jennifer C. Cousins, PhD, postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, it was surprising that although more and better sleep produced overall improvements, different types of sleep measures were related to different types of functioning.
“Sleep deficits cause problems for adolescents, but students differ in their personal resources and in how chaotic their sleep-wake schedules are,” said Cousins. “The more regular and predictable their sleep is, the better they are likely to do when confronted with short-term sleep deficits. Therefore, participants with better sleep overall may be affected differently in a sleep condition compared to those who have a more varying sleep/wake schedule.” The study involved data from 56 adolescents (34 female) between the ages of 14 and 18 years who had complaints of daytime sleepiness and or insufficient sleep at night. Participants reported their subject grades and overall academic standing. Sleep was measured objectively with actigraphy and subjectively through sleep diaries. Higher math scores were related to less night awakenings, less time spent in bed, higher sleep efficiency and great sleep quality; there was also a trend for decreased sleep onset latency (SOL).
Higher scores in English were associated with less nighttime awakenings. Increased SOL during the weekends was related to worse academic performance. According to Cousins, poor sleep and poor sleep habits are associated with substance use, emotional problems, cognitive problems and a general decline in daily functioning. Sleep education may be a preventative tool to help increase awareness of the importance of sleep and of the negative consequences of poor sleep. Authors of the study state that results provide overwhelming evidence of the importance of sleep during a period of development that is critical in adolescents and highlight the importance of the development of sleep intervention programs for students in order to improve existing problems with sleep and daily functioning. (Jennifer C. Cousins, PhD, 2011)
Grades, Number of Hours spend in Sleeping and Sleeping Habits (INDEPENDDENT VARIABLES)
Effect of Sleeping Habits
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study aims to determine the effect of the sleeping habits in the academic performance of the 2nd year SSC students in the 2nd grading period. Furthermore, this seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the average no. of hours does male students consumed in sleeping? 2. What is the average no. of hours does female students consumed in sleeping? 3. What is the average grade of the students during the 2nd Grading Period? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the no. of hours consumed in sleeping and their academic performance? 5. Is there a significant relationship between their sleeping habits and their academic performance? 6. Do male and female students differ in the no. of hours they consumed in sleeping?
Ho1: There is significant relationship between the no. of hours consumed in sleeping and their academic performance.
Ho2: There is no significant difference between their sleeping habits and their academic performance.
Ho3: There is no significant difference between male and female in the no. of hours they consumed in sleeping.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DATA
To the Parents – This research may bring facts and may help the parents to guide their children in their sleeping habits and also to guide their children in their sleeping hours. To the Students: This study may produce information and help the students to be caring and to be more responsible in their sleeping hours and sleeping habits. Students will able to know the good effects of sleeping.
To the Researcher – This investigation may become a basis for further studies.
SCOPE and DELIMITATION of the STUDY
This study was limited to a questionnaire method. The respondents were the SSC sophomore students of Panabo National High School. Scholastic performances were taken during the 2nd Grading Period.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Sleeping – A natural, periodically recurring physiological state of rest. In this study, it is used as a dependent variable. Sleeping habits – this is one of the important variables in this study. It refers to the length of time (in hours) consumed by the student in sleeping. It is also the things that the student does before/after sleeping. Academic Performance – is the average grade of the students taken from the 2nd Grading Period. SSC – Special Science Curriculum; from which the respondents were taken. PNHS – Panabo National High School: the school from which the respondents were taken.