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If the process of plate tectonics were to completely stop then the ability of the Earth to create mountains through the collisions of two different plates would stop as well. This would mean that erosion would eventually abrade these mountains and the amount of sediment created by this activity would eventually reach the numerous oceans and seas. The end result would be a rise in sea level that would eventually swallow up the entire land mass of the Earth and…...

The Pangaea Theory

The Pangea theory describes that all continents were joined together in one enormous land mass millions of years ago. Later on the continents broke apart and start drifting in opposite directions and still continued to make another arrangement. In 1912, Alfred Wegner, a German meteorologist and geologist gave the hypothesis the all the continents were joined together in a single continental land mass surrounded by a single ocean (Panthalassa) Late Paleozoic times. The Wegner used the term Kontinentalverschiebung for the…...

Morphology of Rural Settlements in Malda

Abstract The rural settlement within the Malda district highlights human efforts for the livelihood and developing the habitat on the diverse geographical landscapes. The attributes of its natural endowments, social conditionality and historical antecedents and most notably the human efforts gave the rural countryside a particular kind of social and morphological characteristics. The morphological attributes of the villages have actually been collected from the different natural areas of the districts in order to understand the divergent forces and feature of…...

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The Formation of Coastal Landforms

Coastal landforms are formed in several different ways and can depend on several factors. The factors are things such as wind direction rocky type and fetch of the waves around the landform. These factors all contribute to create distinctive landforms. This essay will be identifying the ways in which these coastal landforms have been made Headlands and bays such as Beachy head on the south coast of England. Headlands and bays are often found on the same coastline. A bay…...

Antarctica Report - The Location And Purpose Of Mawson Station

Introduction: The great icy continent of Antarctica is located at the south-most point on Earth and in the heart of the Antarctic Circle, referred to as the ice-cold desert. Antarctica covers the entire land and water region south of the latitude 600 S with no defined longitude, the continent spans around the entire Antarctic Circle. In reference to Australia, the eastern half of Antarctica ranges from a close 3,800km south of mainland Australia with Mawson Station located further west. Due…...

Geographic Information

Introduction General Geographic information (i.e.., land information, spatial information) is information that can be associated with a place name, a street address, section/township, a zip code, or coordinates of latitude and longitude. A multitude of government functions require geographic information; at least 70 percent of all information used by local governments is geographically referenced. For example, property records and assessment, planning and zoning, permit tracking, natural resource management, infrastructure and transportation management, economic development planning, and health safety. All of…...

Study Area

This region supports a large number of biodiversity elements including edibles, fodder, fuel, medicinal, religious and threatened plants. Rocks: The various rock types found in theregion could be classifiedin the following three types: Sedimentary rocks: These rocks derived from the consolidation of sediments. These sediments are the resultants of mechanical and chemical erosion from some pre-existing rock masses. Metasedimentary rocks: These rocks are shaped when sedimentary rocks get metamorphosed. Igneous rocks: These rocks are formed from the solidification of very…...

Geological Field Report Of Mazabeko Area

Abstract In the location of Mazabeko south of KwaZulu-Natal, preserves one the geological stratigraphic units in the world dating 2.5 billion years ago. The type of work carried out at this place was field mapping, aiming to collect and process geological data from a specified area. The goal at the end of field mapping was to establish stratigraphic sequence, recognizing geological structure and also interpret the geology of Mazabeko. Throughout the mapping exercise, many results were obtained, including completion of…...

Monogenetic Volcanics

The transitional relation between the lapilli-bombs agglomerates and clastogenetic lava (Fig.12B)proposes that theemitted lava blebs for each lava was virtually continuous throughout a singlefountains episode. Likewise, each eruptive unit has its own cooling joints.The occurrence of inversely coarse-tail-graded beds, poorly defined bedding, lithic clasts and lapilli/bombs-rich concentration zones are indicative of an emplacement of the lateral flow, akin to pyroclastic density currents forming spatters ( Freundt and Schmincke, 1995; Valentine et al., 2000). Occasionally, the record of flow laminations, flattened…...

Faults, Folds and Maps of Geology

There are different phenomena happening in the earth’s crust and some of those are the occurrence of folds and faults. Both phenomena are caused by forces like tension and compression. Folds are bends in the rock surfaces while Faults are fractures in the earth’s crust which allows blocks of rocks to move relative to one another. When this movement becomes rapid, it results to earthquakes ("What is a fault? ," 2008). Since there are two blocks of rocks involved in…...

Igneous Rock Checkpoint

Igneous rock is a Latin word meaning fire; these rocks are formed from volcanic activity. This rock is one of three types of rock including sedimentary and metamorphic rock. Igneous rock is formed from the cooling and solidification of lava or magma. Igneous rock can be formed with our without crystallization, below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks. Volcanic rocks also known as extrusive igneous rocks include all the products resulting from volcanic eruptions…...

Mecca and Riyadh Municipality

Riyadh is the capitol city of Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city among the three major cities in Saudi Arabia, Dammam,Jeddah and Riyadh . The city is divided into 15 municipal districts, managed by Riyadh Municipality headed by the mayor of Riyadh; the current mayor of Riyadh is Abdul Aziz ibn Ayyaf Al Migrin, appointed in 1998. History of Riyadh should start from the name 'Riyadh'. The name is originated from the Arabic word 'rawdha' which is a plural…...

Is porlock bay affected by longshore drift?

Aims To investigate coastal processes along Porlock Bay, Exmoor National Park. To make a comparison of coastal management schemes inside & outside Exmoor National Park. Introduction As part of our geography coursework project we had to travel to somerset, Nettlecombe on the 9th July 2009. Our study is on coastal processes and management at Porlock Bay. During our stay in Somerset we visited many places, which include Porlock Bay, Hurlstone point and Porlock Weir where. During the weekend we also…...

San Marino

San Marino, officially known as the Republic of San Mario, is a small state located on the Italian Peninsula. In fact, it is the third smallest country in Europe, preceded only by the Vatican and Monaco. Although landlocked by Italy, it is an independent state that takes up a mere 61 square kilometers. Its capital is the City of San Marino. It has a rugged terrain, due to its location near to the Apennine Mountains, There is no natural level…...

Difference in shops in Chamonix

In end of the summer holidays I went to the town of Chamonix in the French Alps. I went there in order to conduct a settlement study on the town. Chamonix is situated in the south east of France in the Alpine region near the Swiss border. Chamonix was chosen for a number of reasons, first of all there where other investigations going on in the surrounding area, secondly Chamonix is a good town to study because it has a…...

Trampling Survey

When we were carrying out the trampling survey, we realised that good parts of the survey were that it did give us a general ides of what the surface consisted off in that area. It also gave us an idea of weather the surface had anything present on it that should not be & weather this was an indication of erosion. It also gave us an idea of how well the site was managed. Overall this was the correct method…...

The weakness of Wegner's theory

Introduction While the ancient fossils on different continents were often similar or identical, the exploring naturalists were finding out that living plants and animals on the different continents were often very different. The naturalists were discovering whole new groups of animals and plants on nearly every island and continent they visited. Most biological species seemed to be unique to the region or continent in which they were found. How could these seemingly contradictory observations be reconciled? Plate tectonics provided the…...

Was the Weimar Republic doomed from the start?

Introduction In August 1914, Germany and her allies plunged into World War 1 with patriotism and bravery, yet they were somewhat uncertain. This uncertainty was justified as they were entering one of the bloodiest wars in history and the fighting was not going to stop until November 1918, when they "withdrew" from the battlefield. With little help form their allies, and their army being split in two on both Eastern and Western fronts, this was a difficult war to fight…...

Japan History and Political Geography

The country of Japan is in the eastern part of Asia it’s in the northern and eastern hemispheres. The to the west of Japan is North and South Korea, to the east after crossing the Pacific ocean is the country of the United States Of America, on the north you will find the country of the Soviet Union and on the south is the countries of Taiwan and the Philippines. Japan is 145,924 square miles the largest city in japan…...

Country Report - Japan

Introduction Japan, Nippon or Nihon is an island country in East Asia. It borders the Sea of Japan to the west, the Pacific Ocean to the east, and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea in the south. Part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan is a stratovolcano archipelago of nearly 7,000 islands and covers 375,000 square kilometres (145,000 square miles). Its five main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu,…...

Japan Tsunami

An earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. It was measured as a 9.0 earthquake according to the Richter scale. It occurred 500 kilometres off Japan’s coast. The epicentre was near Sendai in Japan. It was 32 kilometres below water level. (EARTH Magazine, 2011)(Japan Tsunami 2011, 2019)Japan sits on top of four different tectonic plates which cause the island to deal with 1,500 earthquakes annually. Japan is located in the Ring of Fire, which is a place where many earthquakes and…...

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