The first concept is self-disclosure. Self-disclosure refers to the process of revealing intimate, personal information or feelings about oneself to others. As explained by the Johari Window, when we self-disclose to others, we could reduce our facade and increase what others know about us. People could understand your innermost thoughts, or confidential information about yourself. In addition, it fosters trust between persons while communicating and increase intimacy in the relationship. Also let others to get to know more about you and understand you with those disclosing information and thus connect with other people. Moreover, self-disclosure expresses willingness to communicate and could promote attraction. It might create interest to people on some specific topic and are likely to listen and focus on the communication. Therefore, appropriate self-disclosure is important in effective interpersonal communication, also in maintaining a healthy close relationship.
The second concept is communication apprehension. According to James McCroskey (2001), communication apprehension is the broad term that refers to an individual’s “fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons.” Communication apprehension is one of the major reasons that causing a person being unwilling to communicate. General personal characteristics such as shyness or reticence could cause communication apprehension. Some people might found it difficult to express themselves in front of strangers and would like to prevent any verbal communication. In order to reduce communication apprehension, systematic desensitization is one of the methods (Berger, McCroskey, Baldwin, 1984). Pinpoint the fear and find out small ways to face the fear. In addition, try different relaxation techniques such as deep breathing so that the anxiety-provoking situation won’t affect us so much. With these measures, perhaps an individual could boost confident during interaction with others and probably promote an effective interpersonal communication.
The third concept is conflict management. During interpersonal communication, when we are discussing on some issues and giving our own opinion, others might have a different stand and viewpoints. They might try to argue on it to express their view. Conflict is unpleasant, but sometimes inevitable too. Therefore it is important to learn the skills of managing conflict well while communicating. According to the definition by Rahim (2002), “conflict management involves designing effective strategies to minimize the dysfunctions of conflict and maximize the constructive functions of conflict in order to enhance learning and effectiveness” The best outcome would be creating a win-win situation for managing conflict. The both parties collaborate and try to find out the most satisfied solution for the problem. Moreover, it is also important to be patient to listen to others’ point of view, try to stand on their side and think critically. This could optimize the process of think a win-win approach that satisfies both parties’ concerns.
The fourth concept is about communication climate. Adler, et al., (2009) noted that “communication climate is a term that refers to the emotional tone of a relationship.” It is the general tone of relationships among individuals who interact with one another. Communication climate exist among people in all kinds of settings, at home or at workplace. A supportive communication climate means that individuals accomplished a lot at meetings and conversation seems to flow without effort during the communication. Moreover, people probably would treat each other with respect by listening without interruption, and promptly responding to one another’s messages. They would also consider others’ viewpoints even when there was honest disagreement. With an effective communication climate, people are likely to feel that they are valued and they seem to interact confidently and courteously. Besides, conflict is invited and resolved, which is related to the previous concept, the conflict management. A positive communication climate could lead to better management of conflicts, which also useful in creating a favorable interpersonal communication.
The fifth concept is about self-esteem. Refer to Cambridge Dictionary (“self-esteem,” n.d.), self-esteem is the belief and confidence in your own ability and value. Self-esteem affects one’s communication style including the body languages or the tone when delivering. People in low self-esteem are likely to be impatient, disappointing and insecure. And they usually got high level in communication apprehension, which they might feel anxious whenever they need to interact with others. They might have slack body posture, or talk about themselves with persistent deprecation. As to be an effective leader, interacting with followers confidently is necessary so that it is essential to boost up self-esteem. In addition, it is seemingly that a person with high self-esteem could create a better communication climate. To improve self-esteem, we could think of something positive of ourselves. Also try to reduce the stress level like doing exercise or meditation. Apparently, it is easier to develop a successful interpersonal communication for a high self-esteem person.
II. Part B (To evaluate the extent to which they possess this leadership quality based on a thorough reflection of their life experiences)
- Brooks, W., & Health, R. (1995). Speech communication. Dubuque, IA: W.C. Brown
- McCroskey, J. C. (2001). An introduction to rhetorical communication. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, p. 40.
- Berger, B. A., Baldwin J. H., Richmond V., McCroskey J. C. (1984). Reducing Communication Apprehension: Is There a Better Way? American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 48, 46-50. Retrieved December 3, 2018, from http://www.jamescmccroskey.com/publications/117.pdf
- M. Afzalur Rahim, (2002). ‘TOWARD A THEORY OF MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT’, International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol. 13 Issue: 3, pp.206-235, https://doi.org/10.1108/eb022874
- Adler, R., Rosenfeld, L., Proctor, R., & Winder, C. (2009). Interplay: The process of interpersonal communication. Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press. self-esteem. (n.d.). In Cambridge Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/self-esteem