Size of units facilities
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Economies of scale Scale economies are based on the notion that large units are more economical because fixed costs can be spread over more units of production. The company may consider using a large unit of capacity in two cases: Firstly if the cost of building and operating large production equipment does not increase linearly with volume. A machine with twice the output rate generally costs less than twice to as much to buy and operate. Also, in larger facilities…...
Chromatographic Separations
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Hemolymph samples were obtained from chilled, surface-sterilized two-day-old 5th instar larvae of Mythimna separata that had been deprived of food for 4 hours [22]. After puncturing the propterothoracic membrane at the base of the coxa of the metathoracic leg, hemolymph was drawn from the hemocoel and collected in a 10-fold volume TNM-FH medium containing 1.0 mM phenylthiourea. Then, the anti-cancer QDP and the pesticide EMB were added to the medium until the final concentrations were 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and…...
Size Exclusion Chromatography
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For application in biochemical aspect, this technique can find out the quaternary structure of purified proteins which possess slow exchange times, since it can be carried out under native solution conditions and preserve macromolecular interactions. The reason why we use this technique for purification is Size exclusion chromatography is a low resolution chromatography method as it does not identify similar species very well. It can also test the tertiary structure of protein as it measures the hydrodynamic volume, allowing folded…...
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Dehydration of an Alcohol lab report
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In Experiment 9, distillation was used to carry out the dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol using 4:1 mixture of phosphoric and sulfuric acid. Gas Chromatography was then used to measure the products. Two products were formed. The theoretical yield of the alkene mixture was 3. 914 g. The actual yield of the mixture was 0. 73 g. The percent yield for the reaction was 18. 65%. Peak A had an area of 0. 3 mm2 and a percentage of 4. 6 %.…...
Candy Chromatography
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Introduction Ever wondered why candies are different colors? Ever wondered why candies are different colors? Many candies contain colored dyes. Bags of M&Ms or Skittles contain candies of various colors. The labels tell us the names of the dyes used in the candies. But which dyes are used in which candies? We can answer this by dissolving the dyes out of the candies and separating them using a method called chromatography. Research Candy Chromatography is the method of analysis of…...
Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments by Paer Chromatography
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I. INTRO There are different types of components in plant pigments. The most important and abundant chemical pigment discovered in plants is chlorophyll. This pigment exists in 2 types; chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll a, being the primary photosynthetic pigment, has a primary purpose to transform light energy to chemical energy utilized by the plant itself. Chlorophyll b soaks up light in a region of the spectrum apart from the dominant chlorophyll, and transfers the energy it produces to…...
Chromatography Lab Questions
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A pencil is used rather than a pen to mark the “starting line” in step two because a pen or marker while be used to place a small dot of ink in the center of the X that is made with a pencil. Capillary action is filling of pores in a solid with a liquid. Capillary action is caused by spotting or absorption and is allowed to seep or flow through. The type of pen that will probably give better…...
The Separation of Ink Chromatography
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I. Title: The Separation of Ink Using Chromatography II. Date: October 3rd, 2012 III. Purpose: To separate a mixture using paper chromatography. IV. Procedure: 1. Fill beaker with 100 mL water. 2. Poke hole in filter paper with scoopula approximately 1 cm from top. 3. Place dot of ink approximately 2 cm from the bottom of the filter paper. 4. Put scoopula through hole and hang paper from scoopula so that it touches the water, making sure Ink dot is…...
Plant Pigment Chromatography
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1. Describe what each of your chromatography strips looked like. Specifically, identify the pigments on each strip and compare their positions to one another. Plants have four types of pigments, namely chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and xanthophylls. These pigments have different polarities and chemical properties. In paper chromatography, the pigments will separate based on their affinity to the medium (paper), and affinity for the solvent. The solvents used in this experiment are water (polar) and acetone (mid-polar). Therefore, the different pigments…...
Lab Report for Chromatography
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Study Questions: One of the requirements for the photosynthesis process to occur, the plant cells need sufficient light. Pigments are the substances that absorbed visible light. Different pigments absorb light of different wavelengths. From the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a, it suggests that blue and red light work best for photosynthesis. There is a high degree correlation between the absorption spectra of leaf and the absorption spectra of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotene. It is because those pigments are…...
Identification of an Unknown Organic Acid
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Abstract Identifying this organic acid was an extensive task that involved several different experiments. Firstly, the melting point had to be determined. Since melting point can be determined to an almost exact degree, finding a close melting point of the specific unknown can accurately point to the identification of the acid. In this case the best melting point range was 207-209 degrees Celsius. Melting point, while very helpful in identifying an unknown organic acid, is simply not enough. Next, a…...
Chromatography and its Types Explanation
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ABSTRACT Chromatography is the separation of mixtures into their constituents. It relies on the differential solubilities or absorptivities of the components to be separated with respect to two phases, one of which is stationary and the other, mobile. The group aims to separate the coloured components of siling labuyo using column chromatography then determine the purity of the components using thin layer chromatography and lastly, measure the RF values of the coloured components in thin layer chromatography. The students plugged…...
Column and Thin Layer Chromatography
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Chromatography is a technique used to separate mixtures into components as a result of differential partitioning behavior between a stationary phase and a mobile phase that percolates through the stationary bed. [1, 2] Column and thin layer chromatography are examples of the solid-liquid method of chromatography, which utilizes an adsorbent solid stationary phase (silica) and a liquid mobile phase. In column chromatography, the solid stationary phase is situated within a tube as the liquid mobile phase is added to the…...
Paper Chromatography Lab
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Purpose: to separate the various photosynthetic pigments of Spinacia oleracea leaves. Materials: - methanol - water - filter paper - sand - test tube - 10 S. oleracea leaves - 2 wooden splints - mortar - pestle Method: First, 10 S. oleracea leaves were gathered. A piece of filter paper, a wooden splint, a mortar and pestle were also gathered. The leaves were placed inside the mortar, filling the mortar approximately half full. The leaves were then crushed with the…...
Carbohydrate Lab Report
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Qualitative identification of a substance is of significant importance in chemistry. Physical constants such as melting points have traditionally been used by organic chemistry for identification of unknown compounds. As for inorganic substances, the precipitation of a solid, results of a flame test, or the formation of a colored substance could all be keys to identifying a sample. Chromatography and spectra are amongst the newer techniques practiced today. A problem that arises in biochemistry when attempting to identify a particular…...
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