Thinking is something that comes naturally in a human being. Everyone thinks in a particular way and try to make sense of it, but don’t think systematically and effectively. Seeing the world in multiple lens can make it difficult for the individual to shift their thinking to someone else thoughts. Our thinking can sometimes be biased, distorted, uninformed and unconscious. As humans, they often do not have a particular standard that they use for validation. Humans are egocentric and sociocentric.
The need of effective use and reasoning has to be systematically learned and practiced. Systematically thinking requires the individual to do the work that is necessary for the research. This can be done through standards and intellectual standards of our thinking. Basic standard thinking cannot rely on emotions it has to rely on reason. In order for this reason to be valid, evidence has to be provided. Standard thinking is needed to help guide people to an excellent amount of thinking and keep the individual on a great thinking track.
Intellectual standards in so many words are the next step of thinking after standard thinking. This standard is used for an individual’s interest in checking the quality of reasoning about the problem, situation or issue. The foundation of intellectual standards includes: Clarity, Accuracy, Precision, Relevance, Depth, Breadth, Logic, Significance, and Fairness. This paper will introduce and explicate these intellectual standards through a narrative review article, Physical and Occupational therapy in Parkinson’s Disease Radder et al. (2017).
Keywords: intellectual standards, standard thinking
Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Parkinson’s disease
Using Universal Intellectual Standards
Parkinson’s disease is a common disease that occupational and physical therapist see in their client.
An individual with Parkinson’s disease is provided with medical management to help with the symptoms. Some symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are a tremor, difficulty walking and poor balance. A tremor is an involuntary motion or twitching of a muscle contraction in an individual’s hand, eyes, arms, and legs. The current medical engagement provided for people with Parkinson’s disease is only partially effective. Also, in later stages, the medication becomes less effective and can cause complications. However, people with and without complications, can face a substantial amount and a variety of problems in their daily activities. With these problems, this is where Physical Therapy and Occupation Therapy come into play. In Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson’s disease Radder et al. (2017), addressed the limitations that an individual with Parkinson’s may experience and identified the different approaches to help treat these limitations. This paper will introduce and explicate the nine intellectual standards throughout this narrative review.
Intellectual standards help shape the mind of critical thinkers. Linda and Richard states,” To live reasonably, humans need to construct their thinking so as to be clear accurate, relevant, significant, logical and so forth.” With these standards it is possible for an individual to use these elements to determine their quality of reasoning. The nine universal intellectual standards are; clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance depth, breadth, logic, significance, and fairness.
While being a critical think and you notice that you are being coherent and understanding the statement, you are showing signs of clarity. Within the Unviversal