A system is a collection of components that are organized to do perform a certain task. There are many different type of systems one of them being the computer. A computer is a system that consists of hardware and software components or programs that work together to perform a specified task. All systems have; inputs, outputs and data storage and processing mechanisms.
Systems are mostly used to process information in a field known as information system. This is the study of complementary networks of hardware and software that is used to collect, process, store, and distribute information.
They process data to yield useful information that can be used to run day to day activities as well as long term activities example. School admission system, company finance records and as simple systems as just name logs.
This data can be processed and interpreted by a subject of study known as systems analysis and design. System analysis is the process of collecting and interpreting facts, identifying the problems of an organization or a business to know its goals, objectives, and purposes and therefore assigning a system to it that can run the organization.
System design is the process of planning and recruiting a suitable system for an organization or business and by knowing all the requirements and useful information of the firm. This can also involve replacing the old system by modifying it.it is done using various developmental tools which would be explained later.
These phases are followed systematically and each phase results into the next phase.
SDLC is the framework that describe each phase passed through during the creation, development and testing of software. It gives the structure and guidelines of a project from the beginning all the way to the completion of that project. It can be used during creation of systems such a sales journal and tracking systems. However SDLC can be in form of many different models. Explained below are some of the models.
Waterfall model is a software model that can be adapted to produce the software. The main thing is that if software team adapt the waterfall model for the production of software than a proper detailed planning and proper accurate work is needed in every phase of the waterfall model. This is because while following the waterfall model, software team is not allowed to move to the previous phase.
Requirements: involves understanding what needs to be designed and what is its purpose. Here, the specifications of the input and output or the final product are studied and marked. The developers then know the resources and information that is needed for the system to achieve its goal. Example of the requirement is the amount of labor needed for the project to be accomplished in the shortest time
System Design: The requirement specifications from the first phase are studied and system design is prepared.it helps in specifying the requirements. In the design phase, a blueprint of the software or system is produced. Different diagrams using different developmental tools are also drawn. Some of these diagrams include; class diagram, activity diagram, data flow diagram, state transition diagram etc.
Implementation: With inputs from system design, the system is first developed in small programs called units, which are integrated into the next phase. Programs are written and all the designed is converted into computer programs, collectively called software.
Integration and Testing: units are integrated and then the software is tested for any flaws or errors. This also verifies that the system is built as per client requirements. It is also tested for bugs.
Deployment of System: the software system is now applied and used or released into the market. The system is installed to the working environment ready to be used
Maintenance: This step occurs after installation, and involves making modifications to the system or an individual component to alter attributes or improve performance. This is a continuous process that ensures the high performance of the system. Example is to install up to date antiviruses or firewallsWaterfall is the oldest and most straightforward of the structured SDLC methodologies. It is very simple to understand and use. This model is a step by step SDLC. In a Waterfall model, each phase must be completed before the next phase can begin and there is no overlapping in the phases. The steps in the model are seen as flowing down like its name, “waterfall”.
Allows departmentalization and control. A schedule can be set with deadlines for each stage of development and a product can proceed through the development process model phases one by one.
Easily understandable and usable: the water fall model involve systematic and specific stages which are to be followed thus it prevents confusion and complication.
It is easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model – each phase has specific deliverables and a review process.
In this model, phases are processed and completed one at a time do not overlap.it works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood.
It is also known as incremental model which means to repeat. The Iterative SDLC model does not need the full list of requirements before the project starts. The process is repetitive, allowing to make new versions and changes of the product for every repeat. This process starts with a simple implementation of a constituent of the software requirements and repeatedly enhances. The product is decomposed into a number of components, each of which is designed and built separately. Multiple development cycles take place here, making the life cycle a “multi-waterfall” cycle. the evolving versions until the full system is implemented.
Spiral Model is a combination of Iterative Development Model and Waterfall Model with very high emphasis on risk analysis. It allows for incremental releases of the product, or incremental refinement through each iteration around the spiral.
This model is best used for large projects which involves continuous enhancements. The output is a small prototype of the large software. The same activities are then repeated for all the spirals till the entire software is build. Below is an illustration of a spiral model.
The V-Model is SDLC model where execution of processes happens in a sequential manner in V-shape. It is also known as Verification and Validation Model. V-Model is an extension of the Waterfall Model and is based on association of a testing phase for each corresponding development stage. This means that for every single phase in the development cycle there is a directly associated testing phase. This is a highly disciplined model and next phase starts only after completion of the previous phase.Illustrated below is a v-shaped model.
Agile development model is also a type of Incremental model. Software is developed in incremental, rapid cycles. This results in small incremental releases with each release building on previous functionality. Each release is thoroughly tested to ensure software quality is maintained. It is used for time critical applications.
A good Structured System Analyses and Design Method (SSADM) would reduce the risk of projects running over budget and time because if a plan is done correctly in the feasibility stage all the involved parties should work out if the solution will be feasibly created within the time frame given and within the budget.
SSADM will make sure that the code that is made is of a satisfactory standard and that it meets all of the requirements because before any of the program has been designed, all of the clients requirements are laid out to the developers required to make the program before they start any planning this is done in this order to combat this exact problem so when the client gives the developer their requirements they can go away and present the client with potential solutions.
SSADM helps design a project that will be manageable during the feasibility stage because during that stage the developer will know when the program needs to be completed by and will then know how many people to assign to the project to make sure it is manageable because they will not be understaffed for the project. An example of a project not being manageable again was the Black Dam roundabout because the project overran they had to get staff to run through the night.
Structured analysis also benefits structured analysis in the way that it helps produce a solution that is both of high quality and meets the requirements set out by the client. This ensures that the client is satisfied with the solution that has been produced and it can be used effectively within the business without produced incorrect data or otherwise misbehaving.
A good SSADM should remove the risk of the system not being resilient because it will go through testing in two stages and that will make sure that everything within the systems is going to be able to be implemented into the existing system
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