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From the bottom of our hearts, we would like to express our greatest appreciation to the following persons who supervised and guided us in pursuit of our investigatory project.
First of all, we would like to thank ourselves, because through many failures and hardships, we remained strong and determined in finishing the research paper.
To our research advisers, Ms. Ma. Pilar P. Carmona and Ms. Sasha Gliponeo for their assistance in making the paper and reinforcing the use of our different research skills.
To our Science teacher, Mrs. Mhadelle M. Lugod for her sharing her knowledge and providing us the help and support in times of need.
To Dr. Franco Francisco, DLSU Professor who succored us in times of developing a new research topic.
To Mr. Vladimir U. William, a chemist in Adamson University Technology Research Development Center, who calcined our tahong shells into calcium carbonate.
To Mr. Jose Leonardo V. Nicdao and Mr. Kristoffer Lanze Andrew V. Molina, chemists in Adamson University Technology Research Development Center, who performed the tests: water absorbance and tensile strength.
To Mrs. Zenaida G. Damo, CGL 10 Coordinator; Mrs. Josephine M. Maningas, the former Head of Science Department; and Mrs. Edna V. Ba?aga, our considerate principal who always approves our off-camp letters.
To our ever supportive and loving parents who have not only constantly shown love and encouragement in all aspects, but also for welcoming us in their respective homes and providing various means of transportation, shelter, and support.
Lastly and most importantly, to Jesus Christ, our Lord, who gave and continuously provides us strength, wisdom, and protection from any harm.
The pulp and paper industry has been a rising contributor to the economy but the industry's surge in production has been causing significant environmental harms such as forest depletion. As an alternative, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from stone and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) were used in paper production abroad. Green mussel shells, a CaCO3 rich product, and HDPE plastic bags are generally considered as waste materials in the Philippines. This study examined the viability of using CaCO3 from green mussel shells and HDPE as the components of mineral paper.
Green mussel shells were crushed and underwent calcination in a furnace for 24 hours to produce CaCO3. HDPE plastic bags, the adhesive for the shells, were coated with 100 milliliters of vegetable oil and were placed on aluminum trays coated with 20 milliliters of vegetable oil. The trays were placed in an oven and were removed on 5 minute intervals with 15 grams of CaCO3 added and mixed into the molten plastic for every interval. After 30 minutes, the mixtures were dried and cut into 3 inches by 3 inches paper with 1 millimeter thickness. The produced samples and the standard bond paper were subjected to tensile strength and water absorbance tests.
The recorded 0.51% water absorbance and 4.84 N/20mm tensile strength of the mineral paper was compared to the 4.95% water absorbance and 1.86 N/20mm tensile strength of the standard bond paper. The results support the hypothesis that the produced mineral paper differs from the standard bond paper.
Paper is a daily necessity. Wood proves to be most affordable raw material for paper. The pulp and paper industry has been a major contributor to deforestation and pollution. Not only does the said industry contributes to the depletion of trees, but also emits carbon dioxide in the atmosphere when incinerated.
To solve this problem, stone paper made from limestone, a rock rich of calcium carbonate, can be a good alternative. However, extracting limestone is a dangerous process causing destruction of animal habitat and noise pollution. Fortunately, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is the main component of the shells of marine organisms like the green mussel.
Perna viridis, commonly known as Philippine green mussel or tahong, is a bivalve mussel generally distributed in the Asia-Pacific region, especially in the Philippines. The shells have greatly added to the regions' huge amounts of solid wastes. Recent studies proved green mussel shells useful when utilized in the production of calcium carbonate, as paper, encompassing 95 percent of the shell's layers. In the paper industry, calcium carbonate is the most preferred mineral used as a filter and a coating pigment. Meanwhile, in producing stone paper, it comprises 80 percent of its composition.
This study assesses the efficacy of calcium carbonate from green mussel shells as the primary material for the production of mineral paper aiming to possess lower water absorbance and greater tensile strength as compared to the standard paper from wood.
Utilizing calcium carbonate from green mussel shells for the production of mineral paper contributes to solid waste minimization. The resin, high density polyethylene (HDPE), which is approximately 20 percent of the paper, is relatively non-toxic, photodegradable, 100 percent recyclable and commercially compostable. In conclusion, the paper made from calcium carbonate has minimal consequences to the environment.
Green mussel shells amounting to 2 kilograms were collected from Farmers Market located in Cubao, Quezon City and were authenticated at University of the Philippines Diliman Institute of Biology. Plastic bags made of High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) amounting to 5 grams were collected from the researchers' households.
The preparation of calcium carbonate from green mussel shells took place in Adamson University Technology Research and Development Center located on 900 San Marcelino, 1000 Metro Manila. Green mussel shells were washed with tap water and drained. The shells were air dried for 2 hours. A mortar and pestle was used to reduce the size of the shells to approximately 0.5 cm by 0.5 cm. The reduced mussel shells were calcinated inside a furnace at 500°C for 24 hours. Calcinated green mussel shells were put in a desiccator to let the shells cool down.
HDPE plastic bags amounting to 45 grams was used to mix with the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) obtained from green mussel shells. Then, 3 aluminum trays measuring 12 inches by 17 inches were coated with vegetable oil amounting to 20 milliliters. HDPE plastic bags amounting to 15 grams were placed on each of the aluminum tray and were poured with vegetable oil amounting to 100 milliliters. The samples were melted at 150°C in a convection oven for 30 minutes. After the initial 5 minutes, the samples were moved onto separate aluminum trays coated with vegetable oil amounting to 20 milliliters and were put back into the convection oven. Every 5 minutes, the aluminum trays were removed from the oven using oven gloves. Each sample was mixed with 15 grams of CaCO3 from green mussel shells using a spatula for 1 minute each time the aluminum trays were removed. Then, the aluminum trays were placed back to the oven. After 30 minutes of melting, the mixtures were removed from the oven and were flattened to achieve a thickness of 1 millimeter. Afterwards, the mixtures were air dried and cooled overnight or until the mixtures fully dried. After the mixtures have been dried, the resulting products were removed from the aluminum trays and were cut into 3 inches by 3 inches paper.
The measuring of water absorbance and tensile strength took place in Adamson University Technology Research and Development Center located on 900 San Marcelino, 1000 Metro Manila. Mineral paper produced from CaCO3 and HDPE, along with the samples from standard bond paper, was tested.
The data were presented as mean + standard error of the mean (SEM). Statistical analysis was performed using an independent t-test. This was followed by a comparison test based on the homogeneity of the date at p-value < 0.05. For performing a post hoc analysis, Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used. This was performed using Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software for Windows.
The research was conducted to investigate the potential of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from green mussel (Perna viridis) shells as a primary material for the production of mineral paper. Uncorrelated t-test showed that mineral paper produced from CaCO3 from green mussel shells and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) have a significant difference with paper produced from wood pulp in terms of water absorbance and tensile strength. Results showed that the mean tensile strength of the mineral paper (4.839) is significantly greater as compared to the tensile strength of the bond paper (1.831) and the mean water absorbance of mineral paper (0.514) is significantly lower as compared to the mean water absorbance of bond paper (4.946). In general, the data supported the hypothesis that if CaCO3 from green mussel shells and HDPE is used to produce mineral paper, then the water absorbance and tensile strength as compared to paper from wood pulp is significantly lower and greater, respectively.
The researchers were able to produce mineral paper out of calcium carbonate from green mussel shells. However, to achieve a smoother and finer paper texture, future researchers can grind and pulverize the calcium carbonate source until a particle size of at least 1 millimeter is achieved. One problem with the paper produced is its color. Future researchers can look into ways to make the paper white. The sources of the raw materials, calcium carbonate and high-density polyethylene, can be also be changed to obtain a better product. Future researchers may also use different proportions of HDPE and calcium carbonate to determine the best proportion in the production of mineral paper.
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