Essays on Classical Conditioning

The Psychology of Fear
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Fear is known as the unpleasant and often strong emotion caused by the anticipation or awareness of danger. We are all born with a sense of fear but we have the ability to expand our internal library of fear through conditioning and drugs. There are three psychological approaches that cover fear in their own way and that is Biological, Behavioral, and Cognitive. Biological fear is induced through drugs or other stimulants that interact with the physical part of the body,…...
BehaviorClassical ConditioningPhilosophyPsychology
The Sociobiological theory
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The Sociobiological theory The Sociobiological theory does however have evolutionary advantages; it offers plausible explanation for the evolution of specific mate preferences that exist today. Women who select men, who were unable or unwilling to invest resources in their offspring, would experience lower reproductive success than those who placed a premium on these qualities. The Reinforcement and need satisfaction theory states that the reason we spend so much time in social relationships is that we find them rewarding (positively reinforcing)…...
Classical ConditioningPhilosophyPsychologyTheory
The Psychology of Fruit Machine Gambling
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The article overviews how individuals are induced to gamble in the first place (novice), develop a perceived ability to beat the machine (perceived skill) and how they are induced to continue gambling through an array of structural characteristics aimed at different psychological aspects of the participants gambling development. The article examines the above by considering the effects of behavioural conditioning and the use of psychology whether it was intentional of fortuitous. To consider the validity of the article it is…...
Classical ConditioningFruitPerceptionPsychology
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Behaviourism & Physiological
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The behaviourism perspective of human behaviour focuses on a stimulus-to-response basis deducing that the environment directly determines behaviour. Its main features centre on behaviours adopted by operant conditioning, classical conditioning and social learning. Behaviourists use quantitative data from experiments and observation as research methods, because they believe that psychology should be scientific and behaviour must be measurable. Classical conditioning is a behavioural theory developed by Ivan Pavlov in the 1930’s theorising that we learn behaviour by association, he observed a…...
BehaviorBehaviourismClassical ConditioningPsychologyScience
Industrial Training Course
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Any response, which reduces the intensity or removes an unpleasant stimulus, is said to be negatively reinforced. Just like positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement increases the probability that the response will take place again. Negative reinforcement produces two types of learning; escape and avoidance. Skinner believed escape and avoidance were very common in human society. Punishment involves an unwilling stimulus following a response. This reduces the probability of that response happening again. Punishment can be used in the design of the…...
Classical ConditioningPsychologyTraining
Humanism, Cognitivism and Behaviourism
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In this assignment I shall be exploring three theories of teaching and learning. They are Humanism, Cognitivism and Behaviourism. I shall be explaining the main factors of the three theories and then explaining how they can support effective teaching and learning in general and for myself personally in my teaching role. The first theory I shall explore is Humanism. ‘Humanism stresses [a learner’s] interests, individuality and creativity – in short the [learner’s] freedom to develop naturally and from teacher domination’…...
BehaviourismClassical ConditioningHumanismLearningMotivationOperant Conditioning
Learning Through Classical and Operant Conditioning
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A discussion of the psychological theories of learning through classical and operant conditioning There are two main explanations of how organisms learn. The first explanation is known as classical conditioning. The second explanation is known as operant conditioning. These two types of learning are exhibited in our everyday lives through our home, school, and school. Classical conditioning was discovered by Iran Petrovich Pavlov. He was originally a physiologist whose main focus was the digestive system (Gazzaniga 230). His discovery was…...
ChangeClassical ConditioningLearningOperant ConditioningPsychology
Appearance and Fear of Animals
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Prolonged and excessive fears are classified as phobias, which are a type of Anxiety disorder according to the DSM-IV. When the phobia takes over the persons ability to live a 'normal' life it is classed as a mental disorder, (psychopathology is the study of mental disorders). There are three types of phobias; specific phobias, social phobias and agoraphobia. Specific phobias are fears relating to something specific such as fear of animals, the most common including snakes, spiders, rodents and heights.…...
Classical ConditioningFearNervous SystemPhobiasReinforcement
Theories of Human Development
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There are three theories of human development which are the Nature versa nurture, Continuity versa discontinuity and Nomothetic versa idiographic theories. The nature vs nurture theory is a debate which centers on the extent that our personality, development, intelligence and behavior are genetically inherited (nature) or they are all a result of our interaction with the environment (nurture). Continuity vs discontinuity theory is a debate about whether human development is a smooth process with no recognizable changes taking place (continuity)…...
BehaviorClassical ConditioningDevelopmentHumanTheories
Help for people with Hypersomnia Disorder
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BACKGROUND Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning (otherwise called the Pavlovian molding) is a conduct treatment that educates through affiliation and was found by Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. Essentially, it implies that two improvements are joined together to create another reaction in an individual. Process of Classical Conditioning There are three stages in the processes of this behavioural therapy (McLeod. S. ,2018). Stage 1: Before Conditioning During this stage the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) which automatically triggers a response produces an unconditioned response…...
Classical ConditioningDisorderHelpObservational LearningPeople
Next the nurse guided me through my fear hierarchy stepbystep After I
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Next, the nurse guided me through my fear hierarchy step-by-step. After I was able to look at these images whilst feeling relaxed and less anxious (reciprocal inhibition), I could then advance to more fearsome activities like holding a needle and injecting a pillow. A pillow was used because Piaget (1945) claimed that symbolic development occurs around 2-4 years and this object was a symbolic representation of my leg. This task took longer to master, so when I finally learnt to…...
Classical ConditioningFearPsychology
023 Understand Child and Young Person development
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Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months When born, babies show innate reflexes, such as swallowing and sucking, rooting reflex, grasp reflex, startle reflex, walking and standing reflex; in the first month babies become less curled up and the startle reflex is starting to fade; toward the end of the third month babies start lifting and turning their heads. 3-6 months When lying on front babies can lift their arms and legs balancing on their tummies;…...
Child developmentClassical ConditioningCognitive DevelopmentLearningOperant ConditioningReinforcement
Classical Conditioning
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Classical conditioning is an association between two stimuli; It is what proceeds the response. The two stimuli in my experiment was the ringing of the bell and the on and off of the light switch performed in a dark room. During my experiment I rang the bell and then immediately turned off the lights. I remained in the dark for fifteen seconds then turned the light back on. I left the light on for fifteen seconds, and would monitor my…...
Classical Conditioning
The Principal Psychological Perspectives on Personality Traits
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The behaviourist perspective is an idea that we can understand any type of behaviour by looking at what the person has learner. This includes personality traits such as shyness, confidence, optimism or pessimism. Behaviourist psychologists explain all human behaviour as resulting from experience. Two key psychologists are Pavlov and Skinner, although these two theorists believed that different processes were involved, they both explained all types of behaviour as being the result of learning. This is everything from shyness to aggression…...
Classical ConditioningPersonalityPersonality TraitsPsychologyReinforcementThought
Personal Effectiveness
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Organisations today are witnessing high levels of competition. In the advent of the recession we have seen many organisation struggles to survive and some have gone burst. Organisations today are on a look out for employee that can demonstrate their ability to learn and develop innovate ideas, products and services that can give them an edge on competition. With so many graduate and not enough jobs, its all about you and your ability to sell yourself, that can take you…...
BehaviorClassical ConditioningLearningPersonalPhilosophyPsychology
Consumer Behavior Case Study Do Our Avatars Learn
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1) According to the text, classical conditioning occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. As time passes, the second stimulus is able to cause a similar response because of the fact that we associate it with the first stimulus. An example of classical conditioning would be one that was demonstrated by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. He conducted research on digestion in dogs. Pavlov was…...
AvatarCase StudyClassical ConditioningConsumer Behavior
The Science of Behaviour
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Different authors have different perspectives on classical conditioning, yet they agree on one aspect which is common, that it is a natural sequence of events; an unconscious, uncontrolled, and unlearned relationship. Comer (2004) defines classical conditioning as a process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response. Conditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the…...
Classical ConditioningPsychologyScience
Conditioned Fear Response: How to extinguish it?
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John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner carried one of the most significant psychology studies out in 1920. The reason it is such a landmark study is because Watson was able to show that emotional responses could be conditioned, or learned. Preceding Watson, Freud and James believed in instinctual systems. Freud thought there were two types of instincts, sexual and life- preservation. James, however, claimed there were many more innate instincts. Conversely, Watson stressed the importance of environmental factors on behavior.…...
Classical ConditioningFearPsychology
What Is Classical Conditioning?
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Classical conditioning is one of the very improtnat aspects as it can help to predict huiman behavior and hence can be applied in various fields. It was developed by the Russian Scientist and researcher Ivan Pavlov, who was trained in biology and medicine. The scientist was interested in studying the digestive system of dog, and it was only by coincidence hat he concentrated on the behavioral aspects of the dogs during his study. He observed that whenever he walked into…...
Classical ConditioningPsychology
Conditioning Procedures in Shaping Children’s Behaviour
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A child is repeatedly exhibiting inappropriate and unwanted behaviour (e.g. hitting sibling), which conditioning procedures could be used to most effectively stop this? Behaviours that produce favourable consequences are repeated and become habits, but those that produce unfavourable consequences tend not to recur (Ouellette and Wood, 1998 as cited in Martin, 2006). Experience changes the probability of repeating certain behaviours indicating that learning involves adaptation. As time goes on, old behaviours are eliminated and new behaviours are learned. Pavlov…...
ChildrenClassical ConditioningOperant ConditioningReinforcement
Learning theories
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Primary research consists of the collection of original primary data. It is often undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into the issue by reviewing secondary research or by analyzing previously collected primary data. It can be accomplished through various methods, including questionnaires and telephone interviews in market research, or experiments and direct observations in the physical sciences, amongst others. Secondary Research: Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather…...
Classical ConditioningLearningOperant ConditioningReinforcementResearchTheories
Learning Experience Paper
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In this paper I will discuss my learning experiences and analyze them with the perspective of learning theories. I will analyze my learning experiences with regards to classical conditioning, operant conditioning and cognitive- social learning theory. First of all, I would begin by describing my experience of learning to fear lizards with regards to classical conditioning. To give some context to the situation, I was raised in India where lizards, usually in large numbers, are often found on walls particularly…...
Classical ConditioningExperienceLearning
Learning process in behaviour
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Learning is a permanent change in behaviour caused by experience. The learner does not need to have the experience directly; we can also learn by observing others . It is an ongoing process. Our knowledge of the world is continually being revised as we are exposed to new stimuli and receiving ongoing feedback that allows us to modify our behaviour when we find ourselves in a similar position again Psychologists who have studied learning have developed advanced therories on the…...
Classical ConditioningLearningReinforcement
What is “Learning”?
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What is "Learning"? Discuss "classical conditioning" and "instrumental conditioning", and explain, with examples, their applications to marketing practice. Learning is a relatively permanently change in behavior caused by experience. It is an ongoing process, our knowledge about the world is being revised constantly as we are exposed to new stimuli and receive feedback that allows us to modify our behavior. Behaviorial learning theories assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events. Psychologist approach the mind…...
Classical ConditioningLearningPsychology
Acquisition of Prejudice as Social Issue
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The word 'prejudice' comes from the Latin word pre-judicium, which means 'pre-judgment'. Without examining a person on his or her own worth, one has already adopted a negative attitude that implies a judgment. A prejudice is a mixture of beliefs and feelings that predisposes people to respond positively or negatively to members of a particular group. Prejudice is defined as a positive or negative attitude based on information or knowledge that is either irrational, unrelated to reality, or a distortion…...
Classical ConditioningPrejudice
Skinner’s Behavioral Theory of Reward
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When you think of punishment and reward you think of a reaction; but man has come up with theories of why we do the things that we can do. Conditioning and learning is defined as change in behavior, which is resulted by different types of practices and experiences. In this report the main topics will be classical conditioning, operant conditioning, cognitive-social learning, and neuroscience and evolution. Every time we do something good or bad the outcome determines our reactions in…...
BehaviorBehavioral TheoryClassical ConditioningLearningOperant ConditioningReinforcement
Compare and contrast two psychological approaches
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My intention in this essay, is to compare and contrast the following psychological approaches Behaviourism and Psychoanalysis, in doing this I will unpack the key points of these two approaches, highlighting the differences and explaining them. The first approach I will look at is Psychoanalysis; the most famous psychologist linked to this is Sigmund Freud an Austrian psychologist who first proposed his Psychodynamic approach. These perspectives states, that there are three main sections to the human psyche. The first is…...
BehaviourismClassical ConditioningCompare And ContrastPsychoanalysisPsychologySigmund Freud
Classical conditioning/ systematic desensitization essay
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“Use classical conditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and describe how systematic desensitization can be used to overcome fears and phobias. Illustrate with examples.” This essay explores the practices of classical conditioning and systematic desensitization in relation to phobias and fears. John Watson proposed that the process of classical conditioning was able to ‘’explain all aspects of human psychology’’. Classical conditioning is the form of learning in which one stimulus is paired with another so that the organism…...
Classical ConditioningPhobias
The Theory of Operant Conditioning
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Introduction The study of human behavior by psychologists such as B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, and Watson is fascinating. These five psychologists each have different theories on human behavior. There are similarities and differences in each of the theories. Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning theory, studied animals and formed the basis for behavioral psychology (Cherry, 2013). Edward Thorndike’s theory of connectionism consisted of studying the learning process of behavior in animals. His studies also included problem solving, administering and evaluating…...
Classical ConditioningOperant ConditioningReinforcementTheory
Addictions and Phobias Through Classical and Opperant Conditioning
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Phobias and Addictions through Classical and Operant Conditioning This paper will explore how phobias and addictions are formed through both classical and operant conditioning and show just as addictions and phobias can be formed, they can also become extinct. Classical conditioning is the use of a conditional stimulus such as a person, place or object that forms an unconditional response. An unconditional response is one that does not require thought, but instead, is a natural reaction of the body (Kowalski…...
AddictionClassical ConditioningOperant ConditioningPhobiasReinforcement
Changing Behavior Case Study Analysis
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A client approached me because he has a serious problem with procrastination. My client has procrastinated most activities that were not comfortable or enjoyable for as far back as he can remember. Procrastinated activities include but are not limited to paying bills, doing homework assignments, making progress on assigned projects in the office, buying presents for birthdays or holidays and scheduling just about anything. Due to this undesirable behavior my client has lost a few jobs, failed out of school…...
BehaviorCase StudyClassical ConditioningOperant ConditioningProcrastinationReinforcement
Classical Conditioning and Pros and Cons of Punishment
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Classical conditioning is a form of behavioral learning and was first introduced when Ivan Pavlov came upon a study when he was studying the psychology of digestion in dogs. He noticed that the dogs would not just begin salivating when the meat powder was introduced, but also when the person responsible for feeding would enter the room or heard there footsteps. Classical conditioning is when two stimuli are presented in close succession repeatedly, until the response given to one becomes…...
Classical ConditioningCrime And PunishmentPsychology
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FAQ about Classical Conditioning

Conditioned Fear Response: How to extinguish it?
...Thus, we know from subsequent studies that, unlike other conditioned responses, fear responses do not tend to extinguish. The main reason for this is that once people become afraid of something, they tend to avoid it. When they avoid it, there is no ...
What Is Classical Conditioning?
...For example in the sale of cars, men usually are interested in buying cars. Many companies are using young models to unconditionally stimulate men who develop an unconditional response towards these girls. The association between cars and girls, put ...
What is “Learning”?
...Classical conditioning occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not response on it own. Over time, this second stimulus causes a response because it is associated with the first stimulus. This...

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