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This chapter covers the following sections :- background of the study, problem of the study, purpose of the study, objectives, scope of the study, research questions , significance of the study and conceptual frame work operational key terms.
Researchers have been developed Corruption and its danger for new world and named a disease that is prevalent in all parts of the world with varying degrees. Transparency International (TI) considers corruption to be one of the most pressing issues of the modern world.
Although corruption is a global phenomenon that is affecting all the countries across the globe, this problem has particularly adverse implications for poor countries (Olken & Pande, 2012).
The cost of corruption can be understood in four areas: political cost in terms of affecting democracy and rule of law, economic cost by depleting of national wealth, social cost by undermining people?s trust in political system and its leadership and environmental costs in the form of environmental degradation (Dan??kov?, 2012; Cartier, 2000)
Corruption is present at almost all administrative levels and main problems include biasness of policies of anti-corruption bodies, patronage, exemption of state institutions from prosecution and nepotism (Nyantakyi, 2002; Rose & Palifka,2016).
Pakistan has historically shown poor performance in terms of corruption as per the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) 2016 of Transparency International, Pakistan stands at 116th position out of 169 countries in terms of Control on Corruption the Executive Opinion Survey 2016 conducted by World Economic Forum identifies corruption as the greatest problem for companies doing business in Pakistan leading to a low ranking of 122nd out of 138 countries in terms of economic competitiveness (WEF, 2017)
Similarly, the Doing Business Survey of the shows the country at 144th rank among 190 economies owing to poor business conditions.
Other than the business sector, the general public also considers corruption as the core issue in the country.( World Bank (2016),
Global Corruption Barometer (TI, 2013) shows Pakistan to be a country, which suffers due to bribery at all, levels. 81% of respondents surveyed consider public officials and civil servants to be extremely corrupt. 57% reported that they have paid a bribe to obtain a service. Majority of all those surveyed consider government efforts to deal with corruption as ineffective and corruption to increase within the coming years admits the fact that corruption and crime cannot be altogether eliminated. However, corruption can and should be reduced. Different frameworks, methods and policies are used to combat corruption. These include institutional, administrative and societal reforms. Yet, most of the initiatives taken to combat corruption fail because overall governance structures are weak.( Della Porta & Vannucci (1997)
Researcher explains that the reason is because corruption infests the governance system with deep-rooted, structural problems. For example, decision-making power lies solely with top leadership, delayed and reactive action with respect to implementation of plans, pervasive patron-client networks, low salaries coupled with use of rules as tools for victimizing individuals going against the status quo corruption and good governance are antagonistic forces which actively operate in any developed or underdeveloped country. In order to introduce a strategically sound system of good governance it is necessary to first examine the meaning and methods of corruption this paper is specifically written to have some understanding of this complex issue within the context of Pakistan definitions, categories, forms and theoretical basis of corruption are discussed below. (Kaufmann & Vicente, 2011).
As corruption is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, the term is defined in many different ways. According to Canadian Oxford Dictionary 1998 the word corruption means: “use of corrupt practices, especially bribery or fraud” (p.317). The most straightforward and conventional definition is:”the abuse of public office for private gain” Apart from defining corruption in terms of practices or abuse, another approach is to define it in terms of behaviors. In this regard, corruption is defined as: “behavior that deviates from the formal duties of a public role (elective or appointive) because of private-regarding (personal, close family, private clique) wealth or status gains”(Nye, 1967).
Normative component of corruption includes unethical and illegal behavior of public officials; while the consequential component includes deviation from rules Corruption As A Source Of Failure Of Good Governance And Management framed for safeguarding public interest (Khan,1996).
A corrupt practice is the offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting, directly or indirectly, anything of value to influence improperly the actions of another party The International Financial Institutions (Task Force, 2006).
Corruption is now a disease for democracy and developing countries. Despite, being under tremendous criticism and accusation, it does not go back either, its dynamics tends to rise fasterthan its ability to neutralizing it. Corruption takes a larger share in Sub-Saharan Africa, Newly Industrialized of Asian and Latin America. (Task Force, 2006).
The pre-history of corruption goes back as far as ancient Greece; Athenian politicians and laterthe Roman political leader Cicero campaigned against the evils of vote-buying and bribery of judges.In France, the public expressed its disgust over corruption at the court until the death knell rangfor the ancient r?gime in 1789. In Britain, liberal and radical groups spent some forty years fighting what they identified as ?old corruption feudal structures in parliament, the administration and the awarding of offices. (Engels, 2014)
in Africa are confronted with corruption to access poor basic services, illicit financial flows from Africa are quickly draining the continent and depriving African countries of resources for investment and development the UN Economic Commission that the annual outflow of illicit finance through trade mispricing alone stands at about US$60 billion, having grown at a real rate of 32.5 per cent in the decade between 2000 and2009. Illicit financial flows are a serious threat to Africa’s economic growth and development.(Campbell,2011).
Corruption undermines the legitimacy of government, democratic values, human rights and respect for the rule of law the effects of corruption on development have left many African states grappling with what is today regarded as an international problem Indeed, corruption is viewed as an impediment to good governance and the rule of law in Africa. Good governance entails accountability, transparency, enhanced public participation in decision making, strengthened public sector and civil society institutions and greater adherence to the rule of law Corruption results in grave violations of socio economic rights, condemns people to extreme levels of poverty and often leads to social unrest Curbing corruption is therefore critical to the achievement of good governance and the rule of law in many countries.
Kenya although most legal systems in Africa prohibit corruption, the practice is significantly different as is exhibited in this dissertation. Some of these countries have even ratified international and regional conventions against corruption. Kenya for example, which will be the main subject of this dissertation, was the first country to sign and ratify the United Nations Convention against Corruption in December 2003. The country has also signed the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption but has ‘unreasonably’ hesitated to ratify it.5 The two Conventions seek to promote and strengthen the development of anti-corruption mechanisms the observance of these Conventions entails that the principles of the rule of law and good governance be upheld. (Holdy, 2011)
However, the extent to which the standards envisaged by these conventions are adhered to, remain a mirage for most countries in Africa. In Kenya, corruption has been a major social, political and economic obstacle such that in 1998 corruption was said to have permeated the institutional beacon of democracy- the judiciary. Indeed, in October 2003, there was a major purge of members of the judiciary on allegations of endemic corruption other high-profile corruption cases in Kenya include the infamous Goldenberg scandal and recently the Anglo-Leasing scandal the Goldenberg scandal ‘involved a fictitious export compensation scheme allegedly to export gold and diamonds while the most intriguing aspect of the matter is that Kenya has little or no gold mines and diamond fields’.7 The Anglo leasing scandal hinges on a government tender involving amounts in excess of 90 million Kenya shillings allegedly awarded to a non-existent company this led to the unsuccessful prosecution of six senior government officials in court these two egregious incidences illustrate the extent corruption is entrenched within government structures and how this ultimately erodes the basic principles of good governance and the rule of law. While this dissertation analyses the effects of corruption on good governance, particularly. (Holdy,2011)
Corruptions Dishonestor fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery.(Oxford Dictionary). Corruption is the misuse of property or power for the benefit of an individual.
Corruption affects economic performance is by impacting both the volume and the composition of government expenditures and revenues, subject to existing tax legislation and incomes. By reducing both direct and indirect tax revenues, corruption paradises the public sector’s ability to provide adequate levels of public goods to facilitate private sector development the expenditure side, diversion of resources from human capital formation toless capacity enhancing activities curtails potential.
The current administration is conducting massive embezzlement of the public funds and the international aids as well. Corruption has become a known phenomenon observed in Somalia today, which reflects the gloomy image of administrative corruption in a widespread. This phenomenon of corruption is getting worse to the point of threatening our society leading them to the social havoc and severe economic recession the corruption level which is 42.5%according to survey carried out undermines social services, such as health, education, water, electricity and others, therefore, the people with limited income were extremely affected. Amongthe indicators of corruption are the government expenditures, use of tribalism in getting to workforce, use of bribery among citizens and income inequality.
The theory of extractive corruption is about the state is the stronger part in the state-society relationship. According to this theory, the corrupted (the state or some state agent) benefits the most from corruption and the corrupter is more or less a passive player. Essentially, the rulingelite is the strongest force is society, this elite or class uses the state apparatus as its instrument toextract resources from society, and it does so for the benefit of the rulers. This theory is the most appropriate theory to be used as it is closely related to how corruption contributes to lowering the economic development of a country.
Corruption is no universally accepted single definition. The word has been originated from Latin verb corrupts which means spoiled, ruin or break Sometimes it is defined as deterioration of morality by discharging public duties unlawfully in this context, one of leading authorities Samuel P huntington, an influential political scientist of America states corruption as “a behavior of public officials which deviates from accepted norms in order to serve private ends It can be different in nature like grand, petty, political, and social bribes; largely depends on the amount of money involved. Grand corruption can be termed as state capture indicates the use of public trust by highest responsible authorities for their own benefit rather public (Akhter, 2015).
Corruption is not a modern phenomenon. It has an adverse impact on human progress. It is also detrimental to economic growth and sustainable development for a country But its definition, dimensions, and impact are changing over a period. Transparency International, a leading authority on corruption studies defines it as the abuse of public authority for personal gain refer corruption as the use and abuse of public office for private gain. Definition of corruption largely depends on its dynamic nature and the which way we are going to approach it. Corruption is a monetary and materialistic gain attained by an individual in an unethical way (Lanyi & Azfar, 2005).
The UN’s Dictionary of Social Science explains as “Corruption in public life is the use of public power for private profit, preferment of prestige or for the benefit of group or class, in a way that constitutes a breach of the law of standards of high moral conduct On the contrary, O’Higgins (2006) defines corruption as “the abuse of public power for private benefit Corruption is highly visible in public sector in explain the varieties of corruption in government sector as “informal payments or gifts demanded by or offered to public officials hich could be demanded services such as licenses, kickbacks, privatization deals. (Lanyi & Azfar, 2005).
However, there is a broad consensus that Somalia faces many of the corruption challenges that affect conflict-trn countries, with widespread corruption permeating all sectors of government and seriously undermining the fragile peace-building process. Corruption is rampant, based in deeply entrenched practices of patronage and exacerbated by a lack of resources and administrative capacity, weak leadership structures as well as a limited ability to pay public officials, including security forces (Bertelsmann Foundation, 2012)
In addition, most state-building efforts have relied on external sources of funding, which under some circumstances can undermine further government accountability to its citizens and tends to reinforce patronage-based systems of governance (Menkhaus, K., 2007).
Many observers believe that levels of corruption within the TFG have increased significantly, with powerful establishment figures presiding over “a corruption syndicate” that operates with impunity to manipulate the system and extends well beyond Somalia’s borders (International Crisis Group, 2011).
Most international governance indicators seem to confirm this assessment of the situation. Somalia has consistently ranked among the world’s most corrupt countries in TI’s Corruption Perceptions Index, since the country was first introduced in the ranking in 2007. In 2011, the country was ranked 182 out of the 183 assessed countries with a score of 1 on a 0 (highly corrupt) to 10 (highly clean) scale. The country also performs extremely poorly on the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators, scoring below 2,5 (on a scale of 0 to 100) in all six areas of governance assessed. In particular, the country scored 0 in terms of political stability, government effectiveness, rule of law and control of corruption. (International Crisis Group, 2011).
Therefore, the gab is to examine the impact of corruption on good governance in Mogadisho sea port in Mogadishu Somalia.
The findings of this study will be helpful in find the result of for making available insight for investigate impact of. Normal people will get a general idea about, it also assist Other researcher use different time reference.
Finally, the researcher is hopeful that the study achieved will impact the impact of corruption on good governance in Mogadishu sea port in Mogadishu Somalia. basis for further research and cover a way for future studies to be made by other potential researchers the importance of the study is to know the find the result the impact of corruption on good governance in Mogadishu sea port in Mogadishu Somalia. That is more significant for and this study for students, and educated people to get advantage from it
The scope of the study find the result of investigates the impact of corruption on good governance in Mogadishu sea port in Mogadishu Somalia.
This study conducted in Mogadishu because of it about exercisability of date requirement.
This study will be conducted during 2019.
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