Professional ethics – Document usually created by the profession that provides guidance for the ethical behavior of its members. Bioethics – Deals with the ethical implications of biological research and applications. Distributive justice – Just distribution in society, structured by various moral, legal, and cultural rules and principles. Formal justice – Ethical concern of formal justice is that the criteria are applied equally to all similar cases. Paternalism – Intentional limiting of the autonomy of one person by another.
Values – A principal, personal standard or quality considered worthwhile or desirable.
Utilitarianism – Theory based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Euthanasia – Bringing about the death a person who is suffering from an incurable disease or condition by administering a lethal drug or passively by allowing the person to die by withholding treatment. Integrity – Adhering to one’s principles. Moral duty – Act or course of action that is required by one on the basis of moral position.
Deontological – Decisions should be made solely or primarily by considering one’s duties and the rights of others.
Confidentiality – Principle that binds the practitioner to hold in strict confidence those things learned about a patient in the course of medical practice. Informed consent – A legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of any actions. Beneficence – that imposes on the practitioner a duty to seek the good for patients under all circumstances.
Advanced Directives – Documents that relate your wishes in regard to treatment options or in regard to who should make the decisions for you should you lose the ability to relate these matters yourself.
Principle of Double Effect – When an action can have two effects: one that is morally good or desirable and one that is not. Principle of Autonomy Right – to make decisions about one’s own life. Rational – Assumes that one is faced with a specific problem and focuses primarily on a search for the optimal solution. Heuristic – Acknowledges that some problems may be more diffusely defined, poorly structured, and are often not routine.