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Every person has some desire, will, ambition which is high or low. Individual wants to do big, wants an intense desire, a passion, to prove one self, in his interested sector. These desires decide the individual aspiration. Aspiration means the goal setting for him which has a strong desire great significance to him, and his ego is involved for achieving his goal. Aspiration is originated by Hoppe (1930), Dembo (1931) students of Lewin, they defined it. Aspiration is a personal motive to reach a targeted goal, a aim and work for it completion, its attaining.
' In short aspiration is a ability of individual which helps him to achieve goal. Some students have great or high aspiration, generally they taught by their past experience.
According to Lewin, students or an individual sure to perform a work, a hard work for a goal structure consist of many goals such as, creative goal, a unreal goal, a imaginative goal and also low level goal which an individual or a person undertaking to achieve it in any circumstances, to face any hurdles in his goal.
In this goal achieving process action is very important, action means trying for at a proper moment for reach a goal. Therefore, the past performance is important for attaining future performance, it gave surely to success in given path.
A college student decides their educational aspiration or career planning keeping in mind their capacity to attain certain goal or aim. In the process of goal attaining students become realistic and assertive about his future plan.
Aspiration indicated that students are more careful and particularized about their knowledge and their future plan, less depress and more charming, energetic for achieving a great thing, fore more specification about aspiration, ask three question, which explain it. 1) what is your aim or what is your ambition?. 2) How many resources are available for it or through which path you reach goal?. 3) Last but not least what is importance or significance of your goal in your life?.
If (we want) students or individual known all the answers above all question, he knows his aspiration, his desire, his wish, his will etc. in this process, firstly, set your goals, your destination and then acquire the path, the way, the preparation for attaing your goal, your ego is involved in it is life, it is life for your, you fully concentrated on it there is more significant in your life.
Some educationist, psychologist, or thinkers explain the concept of Aspiration. Their definitions are followns:
Educational aspiration is the educational level where students wants to reach. Educational aspiration should not be measured by students successful or unsuccessful goals. College play major role in students selection and differention, on the basis of their achievements. There are some aspects related with educational aspiration. 1) what kind of performance students desires to himself. 2) expectation of students about his performance. 3) a significance of his goal, his desire educational aspiration is one of the most significant stage or step concluding educational achievement.
All the above definition explains every persons have aspiration. It is another thing that one who is successful in his goal. What is the goal? This question explain the potentiality of ones, ability of one to achieve some thing. The hard work for attaining goal is important rather than aspiration. Because the will and the hard work are different thing. If someone have will to reach at goal but he cant do anything how can his goal become a complete. But he needs to take hard work for it. Aspiration is a struggle or intense will to achieve his present goal. This intense will make him able to do something great.
There are some theories of aspiration such as on the view of psychology, sociology. Now studied these theory of aspiration in detail following.
This theory shows psychological view of aspiration. It assumes that people or individual learn to prove and gain their goals. In this theory some person, some group, play vital role in achievement of individual. These person or groups are : parents, teachers, friend circle some idols etc. the relationship with these person, groups motivate individual to attain his goal. Education is important thing in development of person. Its make man more knoedgeable, more sensitive, more enthusiastic, more accountable to contribution civilizing process. Educational aspiration is whole to education, realizing students to better performance for their self and society ( Quaglia and Cobb,1996).
This theory manifest the view of sociology. The name or title of this theory show that people or individual compare themselves or oneself to groups or person with some abilities, some age groups. By this theory everyone prove to themselves better than their companion, their friends. Comparison in society is a natural tendancy of human being. This tendancy also found in students. Genrally, students compare with their friend sometimes they achieve their goals due to this theory or sometimes comparison is harmful to students eduacational aspiration.
This theory involved two thing 1) self evaluation 2) self-enhancement. Comparison between reference groups is spontaneous thing in every students . according to this theory individual develop oneself, see one drawback and try to best (Collier, 1994).
This theory mainly related with socialization process which learn individual the social expectation and view-points related with his or her sex. This theory teaches the roles of child in society through their gender. This theory have two aspect 1. Positive and 2. Negative, Positive for boys, which mean boys gave more importance, gave more facilities getting education than girl. Negative aspect for girls which mean girls are neglected by society, they not getting all choices, facilities like boys, Burn (1996), Wharton (2005) demonstrated social learning theory learn gender inequality in socialization of child. There are bifurcation of role on the basis of gender. Girls are learned by their mother, they want to live like mother. The impact of mother on girls are more than father (Kretchmar,2009).
Scholar like Parth Sarthy (1980), Pawan kumar Singh (2011) also demonstrated gender bias in education in society. In our Indian culture there are significant discrepancies between the career and educational aspiration of girls and boys. The expectations parents from girls and boys are different. Girls should learn house hold work, demotic things simultaneously with education. On the other hand boys are free to choose their career and free from domestic work. The retion in higher education of girls is least in comparison with boys.
Influence means the factor which effects positively or negativlely. Students or individual education aspiration influenced by many factor such as parental influence, parents education status, peer group, school-college environment, teacher influence, soc-economic status, class, cast, sex, interest of individual, mass media and so on. These factors elaborates following:
Parents plays vital role in children educational aspiration than any other factores. Specially mother take main part in the educational aspiration (kotrlik and Harrison,1989). Most of the students listens their parents. Parents see their dreams in their child and they decide children educational aspiration, their sector and teach them that type of education. Parents provides many resources to their child. Involvement of parents in their child, give them the right to choose career (Jodl et al. 2001). But students tend to complete their parents dream. Sometimes they are not interested in specific faculty but love or pressure of parents move him parents interested career. By the study of Gregg and washbrooks (2011), students academic performance influenced by their parental academic involvement of parents in their child educational aspiration is sometimes positive thing. Scholars like Gureea and Brugart-Rieker (1999), Lankard (1996), Mickelson and Valusco (1998) design the whole scenario of parents dream of choice of educational aspiration play vital role in their children career or educational aspiration. Parents think about security of child which mean they choose a good salaried job, a prestigious job or profession and so on parents as well as grand mother and grand father affects childrens aspiration. If they are well educated, their childrens are also educated and the result is their grandson and grand daughter are more educted of influenced by their predecessor.
Friends are very close to everyone. Like family, friends are also developing and shaping the personality of students. Students are influenced by their friends educational aspiration. After family child spent their time in their friend so some students or individual decide his career on the suggestion of his friend. Some scholars like Alexander and Campbell (1964), Duncan et al. (1968) are focused on how can friendship affects students educational or career plans. If peer group choose some specific field just as medical, engineering, or any things else, students mist think about above choices.
There are two aspects for peer influence (1) Positive or realistic (2) Negative. If students friends are optimistic, serious about their career then he is also career ambitious. But his friends are negative, waste their time in unproductive thing the he is also behave like that. If the peer group highly motivated, highly consciously set their goal, want to go in different thing to achieve then students must positively motivated by his peer membership, he also achieve his goal. The age of adolescents is mile stone in everyone life, if any one serious, mange one self, and go through his goal preparation to achieve his goal, he must successful in his life. But his friend circle is not good then he miss his turning point. Herriott (1963) gave more importance to peer influence than parental influence on students educational aspiration. If the peer groups is small in size, homogenious in makeup and separate from other groups would have great impact on shaping the aspiration of students.
The impact of only boys peer group, only girls peer group and boy-girls peer group are differently work on students educational aspiration. There are only boys group their sex are same, sometimes they positively or negatively affected by each other. There are only girls groups, sometime they underestimate theireself, sometime they has lived in limited thing, on the other hand if the peer groups is build up with both sex, their influence is different on girls as well as boys. Girls are become bold, boys become conscious about their group. If the friend circle is homogenous and different in multiple dimensions of their belief, traits, different behaviors such like risk taking character, inspiring factors, academic ambition, achievement and performance, political background, social preferences and psychological problems ( mental illness ) have been decide same choice of aspiration in friends and their influence is strong among each other Kandel 1978., Hamm 2000., Altermatt and Pomerantz 2003., French et al.,2003., Folwer and Christakis, 2008. Peer influence found positively in students educational aspiration.
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