Tourism In The Philippiness Essay
Tourism In The Philippiness
Tourism has become a phenomenon of everyday life for hundreds of millions of people today. It encompasses all free movements of persons away from their places of residence and work, as well as the service industries created to satisfy the needs resulting from these movements. It constitutes having become an important form of using the free time of individuals and the main vehicle for interpersonal relations and political, economic and cultural contact made necessary by the internalization of all sectors of the life of nation.That’s why the researchers present this paper about the Impacts of Tourism on the economy, socio-cultural and environment of the Philippines to understand how it changed this country: positively or negatively
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Philippines islands have 300,000 years of human habitation. A pacific archipelago located to the east of the Malay Peninsula and north of Indonesia, the Philippines comprises 7,107 islands, lush tropical rainforests, dramatic mountainous scenery and volcanoes. The Philippines has a diversity of cultural and religious traditions and a wealth of tourist attractions. It is among the most visited tourist destination in Southeast Asia. Travel and Tourism is now considered as the largest industry in the world. Tourism creates jobs across national and regional economies; it provides services; and mitigates the effect of poverty. Tourism has the power to enrich lives.
Tourism has a significant effect on life, culture and economy, and on all of society. The tourism industry is one of the sectors that can aid in the development and growth of the Philippine economy. Tourism, if properly enhanced in a sustainable approach can be an influential economic development engine for the country. The Philippines government considers the positive impact of tourism and makes tourism a top priority for national development.
Cultural/heritage tourism is the fastest growing segment of the tourism industry because there is a trend toward an increased specialization among tourists. This trend is evident in the rise in the volume of tourists who seek adventure, culture, history, archaeology and interaction with local people (Hollinshead, 1993). Especially, Filipino’s interest in traveling to cultural/ heritage destinations has increased recently and is expected to continue.
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
The reasons that the researchers are conducting this study is because to help us clarify the beliefs or misconceptions about the impacts of tourism in the Philippines.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research about the Impacts of Tourism attains to answer or at least give the possible solutions in the following problems or questions: 1. Is tourism an advantage or disadvantage on Philippine’s economy? 2. Does tourism affect the socio-cultural perspective of the Filipinos? 3. Thus tourism in the Philippines an environment friendly act?
The researchers used instruments to conduct date gathering in order to attain answers for the three given problems. First, the researchers gave out surveys to diferrent age groups, gender, location, work place and status. Below is the survey sheet: Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Intramuros, Manila
College of Tourism, Hotel and Travel Industry Management
SURVEY FOR ECONOMIC, CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM IN THE PHILIPPINES
Full Name: Birthdate: Occupation: Location: Signature:
This research was conducted to determine the role of tourism in the economy, socio-cultural perspectives and environment of the Philippines. The researchers conducted the study in accordance with the data they gathered from the Department of Tourism as well as the surveys responded by different people, different status, age group, different place all over the Philippines. The researchers was conducted between December 2014 until February 2015.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Modern tourism is an increasingly intensive, commercially organized, business-oriented act of activities whose roots can be found in the industrial and post industrial west. The aristocratic grand tour of cultural sites in France, Germany and especially Italy including those associated with Classical Roman tourism had its roots in the 16th century. It grew rapidly however, expanding its geographical range to embrace Alpine scenery during the second half of the 18th century, in the intervals between European wars. As a part of the grand tours expansion, its exclusivity was under mind as the expanding commercial, professional, and industrial middle ranks joined the land owning and political classes in aspiring to gain access to this right of passage for their sons. By the early 19th century, European journeys for help, leisure, and culture became common practice among the middle class, and paths to the acquisition of cultural capital were smoothed by guidebooks and the development of arch.
General Tour Attraction (Factor 1) contained nine attributes and explained 40.45% of the variance in the data, with an eigen value of 9.708 and a reliability of 87.88%. The attributes associated with this factor dealt with the general tour items, including “religious places,” “souvenirs,” “theaters,” “theme parks,” “tour package,” ”festivals/events,” “food,” “shopping places,” and “guides.” Heritage attraction (Factor 2) accounted for 6.74% of the variance, with an eigen value of 1.616, and a reliability of 70.20%. This factor was loaded with four attributes that referred to heritage attraction. The four attributes were “handicrafts,” “architecture,” “traditional scenery,” and “arts (music/dance).”
Maintenance factors (Factor 3) loaded with five attributes. This factor accounted for 5.58% of the variance, with an eigen value of 1.339, and a reliability of 72.85%. These attributes were “accessibility,” “indoor facilities,” “atmosphere/people,” “information centers,” and “accommodations.” Cultural attraction (Factor 4) contained five attributes that referred to cultural dimensions. This factor explained 4.88% of the variance, with an eigen value of 1.173, and a reliability of 80%. These attributes were “museums,” “galleries,” “culture villages,” “historic buildings,” and “monuments” (Rivera, 2009)
In recent decades, tourism has become the world’s largest industry, with $3.4 trillion in annual revenue (Virginia Department of Historic Resources, 1998). There is a trend toward an increased specialization among travelers, and cultural/heritage tourism is the fastest growing segment of the industry. Americans’ interest in travelling to cultural/heritage destinations has increased recently and is expected to continue. This trend is evident in the rise in the volume of travellers who seek adventure, culture, history, archaeology and interaction with local people (Hollinshead, 1993).
For American families, for example, the five top destinations were cities, (51%), historic sites (49%), beaches (44%); and lakes (35%). The top three activities of U.S. resident travellers were recently found to be shopping (33%); outdoor activities (18%); and visiting museums and/or historic sites (16%) (Virginia Department of Historic Resources, 1998). Furthermore, the number of properties recorded in the United States National Register of Historic Places has increased from 1,200 in 1968, to 62,000 in 1994. At the same time, the Travel Industry Association Travelometer (1994) listed visiting historic sites as one of the top five activities for travellers in North America (Kaufman, 1999).
Chinese outbound tourism is a quite new phenomena as since 1949 when People‘s Republic of China (PRC) was established, it was a strict control of the mobility of the Chinese people (Arlt, 2006). According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO) Chinese outbound tourism development experienced three stages: 1) The trial stage‟: 1983- 1996 when Chinese were allowed to visit relatives abroad and cross borders what laid the foundation to Chinese outbound tourism, 2) The initial stage‟: 1997- 2001 official opening of Chinese outbound tourism and 3) The development stage‟: from 2002 until present (WTO, 2006, p. 9, 10, 12). Since the establishment of Approved Destination Status (ADS) in 1990‘s, Chinese outbound tourism began to develop rapidly, especially in 2004 with the biggest increase in ADS agreements.
Jin Huh (2003).
It explained the impacts of cultural/heritage tourism and management responses through an overview of the characteristics of tourists to Oxford. This article highlighted the varying perspectives and dimensions of impacts on and tourist capacity of the city. Peleggi (1996) examined the relevance of Thailand’s heritage attractions to both international and domestic tourism, including an analysis of the state tourism agency’s promotion of heritage and the ideological implications of heritage sightseeing in relation to the official historical narrative.
This research provided several attributes, such as traditional villages, monuments, museums, and temples. Philipp (1993) studied black-white racial differences in the perceived attractiveness of cultural/heritage tourism. The article surveyed a Southern metropolitan area and chose various attributes. The research found that white tourists were more interested in cultural/heritage destinations than black tourists. (Glasson, 1994)
DISCUSSION OF THE STUDY
To provide accurate informations, the researchers conducted a survey to different kinds of people from the different parts of the Philippines about their opinions and observation regarding the usefulness or what tourism has done in the economy of the Philippines. Also, the researchers visited the Main Office of the Department of Tourism to get reliable data, specially statistics concerning the Industry Performance for Travel and Tourism as of October 2014. Finally, they consulted a book from the World Travel and Tourism Council which is the “Travel and Tourism: Economic Impact 2014 (Philippines).
Is tourism a big help in the economy of the Philippines? According to the Department of Tourism the international tourist receipts to the Philippines grew 7.14% to reach US$ 3.895 billion (Php 172..65 billion). For the month alone, receipts improved by 8.02% with US$ 333.10% million (Php. 14,922 billion) compared to US$ 308.38 million (Php. 13.317 billion) the previous year.
Korea accounted 28% of all international tourism receipts with Php 48.622 billion; followed by the United States (Php 33.61 billion), Australia (Php. 11.04 billion), Japan (Php. 8.98 billion), and China (Php. 7.55 billion).
Average Daily Expenditure (ADE) and Average Length of Stay (ALoS) posted double digit gains for October 2014, ADE increased by 10.69% with Php 4,863.26 versus the Php 4,393 reported the previous year while ALoS went up to 10.12 nights, longer by 16.06% compared to 8.72 nights a year ago. In addition, average per capita expenditure of visitors for the month is US$ 1,098.63 or Php 49,216.19.
Travel & Tourism is an important economic activity in most countries around the world. As well as its direct economic impact, the industry has significant indirect and induced impacts. The UN Statistics Division – approved Tourism Satellite Accounting methodology (TSA:RMF 2008) quantifies only the direct contribution of Travel & Tourism. But WTTC recognises that Travel & Tourism’s total contribution is much greater, and aims to capture its indirect and induced impacts through its annual research. Significant events that occurred this month have translated to the country’s continuing growth such as receiving the “Destination of the Year” award from TTG Asia Media’s Travel Trade Publishing Group; as well as Palawan (No.1) and Boracay (No.12) being judged as among the Top 30 Islands in the World by international travel magazine Condé Nast Traveler.
The Philippines welcomed 2.355 million tourists coming from Asian countries, generating over half of the aggregate international arrivals with 59.54%, followed by the Americas (17.96%), Europe (9.95%), Australia/Pacific (5.67%) and Overseas Filipinos (4.23%) visiting the Philippines.
Korea maintained its position as the country’s largest tourism source, providing 958,289 visitors or 24.23% share. Outbound travelers from US to the Philippines increased by 7.48% with a 14.97% share to the total market with this year’s output of 592,204 arrivals compared to its year ago arrivals of 550,991. Japan was in 3rd place, by contributing 382,633 visitors for 9.67% share. This market posted an increase of 6.07% versus its year ago arrivals of 360,721. China placed 4th with 354,202 arrivals, with an 8.95% share to overall traffic. Completing the top five visitor market is Australia by providing 173,954 visitors constituting 4.40% of the total. This market expanded by 5.25% from its volume of 165,282 the previous year.
Other high yielding markets include Singapore with 146,996 arrivals (3.72% share), Taiwan with 121,077 arrivals (3.06% share), Canada with 111,391 arrivals (2.82% share), Malaysia with 110,407 arrivals (2.79% share), United Kingdom with 107,499 arrivals (2.72% share), Hong Kong with 94,398 arrivals (2.39% share), and Germany with 57,847 arrivals (1.46% share). Among the top markets, Malaysia recorded the highest growth with a 23.89% increase from its total the previous year.
The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP reflects the ‘internal’ spending on Travel & Tourism (total spending within a particular country on Travel & Tourism by residents and non – residents for business and leisure purposes) as well as government ‘individual’ spending – spending by government on Travel & Tourism services directly linked to visitors, such as cultural (eg. museums) or recreational (eg. National parks). The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is calculated to be consistent with the output, as expressed in National Accounting, of tourism – characteristic sectors such as hotels, airlines, airports, travel agents and leisure and recreation services that deal directly with tourists. The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is calculated from total internal spending by ‘netting out’ the purchases made by the different tourism sectors.
The total contribution of Travel & Tourism includes its ‘wider impacts’ (ie the indirect and induced impacts) on the economy. The ‘indirect’ contribution includes the GDP and jobs supported by: Travel & Tourism investment spending – an important aspect of both current and future activity that includes investment activity such as the purchase of new aircraft and construction of new hotels; Government ‘collective’ spending, which helps Travel & Tourism activity in many different ways as it is made on behalf of the ‘community at large’ – eg tourism marketing and promotion, aviation, administration, security services, resort area security services, resort area sanitation services, etc; Domestic purchases of goods and services by the sectors dealing directly with tourists – including, for example, purchases of food and cleaning services by hotels, of fuel and catering services by airlines, and IT services by travel agents. The ‘induced’ contribution measures the GDP and jobs supported by the spending of those who are directly or indirectly employed by the Travel & Tourism industry.
Visitor exports are a key component of the direct contribution of Travel & Tourism. In 2013, Philippines generated PHP221.0bn in visitor exports. In 2014, this is expected to grow by 2.0%, and the country is expected to attract 4,697,000 international tourist arrivals. By 2024, international tourist arrivals are forecast to total 7,880,000, generating expenditure of PHP455.7bn, an increase of 7.3% pa.
Travel & Tourism is expected to have attracted capital investment of PHP81.3bn in 2013. This is expected to rise by 3.8% in 2014, and rise by 3.9% pa over the next ten years to PHP123.9bn in 2024. Travel & Tourism’s share of total national investment will fall from 3.6% in 2014 to 3.2% in 2024. Leisure travel spending (inbound and domestic) generated 71.1% of direct Travel & Tourism GDP in 2013 (PHP668.9bn) compared with 28.9% for business travel spending (PHP271.4bn). Business travel spending is expected to grow by 5.5% in 2014 to PHP286.4bn, and rise by 4.8% pa to PHP458.0bn in 2024. Leisure travel spending is expected to grow by 3.2% in 2014 to PHP690.2bn, and rise by 5.7% pa to PHP1,198.5bn in 2024.
Domestic travel spending generated 76.5% of direct Travel & Tourism GDP in 2013 compared with 23.5% for visitor exports (ie foreign visitor spending or international tourism receipts). Domestic travel spending is expected to grow by 4.4% in 2014 to PHP751.1bn, and rise by 4.8% pa to PHP1,200.7bn in 2024. Visitor exports are expected to grow by 2.0% in 2014 to PHP225.5bn, and rise by 7.3% pa to PHP455.7bn in 2024.
The total contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is its direct contribution.
Tourism attracts people into an area of exceptional history, beauty and grandeur. Hence, it means an inflow of people that includes (1) tourist, (ii) investors or entrepreneurs, (iii) artisans and (iv) job – seekers. As a result, there is increased congestion as more residential and commercial establishments are built. An area limited in size then struggles to support the ever-increasing people. With increased population and infrastructures a settlement once pristine and fresh starts to become degraded. Aside from increased visitor numbers, tourism leads to development projects impinging the area. Improperly – built infrastructure affects land stability and impacts on water resources. Unplanned construction pollutes and destroys food and water resources, ultimately degrading the liveability of the community. Rivers once teeming with fish are transformed into sewage dumpsites. The crisp, clean air becomes polluted with noxious gases spewed by transport vehicles and industries. The once tranquil environment starts to be overwhelmed with traffic noise and raucous enter entertainment.
Negative impacts from tourism occur when the level of visitor use is greater than the environment’s ability to cope with this use within the acceptable limits of change. Uncontrolled conventional tourism poses potential threats to many natural areas around the world. It can put enormous pressure on an area and lead to impacts such as soil erosion, increased pollution, discharges into the sea, natural habitat loss, increased pressure on endangered species and heightened vulnerability to forest fires. It often puts a strain on water resources, and it can force local populations to compete for the use of critical resources.
Golf course maintenance can also deplete fresh water resources. In recent years golf tourism has increased in popularity and the number of golf courses has grown rapidly. Golf courses require an enormous amount of water every day and, as with other causes of excessive extraction of water, this can result in water scarcity. If the water comes from wells, overpumping can cause saline intrusion into groundwater. Golf resorts are more and more often situated in or near protected areas or areas where resources are limited, exacerbating their impacts.
Tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy, food, and other raw materials that may already be in short supply. Greater extraction and transport of these resources exacerbates the physical impacts associated with their exploitation. Because of the seasonal character of the industry, many destinations have ten times more inhabitants in the high season as in the low season. A high demand is placed upon these resources to meet the high expectations tourists often have (proper heating, hot water, etc.).
Important land resources include minerals, fossil fuels, fertile soil, forests, wetland and wildlife. Increased construction of tourism and recreational facilities has increased the pressure on these resources and on scenic landscapes. Direct impact on natural resources, both renewable and nonrenewable, in the provision of tourist facilities can be caused by the use of land for accommodation and other infrastructure provision, and the use of building materials.
Transport by air, road, and rail is continuously increasing in response to the rising number reported that the number of international air passengers worldwide rose from 88 million in 1972 to 344 million in 1994. One consequence of this increase in air transport is that tourism now accounts for more than 60% of air travel and is therefore responsible for an important share of air emissions. One study estimated that a single transatlantic return
flight emits almost half the CO2 emissions produced by all other sources (lighting, heating, car use, etc.) consumed by an average person yearly. (Mayer Hillman, Town & Country Planning magazine, September 1996. Source: MFOE ).
In areas with high concentrations of tourist activities and appealing natural attractions, waste disposal is a serious problem and improper disposal can be a major despoiler of the natural environment – rivers, scenic areas, and roadsides. In mountain areas, trekking tourists generate a great deal of waste. Tourists on expedition leave behind their garbage, oxygen cylinders and even camping equipment. Such practices degrade the environment with all the detritus typical of the developed world, in remote areas that have few garbage collection or disposal facilities.
Construction of hotels, recreation and other facilities often leads to increased sewage pollution. Wastewater has polluted seas and lakes surrounding tourist attractions, damaging the flora and fauna. Sewage runoff causes serious damage to coral reefs because it stimulates the growth of algae, which cover the filter-feeding corals, hindering their ability to survive. Changes in salinity and siltation can have wide-ranging impacts on coastal environments. And sewage pollution can threaten the health of humans and animals.
Often tourism fails to integrate its structures with the natural features and indigenous architectural of the destination. Large, dominating resorts of disparate design can look out of place in any natural environment and may clash with the indigenous structural design. A lack of land-use planning and building regulations in many destinations has facilitated sprawling developments along coastlines, valleys and scenic routes. The sprawl includes tourism facilities themselves and supporting infrastructure such as roads, employee housing, parking, service areas, and waste disposal.
Attractive landscape sites, such as sandy beaches, lakes, riversides, and mountain tops and slopes, are often transitional zones, characterized by species-rich ecosystems. Typical physical impacts include the degradation of such ecosystems.
An ecosystem is a geographic area including all the living organisms (people, plants, animals, and microorganisms), their physical surroundings (such as soil, water, and air), and the natural cycles that sustain them. The ecosystems most threatened with degradation are ecologically fragile areas such as alpine regions, rain forests, wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs and sea grass beds. The threats to and pressures on these ecosystems are often severe because such places are very attractive to both tourists and developers.
The impacts arise when tourism brings about changes in value systems and behaviour and thereby threatens indigenous identity. Furthermore, changes often occur in community structure, family relationships, collective traditional life styles, ceremonies and morality. But tourism can also generate positive impacts as it can serve as a supportive force for peace, foster pride in cultural traditions and help avoid urban relocation by creating local jobs. As often happens when different cultures meet, socio-cultural impacts are ambiguous: the same objectively described impacts are seen as beneficial by some groups, and are perceived as negative – or as having negative aspects – by other stakeholders.
Tourism involves movement of people to different geographical locations and establishment of social relations between people who would otherwise not meet, cultural clashes can take place as a result of differences in cultures, ethnic and religious groups, values, lifestyles, languages and levels of prosperity. The attitude of local residents towards tourism development may unfold through the stages of euphoria, where visitors are very welcome, through apathy, irritation and potentially antagonism when anti-tourist attitudes begin to grow among local people.
Cultural clashes may further arise through:
Economic inequality – between locals and tourists who are spending more than they usually do at home.
Irritation due to tourist behaviour – Tourists often, out of ignorance or carelessness, fail to respect local customs and moral values. As an example, we can see the case of Catalunya. Catalunya has always been a worldwide force in the tourism industry. However, it has promoted a kind of tourism based on sun, fun and drinking. The kind of people that come to the country are only looking for those clichés and do not care about the local values. These are people who, in their own country would never shout in the street, drink alcohol all day or break all shopping windows they would find on their way “home”.
Job level friction – due to a lack of professional training, many low – paid tourism – jobs go to local people while higher – paying and more prestigious managerial jobs go to foreigners or “urbanized” nationals.
Crime rates typically increase with the growth and urbanization of an area. Growth of mass tourism is often accompanied by increased crime. The presence of a large number of tourists with a lot of money to spend and often carrying valuables such as cameras and jewellery increases the attraction for criminals and brings with it activities like robbery and drug dealing. Although tourism is not the cause of sexual exploitation, it provides easy access to it.
Studies show that many jobs in the tourism sector have working and employment conditions that leave much to be desired: long hours, unstable employment, low pay, little training and poor chances for qualification (www.ilo.org). In addition, recent developments in the travel and tourism trade (liberalization, very tough competition) seem to reinforce the trend towards more precarious and flexible employment conditions. Children are sometimes recruited for such jobs, because they are cheap and flexible employees.
The physical influences that increasing tourism has on a destination can cause severe social stress as it impacts the local community.
Socio-cultural disadvantages involve:
Cultural deterioration, damage to cultural heritage may arise from vandalism, littering, pilferage and illegal removal of cultural heritage items or by changing the historical landscape that surrounds it; Resource use conflicts, such as competition between tourism and local populations for the use of prime resources like water and energy because of scarce supply; Conflicts with traditional land – uses may also arise in coastal areas, when the construction of shoreline hotels and tourist faculties cuts off access for the locals to traditional fishing grounds and even recreational use of the areas.
The researchers have concluded that Tourism has different impacts on Cultural, Economical, and Environmental aspects in our country. Thus, problems may arise and benefits can be derived. Therefore, the researchers recommend to balance everything. We should not be too dependent to the good effects of Tourism to us but it does not mean that we will neglect the advantages of Tourism. We can’t just balance and maintain harmonious give and take relationship but never give too much. Because giving too much can result to further destruction; just like the Environmental effect of tourism in our country. Furthermore, we also give exaggerate to foreign culture and forget those which are really within us. Tourism is both boon and bane to us, Filipinos. Hence, we should learn the value of balancing and maintaining equilibrium to avoid further problems and destruction.
The researchers concluded that in terms of economy, they can’t deny that the field of tourism has the largest contribution. It can provide enough jobs for the locals, even though they can’t always have a large number of visitors. Since tourism is known for being seasonal. In terms of the socio-cultural aspect it seems that tourism is unfavourable for the preservation of our culture and heritage considering that many foreigners visits and some migrates in our country that leads to forget our culture and become more colonialized. Lastly, in terms of the environmental aspect of the Philippines, tourism is a devastative occurrence to the mother nature. Tourism leads to modernization of rural and woodland areas. The researchers concluded these concepts based on their research.
In a nutshell, tourism in the Philippines can brought out different effects on the different aspects of our country in terms of economic status, tourism is a feed wherein we can harvest tremendous fruits that are very beneficial to the progress and development of our land. This is truly evident through series of surveys and analysis of data. But unfortunately, in the aspect of socio-cultural and environmental concerns, tourism is an enemy that shall be defeated as soon as possible. It is one of the factors of destruction in our environment and it lessens the interest of the Filipinos to love and support their very own culture. We can therefore say that tourism is not only an advantage in order to industrialize our country. We should also keep in mind that we need first to lose or sacrifice something before we gain what we want.
Harcombe, David. The Environmental and Socio-Cultural Impacts of Travel and Tourism. Thailand: Assumption U, 1993. Print.
“Industry Performance of Travel and Tourism.”1 Oct 014. Web. .
“Tourism Made Easy.” Web. .
“The Philippine Environment and Its Eco Tourism Potential.” Philippine Tarsier Foundation, Inc. Web. .
“Tourism’s Three Main Impact Areas.” Environmental Impacts of Tourism. Web. .
David, Scowsill. “Travel and Tourism Economic Impact 201 (Philippines).” World Travel and Tourism Council. Harlequin Building 65 Southwark Steet, London, United Kingdom, 2014. Print.
“Tourism.” Encyclopedia Britannica Ultimate Reference. Chicago, 2003. Print.
Drakopoulou, Athanasia. Tourism Certification and Community-based Ecotourism as Tools for Promoting Sustainability in the Greek Tourism Sector – the
Example of Zagori: 40-52. Print.
Jurgita Lahouti, Jurgita. Attracting Chinese Tourists to Denmark. A Focused Study on Chinese Tourists’ Perceptions (2012). Print.
Huh, Jin. “The Virginia Historic Triangle.” TOURIST SATISFACTION WITH CULTURAL / HERITAGE SITES (2002). Print.
Anett Tızsér, Anett. “Developing a New Model of Tourism Competitiveness.” Competitive Tourism Destination (2010). Print.