Sport Development Continuum of Football
Sport Development Continuum of Football
This is at the very basic level of sport, generally a beginner. It involves mainly children; infants aged 5-11 and are introduced to the sport during primary school, where all the children (boys and girls) participate during lessons in the sport. This enables everyone to be introduced to football at foundation level. The teachers of the sport in school will be qualified and teach the infants the very basic rules of the game. The faculties will not be high standard as what you would see on an elite level, but will be very basic, a pitch with even cones as goal posts.
Normally at this level schools introduce Astroturf to the infants mainly for safety purposes. Football is a renowned sport at foundation level, as nearly everyone in school is introduced to it; this is mainly because it is very cheap to cater for football at this level. Real goal posts are not even needed to participate at foundation level. There are also many schemes to involve youngers into football, a scheme called football in the community exists at football clubs. The get involved scheme enables youngers also to find their nearest football club and start playing at a basic level.
Participation Level At this level is where children are motivated by such famous role models they see on television play for their team and aspire to become rich and famous just like them. They begin to realize they can succeed in the sport and progress higher up the sports development continuum. There are two target groups in this continuum, the first one are the adults who participate in football to stay fit and keep active. There are not looking to progress 0n a higher level as work or education is holding them back from moving onto the next level as they don’t have enough time.
The second target is teens generally aged 11-16, these youths play regularly on the weekends and may train during the week or might be involved in a youth academy. Teens at this age looking to progress to generally more competitive as they are looking to impress there coaches to enable them to move on to the next level as quick as possible. A modern day example would be Wayne Rooney who progressed at a very young age to the next level. There also needs to be local clubs and ocal authority sports development officers, otherwise talent will seep through and be wasted where there aren’t any. All of this is essential to help young talent progress. Performance Level This is where young adults (16+) are performing at a high standard and always looking to improve to progress to the next level. This is normally at semi-professional level, here football is played a regular basis and takes into account many aspects such as; fitness and ability. There is also a higher demand at this level as it is much more competitive.
Education at this level is also a barrier as it can hold them back from performing at a standard higher than some who is fully committed at a academy without any academic involvement in their life. Your social life becomes an issue as you may need to give up some social activities in order to perform at a high standard. Making time for your sport can also be a problem, as to progress onto the elite level it requires time and effort that someone may not have preventing them from progressing. At this level, it may involve official FA football rules and official referees at football matches.
The general conditioning training is much more demanding as an eye has to be kept on lifestyle. There is also more gym work at this level, conditioning you for a football game making you faster and stronger than the opposing players, giving you an edge over everyone else in an attempt to impress your coach to push you onto the next level. You financial state also may be a barrier, as it will cost for kit and boots, getting you to and from a venue. They may even be yearly or monthly training costs, in order for you to experience that high tech equipment helping you progress.
Elite level This is at the highest level, in football terms it would be club/international. The target group is mainly 18 year olds however you do have 16-17 year old who performs at this level. A known example would be Wayne Rooney and his 16 year old debut for Everton. Recent examples would be Alex Chamberlain and Sterling who are playing at the highest level for their teams Arsenal and Liverpool at a young age under 18. There are many barriers here relating to football away from the barriers you may experience at a lower level.
The faculties of the football team you play for can be an issue as playing for a lower league team; their football club may not have the facilities as of a higher club. Such examples could be lack of coaches and educational staff and also lack of sports science support, e. g. injury clinics, assessment and evaluation centers. At this level the athlete will train 4-5 times a week and have match day. Known examples would be Messi and Ronaldo who play football competitively from September to May along with a vigorous and demanding training regime.
In some cases they may play on the weekend for their league and then during the week for the champions league. A basic overview of this level would be more football is played. However for a lower league player they will be issues stopping them from continually preforming at this level. Injury is the most common barrier at this level an example would be Owen Hargreaves who suffered an injury while playing for Manchester United and it prevented him from playing competitive for over a year at this elite level. Sports Development Continuum of Boxing Foundation level
Boxing’s foundation level age can vary, as you can be a beginner from a very early age like football 5-11 or start even at the age of 16. Surprisingly many people are beginners at ages 15 – 17 due to the physical nature of the sport some start at an older age. The ones who started younger do benefit better, as they are more top class professional boxers who started from an early age than boxers who started at a late age. Sergio Martinez is a rare example of someone started late, he began boxing at 21 and now at 35 is considered one of the top five pound for pound fighters in the world.
Foundation level requires someone who has no experience of boxing and first learns the basics of punching and the ruling. A reason as to why many people are introduced to boxing at a late age could be because they are not given the chance or opportunity at a young age to even think about boxing. Some peoples reasoning are due to the perception of violence and its relation to boxing. When someone from a young age enters a boxing gym, it’s about grabbing the trainer’s attention, as he has many boxers at a higher level than you already to care for.
The quicker you pick up the skills and technique in boxing, the quicker it is to progress to the next level of sports continuum. Boxing is not an as renowned sport as football at such a basic level. Recently, they have been many boxing schemes to involve teenagers into boxing and use it to channel their aggression positively. There have also been courses and schemes for individuals with troubled backgrounds, these schemes have given them a chance to turn the page. These schemes have lead people to become anti-drug and crime, as they avoid such temptations due to the rewards that are given to them through boxing.
Many people involve themselves in boxing for the health benefits and weight loss goals as acts as a stepping stone for them to change their lives. Participation Level Following the basic fundamentals and teachings of boxing, this level gives beginners a much bigger involvement in the sport. As we know boxing is an extremely physical sport, so to know the basics is vital. At this stage beginners begin to progress into actual boxing, by sparring during training sessions. They become more aware of the rules of boxing, fitness and ability is up to standard of an amateur boxer.
In boxing the step from foundation to participation is a big leap. Training at this stage becomes more regular. Fighting at regional and local level is introduced. At this stage, boxers have to take everything in their lifestyle seriously. Healthy eating and regular exercise is promoted. Some at this stage may even be fighting competitively for fun. Performance Level Boxers at this level perform at a much higher standard than before. By the change of levels, big improvements are made.
For someone who started boxing at a young age this is normally around ages 16-18 where they begin to participate in world and national tournaments. Progression may even see them participate in the Olympics. At this level training and fights are much more intense, boxers travel to different gyms to improve on abilities and skill. An example would be to spar at Peakcocks gym, as it is known for its high quality sparring and does highlight areas for improvement in the sport. Location at this level may be an issue as fighters will be required to travel around the world for specific tournaments and fights.
In some circumstances overseas training may be required. Boxing is taken seriously at this stage and all fighters require staying drug free as they are regular drug tests. The conditioning training is on a completely different level to participation and foundation level. With boxing at this level it’s all about winning to progress onto the next level. An example that we can use is Amir Khan who won silver in the Olympics which allowed him to gain recognition which helped him gain attention of boxing promoters that progressed him onto the next stage.
Frank Warren gained Amir Khans first professional bout which automatically progressed his level onto elite. Sports dev contin is diff to other sports progressing is more frequent Elite level At this level boxing is a whole different ball game. Many critics and boxing analyst suggest the jump from amateur to professional like a whole different sport. The changes the boxers see is a change in the number of rounds from 3-4 to 6/8/12. The rounds increase as your career and recognition in the sport increases.
There have been many boxers in the sport, who have been poor or average amateurs but very good professionals. Due to the increase in rounds and the whole physical nature of the sport, it means a boxer will need more strength, more speed, more endurance and stamina all together. Boxers will be introduced to specific coaches, for example a strength and conditioning coach to condition the boxer for the professional environment. Alex ariza is the most known of conditioning coaches. The benefits of getting to this level are above all as boxers face the pro health benefits of being physically fit.
Being anti-drug is vital as boxers are subjected to regular drug tests to detect any cheating. Sport Development Continuum of Cricket Foundation level This is at the very basic level and is normally introduced to children in primary school around the age of 9 or 10. Generally kids learn how to hold a cricket bat the different stances and basic shots. Bowling is normally done under arm at this level, the main priority is to get them to understand the rulings of cricket before they can get too in depth about skill as rules can be tricky to understand.
At a younger age children are introduced to cricket on a much smaller scale. An example of games they would play during PE lessons or after school lessons would be simplified cricket games such as ‘Kwik cricket’ where a tennis ball is used are there is only one batsman running half the distance for a run. At this stage cricket is played for fun and used as a pass time for really young children. Introducing cricket and its environment from a very young age benefits Youngers who are aspiring to become cricket players as it prepares them mentally and physically.
Kwik cricket is enjoyed by people who don’t understand the rules of cricket beyond hitting the ball. To attempt to progress onto the next level is down to the individual. As basic school cricket is completely different to the real game. By joining a local cricket club an beginning to learn the full game of cricket is where an individual can fulfill his potential an attempt to progress though the levels of sports continuum. Participation Level The participation level of cricket is when an individual takes their time outside of school and basic learning of the game, to join a local regional cricket club.
At the club the individual will begin to learn all three sides of the game and basic ruling. They will begin to play with a real cricket ball and full equipment with the right number of payers either side. Following up from the previous level, they will begin to adapt to playing with another batsman on the wicket rather than themselves in the basic form of the game. They will begin to be introduced to the basics of fielding which is much more in depth than the foundation level. Individuals are also introduced to basic bowling and basic techniques.
Just by club involvement, children at a fairly young age are introduced to the benefits of health and education and also the negative effects of drug usage and crime. The ticket on to the next level of sports development continuum is about gaining recognition in basic local club cricket. Performance Level This is normally under the age of 18 where you are participating at a younger level in county cricket along with other distractions such as work or education. At this level it’s more about teaching and development of the player which will make him adaptable in the future game.
Players are then introduced to the different formats the game has to offer; test cricket and 50 or 20 over games which give players experience of the duration of a cricket match. This is especially useful for the vigorous schedule of a five day test cricket game. Players then begin to adapt to different pitch conditions (slow or fast). Bowling skills are much more in depth as spin bowlers learn the different movements and ways to spin the bowl. Paced bowling is expanded on to a whole no level, as players begin to learn how to execute a , outswinger, reverse swing, in-swinger and off cutter.
Once these bowling actions are mastered in training and practice matches, players will begin to use them in the big games which will separate the players from the performance level to elite level if they are proven to be effective in changing a game of cricket. The same occurs for batting as if shown to be effective; batsman will be recognised and rewarded on to the next level of the sports development continuum. Elite level At this level barriers are limited as players here have no other commitments, so there is 100% focus on cricket.
Players will have to meet a fitness requirement, which means there are pro health benefits. They are regular drug tests, to ensure players are not under the influence of any substances, as a professional cricket player should be anti-drug to everything. Once a player is introduced onto the professional scale, they are first involved on ODI games (50/20 overs). Once they are proven in that format of the game, they are then involved into test cricket, which exposes more skill and ability of a player. If a player is chosen to represent their country, they will be aware of all the different types of bowling (if a bowler).
The same applies for a batsman, they wouldn’t off been picked if the coaches didn’t think they were capable of changing a game. At this level, players are tested to the fullest and are introduced to world tournaments on a grand stage of cricket. If Australian or English, players may compete in the Ashes test series which is only seen at the elite level of cricket. Consistency is important at this level of the continuum, to maintain a spot in the team throughout your career, as a string of halfhearted performances can affect your status. Comparing three sports
When assessing the Sports development continuum for all three sports, they are many similarities and improvements that can be made. To make progression through the levels, for all three sports, an individual has to involve himself outside of school and basic learning, to excel his or hers knowledge on the sport and gain basic experience. Footballs continuum is very similar To Cricket, in the sense it’s all about making a name for yourself. The progression is similar, as age is like a guideline most of the time for the level of progression unless you are an exception at the age of 16 like Wayne Rooney.
Cricket and Football is down to how an individual performs and delivers their skills rather than the team winning the game, whereas in boxing it’s based on wins, trophies, tournaments and overall recognition of the boxer. Working your way through the ranks in football tends to be easier as many get pro debuts at an early age than cricket. To achieve your merit you will need to compare the three sports and describe their strengths and areas of improvements within different stages of the sport development.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 18 October 2016
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