Renewable On Energy Sources

To fulfill the ever-growing demand for energy, renewable energy resources play a main role in today’s energy crisis. On the way towards achieving the demand and maintaining higher power quality, en route for the disadvantages of conventional energy sources such as high pollution, (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide emission), high losses related with transmission and distribution, less efficiency, and rapid depleting nature. A topology consists of solar-photovoltaic (PV) and wind-Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) hybrid system is proposed in this thesis.

Interfacing the solar-wind hybrid renewable energy sources in an engineering environment is to extract maximum power by modern power electronic converters.

Usage of Cuk and Zeta converter leads to complete elimination of filter requirement or reduced filter size in renewable energy application.  The primary challenge in the system is the integration of solar-wind energy sources along with DC-DC converters. In the Indian context and in the global market, Distributed Generation (DG) plays a vital role. The solar-wind energy sources are main contributors to this sector.

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India has set ambitious objectives of huge volume programme from solar and wind energy generation by grid connected and off-grid renewable energy sources from 2017-18 to 2021-22. In this perspective, this thesis presents the analysis on both grid connected and off-grid connected hybrid solar-PV and the wind-PMSG system.

The main objective of this thesis is to extract maximum power from the hybrid system and be greener with minimum losses. For lesser range hybrid system, to achieve voltage regulation modern DC-DC converters are essential. In to evade overload condition and rapidly isolate the load from the source the converter must be capable to supply the voltage more than the input voltage.

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This is achieved using modern converters like Cuk converter, and Zeta converter along with intelligent controllers and to investigate the steady-state and dynamic responses of the hybrid system. The proposed system show considerable performance improvement with reduced control complexity. First, to improve the reliability of the system connected to a grid, renewable energy sources like Photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy sources are combined along with single Cuk converter and an inverter.

In the proposed system, two controllers are used to trigger this single DC-DC Cuk converter and an inverter. For the efficient performance of power converters, selection of control methods plays a vital role. In order to track maximum power from the system, two controllers are used. The first controller is designed with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. The second controller is a hysteresis controller to track maximum current from both the sources. Simulation results prove that the effective performance of the proposed Cuk converters and an inverter connected to the grid. The duty cycle of these converters is controlled by MPPT technique.

As the DC-DC power converters are nonlinear, and also disposed to changes in their operating conditions over an extensive range of energy control methods must be involved to deliver consistent power to the consumers.  As the control methods on power electronic converters or inverters are essential for controlling the renewable sources. The MPPT controllers are designed to deliver the best performance at all operating conditions of the hybrid system. The proposed hybrid system with a Cuk converter connected to the grid can achieve DC bus voltage regulation even if any one of the energy sources is reduced.

Second, further to the unpredictable nature of solar-wind energy and load changes. To meet the consumer’s requirement, some of the locations have an off-grid connected system which reduces the gap between supply and demand. A novel method to design solar PV array and wind energy for water pumping in rural areas is discussed in this work.  In this method, continuous water pumping is done throughout the day and the efficiency of the system can be improved with the help of the Zeta converter. The size of the solar PV array and wind turbine ranges from 100W to 500W. Therefore, it is viable to install hybrid solar-wind water pumps without battery backup in rural areas in India. Finally, the reliability of the proposed system is verified with various modern converters.

It is observed that each converter is a promising solution for the extraction of maximum power. Overall, this thesis aims in developing a new and reliable topology based on hybrid solar-PV and wind-driven PMSG as sources and for maximum efficiency, which is analyzed with a single modern power converter. All the established systems are systematically evaluated in MATLAB/Simulated for grid-connected and off-grid connected modes. The simulation results validate the efficient operation of the proposed converters. The hybrid system is able to provide substantial enhancement in the system performance. The system is tested experimentally using Zeta converter for self-governing water pumping applications.

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Renewable On Energy Sources. (2022, Jan 02). Retrieved from

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