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The study embraces Georgio’s phenomenological research design. A phenomenological design is typically used to describe how human beings experience a phenomenon and is an attempt to capture the essence of the participant’s life experiences. Njie-Carr and team incorporated the use of demographic data, questionnaires to gather information on women’s attitudes, testing, and disclosure, parenting practices, as well as questionnaires related to depression and self-esteem (Njie-Carr et al., 2015).
The study drew respondents from two different locations with a high population of childbearing women in the African American community with HIV.
The locations were Baltimore and United States Virgin Islands (USVI). This study is important because the USVI has one of the highest rates of HIV nationally and is identified as one of the first studies that represented childbearing women of the USVI.
The purpose of this study was to find similarities and differences in the overall experiences of these women in different settings/locations.
A total of 67 female participants were identified and had a clinical diagnosis affirming they were HIV positive. Despite the response of 67 women, only 23 women completed an in-depth one-hour interview.
In order to draw credible inferences, the researchers embraced Georgio’s phenomenological approach. This approach is supported by the transcription of statements, evaluation of emerging themes, and formulation of meanings. The themes were organized in cluster patterns so that the researchers could compare them with the raw data to ensure accuracy. From the 23 valid responses, the researchers identified six distinctive themes.
These include the respondents’ perceived vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, religious beliefs, testing and disclosure, attitudes, as well as living positively with HIV/AIDS (Njie-Carr et al., 2015). The study found that women acknowledged their vulnerability to contraction of HIV/AIDS in both locations.
Participant’s also attributed this to factors such as their partners’ risky behaviors, violence in the form of rape, and suppression of their fundamental rights of expression. The participants further revealed that they postulated emotions such as shock and disbelief after learning about their HIV/AIDs status. Many factors contribute to these women’s inability to make life-changing decisions, such as their personal beliefs and socioeconomic factors. Economic challenges such as poverty force women to engage in sexual relations with older men and multiple partners, limiting their choices to negotiate safe and sex with subsequent exposure to HIV (Njie-Carr et al., 2015).
During the study, the investigators embraced different intervention actions. These included adhering to the social norms among the participants, avoiding biased and prejudiced remarks, as well as respecting their right of expression.
The Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) competency identified is Essential 8: Clinical Prevention and Population Health for Improving Health with CNL competency number four. Use epidemiological, social, ecological, and environmental data from local, state, regional, and national sources to draw inferences regarding the health risks and status of populations, to promote and preserve health and healthy lifestyles. (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2007). The CDC website was used to identify the health risk of HIV, and the article was utilized to draw inferences to make recommendations to promote a healthy lifestyle.
Njie- Carr and team study depicts various gaps in health care among African American women. These include lack of knowledge on how to protect themselves from contracting HIV/AIDs as well as lack of support. A CNL, therefore, can use these health gaps to improve quality of care to the community of African American women who are HIV/AIDS positive. According to the study, factors such as extreme poverty and ignorance trigger high proliferation of the HIV/AIDS amongst the study’s population. To address these social challenges, the CNL should collaborate with relevant community leaders and influential stakeholders in undertaking health awareness campaigns. Objectives would include educating members of the African American society on the health risks that emerge because of promiscuity (Njie-Carr et al., 2015). This strategy is likely to reduce the females’ partners’ probability of engaging in risky sexual behaviors. It is also important to educate women on the importance of being assertive in a safe manner when it comes to sexual-related matters. Moreover, women should be educated on the importance of making critical decisions and strive to use protection with risky sexual partners to help reduce the high prevalence of this disease.
The study’s findings also determine that social stigma, discrimination, and lack of support are obstacles to timely testing and disclosure. For instance, the participants in the study affirm developing negative attitudes and emotions after learning about their HIV diagnosis. The lack of support leads to the occurrence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal tendencies. This hinders the population’s ability to access medical attention promptly. Therefore, it is essential for the CNL to implement a program to inform the community of the potential detrimental effects of HIV and importance of supporting people suffering from this ailment. The CNL should also further encourage the women to form support groups. These are important in addressing their self-esteem and social needs.
Based on this study, HIV/AIDs is a significant challenge amongst African American women. Lack of social structures hinders the accessibility of suitable health care among these women. CNL’s should embrace strategies such as implementing or enhancing awareness campaigns in order to address this challenge. This can be achieved by CNL’s utilizing the CNL competencies to help guide and promote health.
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