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Environment- urgent concerns regarding deforestation and water supply. This essay is mainly referred to the causes of deforestation or why were trees cut down and how it affected the water supply these types of causes we looking at, the settlement of people increased and by logging or other activities. The hydrological process will discuss to you, it can show you the relationship of water and the forest, how did water affects (negative) when there were less number of trees or no trees.
Then it will evaluate you how it will affect the people and the environment due to deforestation, in a negative way people will be killed by flooding you can tell in soil erosion from high lands. It will show how it affected the water supply and affected the people in health and not enough water to survive. These essay will also evaluates some strategies that avoid deforestation and affecting of water supply for instance make posters to tell the world to stop deforestation and other strategies will show in some pages at the back of the essay.
Causes of Deforestation What is deforestation? Deforestation is well-known as the destroying, removal or cutting down of trees “The clearing of land through total removal of forest cover” (Fellman, Getis and Getis 1985, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007). These activity done for different purposes and special needs “Continued removal of forest cover despite the rhetoric of development plans which urge sustainable development or conservation should not be surprising” (Ward 1994, p 73).
There were many activities that were done that will remove trees but here were some main reasons that cause deforestation Firstly, the settlements nowadays the world population is growing high or increased and urbanization is the other process that cause these settlements.
People from rural moved to urban to live because this area contains many jobs, schools, hospitals and other different services. When there were many people move in the city or that town area will expand and some forests were removing but those people built their houses there “Why do humans clear forest lands?
To make room for human settlement and urbanization [these include making space for shelter, industries and roads] (eSchooltoday 2010). The second well known they search there profit from the forests for instance they remove big trees but make plantations and settle more livestock farms for the family to earn income buy selling it. You can tell this when you travel to Aleisa fewer parts contains big trees but most were cattle farms of huge plantations that cover Aleisa. [Figure 2]
The other way to earn income is by logging some people sell their trees to a timber construction to cut don but they earn income from that company. “In many areas, poor people have few options to make income, and forests have few protectors, and so land is cleared for agriculture and valuable timber is sold for profit” (http://www. globalchange. umich. edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/deforest/deforest. html ). [Figure 2] Hydrological process and importance of trees How the water supply did affects from the Deforestation?
Hydrological process is the unending cycle of water in the earth “The natural system by which water is continuously circulated through the biosphere by evaporation, condensation, and precipitation” (Fellman, Getis and Getis 1985, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007). Lets starts from the evaporation when water from the ocean, lakes, rivers and transpiration from plants heated up by the sun then they turn to a gas. Then that gas move upwards and turn to water vapor (clouds) that water vapor was high saturated and they
move onwards the mountain and highlands and its precipitate or fall turn in to liquid and fall down (rainfall). That water will fall on highlands and automatically flow to the ocean or lakes by river (run-off) and other were sucked in by the soil and store under the land surface (ground water) then less water hold by the trees (transpiration). If the sun rise and heated the earth these process will continue started from evaporation and so on you can refer on figure two for more understanding. [Figure 3]
During the run-off process water flow from high lands to the low land so the importance of trees they can slow down the moving of water to the ocean so the soil can easily sucked in the water and store water in the underground “Underground water-holding aquifers are recharged with slowing down of water run-off” (Nix, S 2013, The Top Reasons Trees Are Available, About . com, viewed in 3rd October 2013, http://www. ask. com. /mainimportanceoftrees. html . The other importance of trees they can hold the water from there leaves its called transpiration people can easily get water form the leaves and use it especially the hunting peoples.
Tree can play a special role too in the way of supplying the oxygen to people for breathing and also the way in medicine we use every parts of a tree like roots, leaves, brunches and others. There were hundreds important of trees the other major important is for food and drinks for instance a coconut, mango, banana and others trees also shades and cool you can tell if you visiting a Forest the air is pure and you can feel the cool breeze plus the shades no hot and no sun. Impact of deforestation on the water supply
The water depends highly on trees just like human beings we depend on water every time, if we don’t drink water you can fell dry in your body. Rainfall from the sky is the main source of water in the world plus the underground water, people use house roof to catch more water from rain and dig under for clean water from the underground and form well. If the rain fall from the sky then its splash on the soil and started to flow on the low land if the there were many trees there then the water will flow slowly because the roots hold the soil “The roots of the trees bind soil to it and to the bedrock underlying it.
That is how trees prevent soil from getting eroded by natural agents like wind or water. ” (Fiset. N 2007 Harmful Effects of Deforestation viewed 8 October 2013 http://www. articlesbase. com/environment-articles/harmful-effects-of-deforestation-131219. html . When the water is overflow there will be less water in the underground but the water will flow heavily on the ocean and lakes because of streams and rivers. “When forest cover is lost, run-off rapidly flows into streams, elevating river levels and subjecting downstream villages, cities, and agricultural fields to flooding, especially during the rainy season” (http://www.
effects-of-deforestation. com) The other impact of deforestation on water supply if rivers grow stronger and stronger then the pipe lines that supply the water around that country will be break up then the fresh water will be flow out mixed with the dirty water then that water isn’t healthy or safe for drinking you can tell in Magiagi during the Cyclone Eve. Huge metal pipe line were washed away by the river and left nothing the water is die out and people don’t know were to bring fresh water. [Figure 4] Impacts of Deforestation on People and Animals
There were many effects or impacts of deforestation on people and the environment so let’s started in the effects on people the first major problem it can kill people. How? When rainfall is high and the run-off is strong flooding will form no person can stand in the flooding area flooding can cause death some were drown others were hit in many hard objects that the flood flow on or carried. The second effect on people the unstoppable water will clear the whole area people will lost there houses (homeless) some people plantations will be clear then the source of food and income will be lost nothing will they depend on.
The other effect is the natural air will not be found less Oxygen will leave and then some people will get sick because of air pollution the gas escaped from industries, cars, different smokes etc those airs will be breath by others and get sick our lungs will badly effects and end up in Death!. The cutting down of trees can cause drought the land will be dry or cracked the area needs water and then the sun shine upon the land and them grow hot and hot. All trees that grow on that land will be die out no shade for animals and the dust will may formed it can pollute the air or effect our eye.
[Figure 5] The effects of Deforestation on the Environment Deforestation can also effects our environment not only people and environment, deforestation can change the looking of the environment the beauty and green changed to the brown and clear. The other effects of deforestation on the environment is the landslide these activities mainly occur on slopes or high land when strong rainfall occur the run-off is active rapidly then more soil erode and the tree roots left on the soil plane.
No power of the roots will stop the soil, the land will erode or it’s slipped off or down its shows big cuts of the earth, many properties were covered by the soil and some were killed too. “When trees are uprooted, there will be nothing to hold the soil together thus increasing risk for landslides which can cause seriously threaten safety of the people and damage their properties” (http://www. effects-of-deforestation. com). [Figure 6] Deforestation can effects the marine resources if more soil erode they will end up at the sea then water pollution is active all corals and other marine resources were covered by the soil.
Many families live in the costal depend heavily on food from the sea because its contain protein and good for our health if they were destroyed, many things will happened – No food for people, Thousands of species were destroyed, Fish will not returned, tourist will not attracted by the lagoon color and others. Strategies to Stop Deforestation We can stop the cutting down of trees by established more programs or organizations’ that can avoid or stop trees from cutting down, a great example of these organization is the MNRE (Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment) or the SPREP (Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme).
“National Environment and Development Management Strategies (NEMS) have been prepared for both countries which set the pace for national objectives and programmes to address sustainable development and management of resources. ” (Atherton, Dewulf and Martel 1998 p. 133). They move in every village and school to make their programs and show the effect of Deforestation they make presentations and activities to encourage people and children to plant new trees.
The other strategy is to create more parks for attracting tourist and avoid deforestation many benefits we found from these strategy for instance more fresh air, income from tourist, our country will well-known also the marine, soil, plantations, animals and people will be safe from cyclone and strong rainfall. Reforestation process must be developed these process means the planting of new plants in the area that cleared and treeless “For every tree that we cut down or lose, we should try to plant another one in its place.
This is part of a process known as reforestation. Everyone can be a part of reforestation by planting at least one tree every year. ” (http://www. heepi. org. uk/how_you_can_prevent_deforestation. html) [Figure 7] The best example of this process is the special day in Samoa that encourages people to get the coconut and plant in your farm or plant any tree in your land. Some strategies is stop any logging industry in Samoa but use recycle business to build chairs tables and other, create posters to remind the important of trees on people and the environment. Conclusion
In conclusion Deforestation caused by settlement, making plantations or livestock farm the other cause is for logging and other activities that destroy or terminates the lives of trees. The hydrological process shows the endless cycle of water in the earth evaporation, condensation, precipitation and run-off occur and it’s enlighten you the important of trees on people and animals like shades, food and others. In the way of supplying water all around a country can also effects by deforestation high rainfall caused soil erosion and pipes lines will destroy. Most of people don’t receive water or use unclean water.
The cutting down of trees is the other foundation of many hazards like landslide, soil erosion and others that killed people and animal or caused other bad activities on us. Those hazards can also destroy the marine and the environment it change and destroy the landscape and the marine environment also its view, economy is low NO tourist and repairing is expensive, thousands of problems will rise if you cut down trees. DON’T PANICS! We can stand together as one to stop destroying the environment by plant new trees, establish more organization and spread everywhere to present the impacts of Deforestation on us.
Make posters and encourage people and villages to form up parks, a advice stop eliminating and terminating trees and the forest. Bibliography Atherton. T, Dewulf. T & Martel. F, 1998, Pilot Community Deforestation Survey; Samoa & Niue, Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), Samoa Butler. R, 2012, Impact of Deforestation; Local and National Consequences, viewed in 4th October 2013, http://www. mongobay. com/impact-of-deforestation. html eSchooltoday, 2010, Unknown, view 8 October 2013 http://www. eschooltoday. com/forests/Deforestation. html Fellman. J.
D, Getis, A & Getis J 2007, Human Geography; Landscape of Human Activities, 9th edn, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. New York. Fiset. N 2007 Harmful Effects of Deforestation viewed 8 October 2013 http://www. articlesbase. com/environment-articles/harmful-effects-of-deforestation-131219. html http://www. globalchange. umich. edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/deforest/deforest. html http://www. heepi. org. uk/how_you_can_prevent_deforestation. html Meher-homji. V. M, 1988 Probable impact of deforestation on hydrological processes, viewed 9th October 2013 http://www. ciesin. columbia. edu/docs/002-159. html
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