Out of School Youth Essay
Out of School Youth
ASEM Trust Fund for the Asian Financial Crisis Implementation Completion Memorandum Philippine Out-of-School Children and Youth Development (POSCYD) Project ASEM Trust Fund No. 023514 Background and Objectives: In the Philippines, the trend for the past ten years show that for every 10 pupils who enroll in grade school, only 7 graduate. The same ratio is experienced among the high school students. Main reasons cited for dropping-out are mostly poverty related. While basic education is free, many poor families are unable to finance the ancillary school needs of their children.
Deprived of completing high school education, the out-of-school youth are further marginalized from acquiring technical skills. As mandated by the law, technical education in the Philippines is a post secondary course. The continuing inability of many poor young people to complete basic education and/or undertake technical education, consign them to the vicious cycle of poverty. Their lack of education constrains their access to better-paying jobs or ability to succeed in entrepreneurial pursuits, all of which require higher degree of literacy.
Workers with solid foundation in technical education, have better chances of landing jobs. Amidst increasing incidence of out of school youth exacerbated by political and economic crises, the project seeks to: 1. develop and test mechanisms that will enable children in the age group 7 to 14 to be schooled or remain in school; and 2. pilot the implementation of an employment and entrepreneurship program for youth in the 15 to 24 year age group, integrating technical skills development with life skills development. TF no. 023514 was implemented in conjunction with TF no.
023513, which is bank managed. Achievement of Trust Fund Objectives1 Under TF no. 023514, a total of 16 sub-projects were funded from ASEM World Bank grant to the POSCYD Project. Of the 16, two (2) sub-projects focused on bringing back out-of-school children and youth back to formal in-school and another two (2) through alternative learning system for their basic education. Eleven (11) sub-projects provided integrated technical education and one (1) provided formal in-school basic education and integrated technical education to different sets of beneficiaries.
In addition to the 16, a youth summit held in the 16 regions in the country led by the Department of Social Welfare and Development was also funded. Please see attachment for list and briefs of the 16 sub-projects funded under TF023514 1 A total of 566 poor out-of-school children and youth went back to formal primary or secondary school through three (3) sub-projects. They were provided with ancillary school needs such as uniforms, shoes, bags, notebooks and subsidy for school fees, transportation expenses, school projects and field trips.
For those who have no access or cannot attend regular classes, alternative learning systems in basic education were provided. The Accreditation and Equivalency (A & E) Program of the Bureau of Non-Formal Education, Department of Education (DepEd), was offered to a total of 753 out-of-school youth who wanted to achieve an equivalency of high school education and another 300 participated in the Angelicum College Home Study Program, a private initiative. A total of 1,290 high school dropouts were enrolled in integrated technical education .
All of the technical education courses undertaken by the target beneficiaries are tied up with skills that are in demand by different industries and provide for on-the-job training and employment assistance. Alternative learning system, to resolve deficiencies in basic education and life skills training, to enable the youth to cope with personal and interpersonal conflicts are incorporated in these courses. A “Skills for Life” Program, specially designed for the Filipino Youth, was developed with assistance from the International Youth Foundation (IYF).
Except for one (1), all sub-project proponents sent participants to the teacher’s training course conducted in May and November/December 2001 by a consultant of IYF. In cooperation with the DepEd, training for Non-formal Education A & E Program instructional managers was provided to teachers from 11 integrated technical education sub-project proponents. The Youth Labor Demand Study was completed and now serves as reference material for the POSCYD Project Team and is made available to other interested parties.
The 16 sub-projects funded were implemented with counterpart resources from government, business sector and civil society organizations. Concerted resource generation and complementation has, however, not been achieved at the national level and to a limited extent at the local level. The POSCYD Project has an Oversight Board that provides direction and general policies and does the final review of sub-project proposals for funding through its Executive Committee. There is also a Technical Working Committee that recommends to the Oversight Board general directions to take and sub-project proposals for approval.
Together with direct beneficiaries of the TF # 23513, the POSCYD Project exceeded its target of 3,000 by 1,872 for a total of 4, 872. With the average trend of about 15% dropout rate, the resulting net direct beneficiaries is 4,119, exceeding the 3,000 target by about 37%. It must be noted, however, that one integrated technical education proponent, the Laguna State Polytechnic College, a government school (funded under TF #23513), offered the curriculum it developed under its POSCYD Project funded subproject, as a subject to high school graduates taking information/communication technology courses.
The said sub-project has total of 553 students who finished or are still undertaking the subject. Execution Experience and Results The formal start of the Project was delayed by about eight (8) months due to the need to design a working arrangement, as articulated in the memorandum of agreement, acceptable to both the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and Children and Youth Foundation of the Philippines (CYFP).
Both institutions, DSWD (representing government) and CYFP (representing civil society) were new to the working and funding arrangements that involved financial and technical support from a multilateral organization like World Bank. Furthermore, there were no precedents to use as references. 2 Most competency building programs in the country for the out-of-school children and youth are addressed to those in especially difficult circumstances or are of above average intelligence and diligence.
Furthermore, technical education is a post secondary course in the Philippines. Except for one, it was the first time for all the sub-project proponents in integrated technical education to accept substantial numbers of high school dropouts as trainees. Given the opportunity, most poor out-of-school children and youth, are interested to undertake basic and/or technical education. Among those who took advantage of the initiatives of the POSCYD Project, however, many were forced to dropout again.
They are usually the ones who have to help augment family income, regularly perform household chores and/or take care of their younger siblings. Others could simply not afford out-of-pocket expenses such as transportation expenses despite the subsidy that some of the sub-project proponents provided. Among the estimated 15% of the out-of-school children and youth who were assisted to enroll in formal/non-formal basic education and integrated technical education that once more discontinued their studies, poverty is still the most prevalent reason.
They are said to come from the poorest of the poor who sometimes go to school without breakfast, would eat candies for lunch and hardly have any transportation money. Money they spend is usually money that is taken away from the daily food needs of their families, thus they opt to work if jobs are available. Among the out-of-school children and youth who were brought back to formal school for their basic education, the dropout rate is 13%. If compared to the estimated national average dropout rate in school year 1997-98 of 7. 42% for grade school and 10.
76% in high school, the experience of the POSCYD Project would seem high. It must, however, be noted that the base used in the computation that resulted to 7% national drop out rate included all students, not just the poor ones. Without the initiative of the POSCYD Project, its total of 870 beneficiaries (TF 23513 & TF 23514) in formal in-school basic education would have remained out-of-school. Home based alternative learning system is an answer to the basic education needs of those not willing or could not go back to formal school for different reasons.
About 12% of those who enrolled in the A & E program of Department of Education implemented by a proponent, discontinued their studies. Finishers of this system who pass the Department Education testing can work with the government and/or enroll in specific universities for their college education. Demand for this type of basic education is relatively high in places like Maguindanao and Cotabato City where there is serious peace and order problem and suffering from lack of secondary high schools. The A & E sub-project based in these areas and funded under TF no.
023513, requested to increase their target beneficiaries from 300 to 400. The proponent eventually had a total of 433 A & E enrollees. It is noteworthy to mention that among the 1,156 who finished the A & E Program, 82, pursued higher A & E lessons, 111 attended vocational education, 124 enrolled back in formal school to finish basic education, 38 went on to college and 98 found employment/self-employment. Another alternative learning system in basic education is the Home Study Program of Angelicum College.
It follows its regular curricula for elementary and high school, but specially designed for those who could not attend regular classes in a formal school due to poverty, distance from school, need to work or illness. Students study at their own paces and are assisted by any tutor who has had higher education. Some of its clients are young prisoners. Out of the total 300 enrollees from different areas, 19. 7% dropped out. Main reasons cited are inability of tutors to reach participants from far-flung areas, transfer of residences and lost of interest.
Among the enrollees in integrated technical education, those prone to dropping out again are the ones in especially difficult circumstances and those undertaking courses with more than six (6) month time frames. If the beneficiaries of the Laguna State Polytechnic College (who catered to high school graduates and offered curricula developed as a subje ct in tertiary education) were to be deducted from the total 3 integrated technical education beneficiaries of the POSCYD Project, the dropout rate would increase from 15% to 17%.
This is high compared to the national average, which is said to be below 10%. 2 Inspite of the attempt of several sub-project proponents to provide additional subsidy such as transportation money and meals, dropout rates continue to be high. Since they are considered of age (16 to 24 years old), often, there is pressure from their own selves and/or their parents to earn to help augment family income. Among the poor Filipino families, it is not unusual for the elder children to sacrifice opportunities for higher education to help send their siblings to school or provide for their basic needs.
To minimize a repeat of their dropping out of school or alternative learning systems, sub-project proponents intensified their support services by the providing the beneficiaries with support activities such as tutoring/remedial classes, mentoring, counseling and student and parent participation. The sub-project proponents of the Project are all well experienced in the implementation of basic education and/or technical education programs.
Most of them, as mentioned earlier in this report, had no previous program for the out-of-school youth or high school undergraduates. The sub-project proponents had to beef up and intensify certain support services which they normally do not offer to their target beneficiaries. It was further observed that many of them tend to lack skills in planning, monitoring and evaluation. Thus, they were provided with technical assistance and training in these functions of project management to improve the effectiveness of their education programs.
To further improve their effectiveness, selected proponents were provided with training in the implementation of the NFE A & E Program of the DepEd, Skills for Life Program for Filipino Youth and the first phase of Building Local Tri-Sector Partnerships. To maximize the employment of graduates of technical education graduates, priority in the selection of sub-projects, was given to institutions with existing industry tie -ups or are willing to tie -up courses offered with industries.
These tie -ups include not only providing opportunities for apprenticeship and employment of graduates, but in the revision of curricula to suit the specific labor needs of the industries that are in demand. The worsening economic situation is negatively affecting these industry tie -ups. Some companies that used to offer allowances to technical education students undergoing apprenticeship can no longer afford to do so. Many of those who considered employment of technical education graduates have served notice that they cannot absorb new workers.
An assessment done by an outside agency showed that despite the bad economic situation in the country, the trend in employment/selfemployment rate of technical education beneficiaries of the POSCYD Project is 70%, compared to the national average of 44% In terms of partnerships, sub-project proponents were able to tap resources from more than 200 different institutions that belong to the government, civil society and/or business sector. Among the contributed resources are technical assistance, training, tools/equipment, materials, use of facilities, community participation and to a limited extent, allowances of students.
Of the overall estimated value of counterpart resources infused into the POSCYD Project from the three (3) sectors, about 9% each came from government and business sector, 18% from civil society and 27% from the sub-project proponents. About 39% of the resources of the POSCYD Project came from the ASEM Fund financial grant. Based on this experience, it is obvious that there is a greater need to find more strategies on how to tap resources from government and business sector.
The planned building of local tri-sector partnerships did not materialize as projected. The initial attempt to organize regional consortia was rejected by institutions from the three (3) sectors consulted in the five (5) target regions. They advised that with limited resources, the POSCYD Project must focus on 2 Estimated national dropout rate of less than 10% is based on experience of technical schools that offer courses to high school graduates and which do not necessarily focus on poor out-of-school youth. 4 localized tri-sector partnerships.
Thus, the Project is now focusing on assisting proponents in the development of local tri-sector partnerships that will revolve around the out-of-school youth and the specific education services offered. Only two (2) of the five (5) planned local tri-sector partnerships were organized. The Philippine Peso steadily devaluated from P38 to P50 per US$1 resulting to shortfall in the usage of the US$780,000 ASEM Grant from World Bank. In Philippine Peso term, however, the Project was able to spend more than the original budget with concurrence from World Bank.
Emerging Lessons The experience in the initial pilot phase of the POSCYD Project points to the following emerging lessons in building the competencies of the out-of-school children and youth: 1. Government, civil society and business organizations come from different cultures, but with patience and openness, these three (3) sectors can closely work together to maximize Project benefits. 2. The ordinary poor out-of-school children and youth who are basic education dropouts is a relatively neglected sub-sector. 3.
Poor out-of-school children and youth have special learning needs brought about by their deficient cognitive experiences and lack of psycho-social skills that must be understood by all those who will be involved in their education. In addition to meeting their ancillary education expenses, they need to be provided with support services such as mentoring/tutoring, counseling and life skills training. 4. Youth and parent participation have also been determined as important factors in minimizing discontinuance in the education of former out-of-school children and youth.
5. The dropout rate becomes even higher for students in especially difficult circumstances such as extreme poverty, victims of abuse and those coming from dysfunctional families. These types of students would need a lot of financial and intensified support services for them to sustain their education. 6. There is a big demand for alternative learning systems in basic education, specially in areas where there is prevalence of abject poverty (slum areas), critical peace and order situation and/or lack of access to elementary and high schools.
Government should encourage, cultivate and recognize the private sector’s initiative to develop innovative learning systems to meet varying demands of the youth. 7. Direct tie -ups with industries for curriculum development/revision, apprenticeship of students and employment of graduates are important to ensuring high employment rates of beneficiaries. 8. One-on-one partnerships with different organizations from government, civil soci ty and business e sector can be successful. However, partnership with government is affected by patronage politics and with business sector, by the economic situation in the country.
9. Building organized local tri-sector partnership can be realized, but difficult to start and even more difficult to maintain. There is a need to identify and work with “champions” from the target sectors and a point person within the organization who can devote time to crucial activities. 10. Institutions providing competency build ing opportunities to the youth can be good in implementation, but usually need strengthening in terms of project planning, monitoring and evaluation and adaptation of support mechanisms necessary for out-of-school children and youth beneficiaries.
Activity Sustainability At the local level, sub-project proponents are being assisted in the building of tri-sector partnerships that will take the lead in generating and complementing resources for out-of-school children and youth concerns in general, and the education services offered to them in particular. It is envisioned that to large 5 extent, organized tri-sector partnerships shall enable the sub-project proponents to maximize generation of resources and not become entirely dependent on funding agencies.
It is, however, a reality that generation of local resources can be limited, especially in small cities and towns and poorer provinces. Thus, sub-project proponents must be referred to other funding agencies At the national level, there is a need to promote actively out-of-school children and youth concerns and strategies that will enable them to go back to school or undertake technical education. In this way, more institutions from the different sectors of society will hopefully put more focus in allevia ting the situation.
The large number of out-of –school children and youth underscores the need for government, civil society and business sector to jointly remedy the situation. Overall Assessment Over-all, we believe that the project was successful in meeting its objectives. The results show that it has exceeded its physical targets. Long-term benefits are expected to be felt by the recipients and important lessons have been generated which will assist the various stakeholders in designing future interventions for OSY. Data Sheet Trust Fund No: TF23514 Project ID No.
: P065823 Project Title: PILOT PROJECT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUT OF SCHOOL YOUTH Recipient Country: Philippines Project Executed by: Recipient Sector: Education Task Team Leader: Teresa J. Ho Managing Unit: EASHD Grant Approval Date: Grant Amount: (in US$) Grant Agreement Date: Closing Date: April 29, 1999 US$780,000 June 7, 2000 October 31, 2001 FY Disbursements (actuals in US$) (as of reporting date) 2000 Amount US$ 78,000. 00 FY 2001 Amount US$ 521,285. 95 FY 2002 Amount US$ 26,665. 70 6 1. Lists of consultant contracts awarded: 1. 1 Erda Tech Foundation, Inc.
1. 2 Mary Help of Christians – 1st sub-project – 2nd sub-project 1. 3 Phil. NGO Council on Population Health & Welfare 1. 4 Angelicum College, Inc. 1. 5 Ayala Foundation, Inc. 1. 6 Pearl S. Buck International, Inc. 1. 7 Valenzuela City Gov’t. 1. 8 Paranaque Dev’t. Foundation, Inc. 1. 9 Center for Social Research-VISCA 1. 10 National Training School for Boys 1. 11 Salesian Society of St. John Bosco-Borongan 1. 12 Department of Social Welfare & Development (Youth Summit) 1. 13 Taguig Jewelry Producers, Inc 1. 14 Meralco Foundation, Inc. 1. 15 Holy Trinity College 1.
16 Don Bosco Technical Institute-Makati( 2nd subproject) 1. 17 Phil. Business for Social Progress-Evaluation of Sub-projects 1. 18 Center for Labor Education, Advocacy, and Research Development Foundation, Inc. 2. Visibility (mention of funding sources in Contracts, publications, seminars, etc. ) -Partners Orientation & Planning workshops -Accreditation & Equivalency -Building Local Tri-Sectoral Partnership -Sub-Project Assessment -Post Project Evaluation 3. Incremental Operating Costs-CYFP Amount: (in US$) 46,796. 91 25,833. 86 22,108. 50 35,484. 06 17,158. 54 42,094. 84 15,917.
21 6,994. 66 31,830. 23 17,313. 81 14,359. 84 16,686. 42 39,153. 70 20,277. 63 36,713. 63 27,462. 82 52,491. 02 16,634. 10 8,867. 61 19,913. 01 Nationality: Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino American Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino Filipino 111,963. 36 Filipino _________ TOTAL $ 626,055. 76 1. Compliance with visibility provision (as notified to you upon internal approval of the proposed grant) Proponents of sub-projects were oriented that funding for the POSCYD Project came from ASEM-World Bank.
In documents that specify grants received, ASEM-World Bank is always acknowledged as the source of funding. In the POSCYD Project Orientation meetings held in the five (5) target regions and for different interest groups, ASEM was always mentioned as the source of the World Bank Grant for the Project. The same holds true for workshops conducted. In the mid-term Project assessment review attended by the President Gloria MacapagalArroyo and leaders from government, civil society and business sector, the affair was labeled as the POSCYD Project ASEM Grant Mid-Term Review.
The ASEM Grant to the POSCYD Project is always acknowledged in all reports prepared. 7 BRIEF PROFILES OF ASSISTED PROJECTS under the ASEM $780,000. 00 GRANT Formal Basic Education Project Title and Brief Basic Education Project for Out of School Children and Youth or Children and Youth at Risk of Dropping Out of School (Subic, Zambales and San Jose del Monte Bulacan – Region 3) A replication of the on-going sponsorship project in Ormoc City, aimed at bringing back out-of-school children and youth to formal school in elementary and high school.
The project shoulders the basic education of 300 OSCY and CYRDOS. Proponent’s Profile Pearl S. Buck International, Inc. Pearl S. Buck International was founded in 1968 by the late Nobel and Pulitzer-prize winning author Pearl S. Buck. It has set up various offices around the country including one in Ormoc City. Among PSBI’s educational activities include: early childhood care and development, enhancing families ability to manage and sustain their children’s education, school attendance support, and a study now pay later assistance to vocational and college students.
It also offers livelihood skills training, micro-credit assistance and savings mobilization, and job placement services. Paranaque Development Foundation, Inc. Paranaque Development Foundation, Inc. (PDFI) was organized and registered in the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) on June 28, 1968. The organization is focused on the organization of grassroots groups as well as the integration and synchronization of the various social service organizations. PDFI aims to mobilize the different sectors in creating a mutually loving, caring, and sharing community that will provide the poor the capabilities to be self-reliant.
Inputs of Partners Rustan Corp. and Little Caesar’s Corp. have pledged sponsorship assistance for beneficiaries who intend to pursue vocational courses. These companies have also promised to provide financial support for the life skills training of the learners. Integrated Project for Marginalized OSCY (Paranaque City – NCR) A formal education project aimed at bringing back out-of-school children and youth to formal school in elementary and high school. The project sponsors the basic education of 300 Paranaque-based OSCY .
Parent volunteers have committed to assist PDFI in recruiting beneficiaries, assessing project implementation, and monitoring of project accomplishments. Save the Children – US and Terre des Hommes have expressed willingness to fund the training on peer counseling and life skills, and family/community support respectively. The local barangay council has been tapped to provide assistance to the health seminars. The Japanese Embassy has committed to provide sewing machines and other equipment for the training of adult members of the trainees’ families.
The Rotary Club of Paranaque shall be tapped to fund the training. Accreditation and Equivalency (A & E) – ALS Non-Formal Education – Accreditation and Equivalency for the Out of School Youth (Bacoor, Cavite – Region 4) A facilitation and conduct of the Accreditation and Equivalency (A&E) Program of the Bureau of Non-Formal Education–Department of Education, Culture and Sports, aimed at preparing OSCY in Bacoor, Cavite in attaining equivalency for their educational level. The project facilitates the A&E education of 700 OSCY clients. Philippine NGO Council on Population, Health and Welfare, Inc.
PNGOC is a registered private voluntary organization founded in 1987 by 17 national and local population NGOs. The organization was envisioned to create self-reliant and socially responsible Filipino families. PNGOC embraces five program thrusts namely: networking, advocacy, organizational development, human resource development, and provision of technical and financial assistance to small NGOs in the countryside. The DECS-BNFE provided the framework of the Non-Formal Education – Accreditation and Equivalency and facilitated the training of the PNGOC instructional managers (IMs).
The local government of Bacoor, Cavite provided the learning centers being utilized by the learners as well as developed and disseminated the advocacy information on the project. 8 Home Study Program – ALS The Home Study Program (Palawan, Leyte and Occidental Mindoro) A formal alternative learning system that shall enable OSY to graduate from elementary and high school with an Angelicum Diploma without hav ing to attend school every day —they can attend to schoolwork within their homes.
Selflearning modules based on a formal education curriculum are provided the learners. The project assists 300 OSCY in pursuing their basic education through formal ALS. Angelicum College Angelicum College was founded on July 5, 1972 as an alternative school that veers away from the traditional educational system. Through the efforts of Fr. Rogelio Alarcon, proponent of the Home Study Program, the school was able to solicit funding from former President Joseph Estrada’s Social Fund. Consequently, the school was able to offer the Program, for free, to out of school youth.
From July to August 2000, the total OSY enrolled in the Program has reached about 2000 in 50 different areas throughout the country. Three partner implementors, Runggiyan Foundation (Leyte), Plan International (Mindoro), and Holy Trinity College (Palawan) are managing and coordinating the operations of the Home Study Program in their respective areas. With support from the LGUs, Sangguniang Kabataan, and community elders, the partner implementors identified, recruited, screened, and selected the OSY beneficiaries, and identified, recruited and deployed the volunteer coordinators and volunteer tutors.
The LGUs pledged to assist the partner implementors follow up and monitor the Volunteers. Technical Education PALIHAN III: Technical and Vocational Skills Training for OSYs (Metro Manila, NCR) A technical skills training and placement for urban poor out-of-school youth in Metro Manila. “Palihan” means anvil or mould. Hence, it embodies the ideal of molding the OSY to become productive and responsible citizens. Technical courses offered include: Food Processing, Food Service, Leather Craft, Cons truction Work, and Glass Etching.
The project intends to assist the non-formal technical education of 200 OSY. Empowering Disadvantaged Women in Pampanga (Mabalacat, Pampanga, Region 3) A technical skills training in industrial electronics for sexually abused and prostituted young women in the province of Pampanga and their placement in electronics firms at the special economic zone. The project purposes to benefit 80 female OSY who are enrolled in formal technical education.
ERDA TECH Foundation ERDA TECH Foundation, established in 1996, is a non-stock, not for profit foundation dedicated to assisting children and youth age 12 to 18 years old who are disadvantaged by poverty. The Foundation’s main goal is to get children and youth, from the streets and from poor communities, who are interested in pursuing a secondary education with a vocational program that will train and nurture them into becoming productive members of society — meaning, being able to earn a living, becoming physically and emotionally stable and prepared to start a decent family life.
Mary Help of Christians-Technology Center for Women The Mary Help of Christians – Technology Center for Women was established in 1993 to provide a home and school for disadvantaged young women where they can learn various employable technical skills. In hopes of molding trainees to become good and productive Christians, the Center has integrated the technical education course with values education, ethics and Christian Living. The Center has a 100% placement rate and has since graduated 120 young women who are now regular employees in various companies.
Jewelry Skills Training and Placement Project for OSY in Taguig (Taguig, National Capital Region) Taguig Jewelry Producers’ Cooperative The TJPC is the pioneering group of skilled jewelry makers in Metro Manila, having been TJPC was assisted by TESDA, which arranged for the use of the training venue and other training facilities. Congessional funds shall help cover the administrative cost of the The technical education of the trainees is a collaborative effort between ERDA TECH and the Marikina Institute of Science and Technology (MIST). MIST provided training facilities and equipment needed for the training.
Jollibee Foods Corp. has committed to accept the trainees for the in-plant training as well as their job placement. Enzio, Corp. has also agreed to employ the graduates of the training course. Spencer & Co. shall help shoulder the transportation and meal allowances of the trainees in the in-plant training. As part of the business sector’s contribution to the project, the post-training employment of the young women will be at the follow ing semicon companies: American Power Conversion, National Electronic Corporation, Amertron, Inc. , Sanyo Semiconductors, Luen Thai, and Computer Data Center, Inc.
The Municipal Mayor of Mabalacat town in Pampanga provided the transport allowances of the trainees. 9 A technical skills training in jewelry making for OSY in Taguig and their placement in jewelry firms in Metro Manila. For its initial batch, the project aims to graduate 35 OSY trainees in jewelry making. registered as a cooperative in July 1994. TJPC is composed of 28 members/ shareholders and boasts of a strong network of 3,337 cooperatives in the Metro Manila area where it can draw support in terms of dealership or marketing of jewelry products.
Subject: High school,
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 27 October 2016
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