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Human Development Psychology Essay Examples

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Human Development Psychology on Vulnerable Adults

Differences between safeguarding and protection Safeguarding was defined in the Children’s Act of 1989, and is most commonly applied to children and young people under the age of eighteen. Key aspects of legislation have recently been extended to include similar standards of protection to ‘vulnerable adults’. A vulnerable adult is defined as a person aged eighteen or over, who has either a dependency upon others in the performance of, or require assistance in the performance of basic functions: A severe…...

Stroop Effect

Abstract Automaticity, both reading and reaction, action competition, translation models, and the imbalance/uncertainty design of the Stroop impact were investigated. Two participants received 4 weeks of key press practice using basic Stroop stimuli. Tests of RT to standard Stroop, Single colored letter, and Stroop dilution stimuli were performed before and after weekly of practice using both crucial press and vocal responding. After the final practice they also were evaluated on reverse Stroop stimuli. The outcomes support reaction competition and partly…...

Plant Closings and Layoffs

Introduction In recent years, due to advancement of technologies, corporate restructuring, changing markets, economic downturn and increased global competition, the perception workforce had changes due to the increasing possibility of plant closure and layoffs. During plants closings and layoffs, employers should precisely follow its policies and procedures, and abide the state laws that establish criteria and policies for selecting employees during plant closings and layoffs. These criteria must be based on legitimate business decision and considered legal as long as…...

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Bowlby’s Ethological Behavioral Theory of Attachment

Abstract Bowlby’s ethological attachment theory bases its argument on the premise that human individuals, just like animals have a tendency to have a natural inclination to establish and maintain lasting affectionate bonds (attachments) to the familiar and irreplaceable others. Bowlby further asserts that once the attachments are established, the strength, and stability of the links is related the emotional stability and well-being of the individual throughout life. Bowlby proposes that the attachment initially form during infancy and often involve one…...

The Biomedical Model

This design takes a look at people as if they are makers. The numerous body systems are viewed as systems The biomedical design of disease and recovery focuses on simply biological aspects, and omits mental, ecological, and social impacts. This is thought about to be the dominant, modern method for healthcare experts to identify and deal with a condition in a lot of Western nations. Many health care professionals do not very first ask for a mental or social history…...

Psychology: Sensation seeking

Take a look at the material on sensation seeking on page 286 (Ch. 11). Do you consider yourself a sensation seeker? Why or why not? What are the advantages and disadvantages of your level of sensation seeking? Based on the questions in the text, I think right now I’m a good mix of both. I like travelling and gaining new experiences but I don’t go out of my way to do it. However, I also like the stability of being…...

Bronfenbrenner's and Erikson's Theories About Human Development

Lifespan Developments Theories offer explanations of how the individual changes and develops throughout their lifetime. While this objective is constant, the focus of these theories vary. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory adopts an intrapersonal focus, outlining nine age related stages of the life cycle while Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Stage Theory focuses on five socio-cultural stages within which the individual interacts, interpersonally, over time. This essay will focus on both these theories, their implications in the world of adult education, particularly from the…...

Psychodynamic Perspectives to understanding of human behaviour

There are various different approaches in contemporary approaches. An approach is a perspective that involves assumptions about human behaviour, the way they function, which aspects of them are worthy of study and what research methods are appropriate for undertaking this study. There may be several different theories within an approach, but they all share these common assumptions. You may be wonder why there are so many different psychology perspectives and whether one approach is correct and others wrong. Most psychologists…...

Reflection practice

Reflection practice is an approach that allows practitioners to understand how they use their knowledge in realistic situations and how they mix action and learning in a more successful manner (Henderson, 2002). Kondrat (2004) claims that the aim of critical reflection is to be conscious of the influence of the subject self in relations to prejudices so that such prejudices may be reduced or removed. However, Smith (2002: 138) argues that “for reflection to be critical it need to also…...

Positive Regard

Unconditional Positive Regard is a central idea in the theories of Carl R. Rogers, both for psychotherapy and for interpersonal relations. A universal requirement for favorable regard by others appears at about the exact same time an individual starts to experience awareness of self (Rogers, 1959). In therapy, UPR is a quality of the therapist's experience toward the client (p. 239). Rogers' writing sheds light on different elements of this construct: Unconditional One experiencing UPR holds 'no conditions of acceptance…...

The Myers-Briggs Type Indication

The Myers-Briggs type indication is a psychological test that is based upon the theories of Swiss Psychiatrist Carl Jung. The test divides people into 16 distinguishable personality types, based on high and low scores on 4 "scales" (Zemke, 1992). On the basis of their responses on the test, people are classified as extraverted or introverted, picking up or intuitive, thinking or feeling and evaluating or perceiving (Langton, Robbins and Judge, 2013). The MBTI has actually been utilized by many companies…...

Rationalism vs. Irrationalism

Jane Evans was spending a week at the Crown Point Ward girls camp. She and her friends were laughing and enjoying the crisp night air. They giggled and talked of crushes on boys and gossiped all night about the notorious girls at school. But the fun stopped when a rat bit one of the girls. Screaming, squirming and frightened, they worried and stayed awake for the remainder of the night. Unable to sleep, they decided to go indoors, to avoid…...

Psychological Egoism and Ethical Egoism

Human beings put so much value on other people's interests. They find that if they satisfy their hunger for helping others, they (in turn) will have satisfaction for themselves. This was shown in Mother Teresa's giving to others without taking anything back. However, as with everything else, there are exceptions. I know many people (i.e. car salesman ha-ha) that have only their interests in mind when they are taking action. This brings us to the discussion of the difference between…...

My Second Home

Past nine o’clock in the morning, as I walked through a crowded and hot burning side of the road, I found myself heading into a particular place I have never been yet in my entire life. I am about to enter into the vicinity of one of the most known and prestigious university of the north – and that is no other than Mariano Marcos State University. Holding its green and gold pride up high, I was convinced to stay…...

Child Development in Gesell's Concept of Maturation

Abstract The concept of maturation presented by Arnold Gesell is central to developmental psychology. He said that childs growth or development is influenced by the environment and the action of the genes. He also indicated that the childs development occurred in a fixed order through a series of stages. He opposed any instructional efforts on placing a child ahead of schedule; when the time is right, the child will simply begin to master the task through his/her own inner urges.…...

Development of the Adolescent

Many adolescents struggle with finding who they are and how they fit into this world. According to Lewis Judd's “The Normal Psychological Development of the American Adolescent,” adolescents develop a sense of self-concept through the means of experimentation, daydreams, and in actual or physical activities. Holden Caulfield, in The Catcher in the Rye, is one such example. Troubled by the early death of his brother, Allie, and with no one to guide him through adolescence, he finds himself lost. Holden…...

Human Development Psychology About Psychosocial Stage

Psychological development is generally accepted as product of the interaction among social and psychological forces whch directly affect and shape the personaility of every individual (Erikson, 2000). This may also encompass changes in self-control, and prosocial behavior. In relation to this, Erik Erikson established a unifying theory on the social and psychological aspects of human development throughout life span. In his eight developmental stages, each individual should, from infancy to senescence, accomplish psychological tasks in line with his or her…...

Albert Bandura and Julian Rotter

Albert Bandura argues that personality is shaped not only by environmental influences on the person, but also by the person’s ability to influence the environment. Social learning states that thinking is an important determinant of behavior. The inclusion of cpgnitive viewpoints within a behavioral framework has been a relatively recent trend, especially apparent in the work of personality learning theorist J. B. Rotter. Rotter believes that tge most important variables in determining personality are the person’s expectations concerning future outocmes…...

Jahari Window

The Johari Window, named after the first names of its inventors, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction. A four paned "window" divides personal awareness into four different types, as represented by its four quadrants: open, hidden, blind, and unknown. The lines dividing the four panes are like window shades, which can move as an interaction progresses (Daft, 2011 pg. 273-276). The Johari Window concept would be particularly helpful…...

Sigmund Frued

Legendary and groundbreaking psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud changed the way scholars and doctors alike thought about the nature of the brain. Freud’s insight created a new paradigm that focused future inquiries onto the functional aspects of the mind, rather than cerebral and somatic physicality. With this essay, I will begin by describing and defining the id, ego and superego while also discussing how they interact. I will conclude by examining the essential differences of the ego and superego and the implications…...

Are We Born With Knowledge

Of course we are. In this speech, I am going to argue about how ability is knowledge and what knowledge we have when we were younger. As a child, we have been brought up by our environment and culture. Without this, what knowledge would we have? Let’s say, the minute a child is born, and you throw this new born baby into a “swimming pool” or “water” it will immediately be able to swim or float. Now the question is,…...

Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung

Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung: similarities and differences in dream analysis Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung are two renowned psychoanalysts who contributed great work to the interpretation of dreams. Carl Jung began as a student of Sigmund Freud, but upon their first interactions he had doubts about the basis of Freud’s work stemming from a purely sexual nature and leading to his sexual (McGowan, 1994). Jung was greatly influenced by Freud’s dream work involving the resistance of interpretation of dreams,…...

Friedrich Nietzsche

Existentialism provides a moving account of the agony of being in the world. The spirit of existen- tialism has a long history in philosophy. But it be- came a major movement in the second half of the 20th century. Existentialism is not a systematic body of thought like Marxism or psychoanalysis. Instead, it is more like an umbrella under which a very wide range of thinkers struggled with ques- tions about the meaning of life. Much of the appeal and…...

Sartre View on Free Will

Sartre proposes an interesting view on free will when he says, "either man is wholly determined or else man is wholly free. " This quote shows us that Sartre believes that man is free to do what he wants. For Sartre, freedom is the most basic value, which renders possible all other values the way our fundamental plan precedes and grounds our small choices. In that sense freedom is the source of all values. It is not logically possible to…...

Do We Have Free Will?

There are several definitions to the question of free will that could be considered. However from a scientific point of view, the argument leans towards whether free will should be a neurological element, or the conception of conscious thinking and decision making; a process that although has a biological aspect, the actual cause of the act is done by choice, and the free will is the decision maker; within the limits and boundaries set by society. In essence, it is…...

The Inner Journey

The inner journey is a metaphysical process in which an individual travels into their own psyche often resulting in form of self realization. Although the journey is not physical, an inner journey is a powerful tool in which one can enhance their knowledge of the world and their own human nature, commonly encountering imaginative obstacles which assist in the individual’s self-realization. The texts that I will use to illustrate the inner journeys are “You’re” and “A Birthday Present” by Sylvia…...

Theory On Deontology

In our world today it is often hard to genuinely decide what in fact is right or wrong. The reason that it is so tough to determine is because of our human nature given everyone has their own opinion. We do not all think the same or think the same actions and consequences have the same effect. It is this reason we analyze situations with ethical theories, such as that of Kant’s deontology. Kant’s theory in its own right has…...

The Psychological Causes of Homicide

On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza, who was only 20, shot his mother then shot twenty children and six adult staff members in a mass killing at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. This mass murder is on record in American history for the as being the second most deadliest mass shooting by a single person , and the second deadliest mass murder in a elementary school. Although this incident is the most fatal public school shooting in the…...

Modern Psychoanalysis

“Modern psychoanalysis" is a term coined by Hyman Spotnitz. “Influenced by the works of Sigmund Freud, Dr. Spotnitz believed that the principles of psychoanalysis could be extended to cure the severe narcissistic disorders that Freud had deemed untreatable. ” (Sara Sheftel, 1991) Dr. Spotnitz and his colleagues described it as a “body of theoretical and clinical approaches” that could be used to envelop the full spectrum of emotional disorders and broaden the potential for treatment to pathologies thought to be…...

"Strange Situation" Study

During the 1970's, psychologist Mary Ainsworth further expanded upon Bowlby's groundbreaking work in her now-famous "Strange Situation" study. The study involved observing children between the ages of 12 to 18 months responding to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mother (Ainsworth, 1978). Based on these observations, Ainsworth concluded that there were three major styles of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment. Researchers Main and Solomon (1986) added a fourth attachment…...

The Theory of Person Centred

In counselling and psychotherapy, it is fundamental aspect for practitioners to use theory as a way of informing the way the work with a client. (McLeod). The goal of this essay is to explore the humanistic personality theory of Carl Rogers. The essay will begin by giving a summary of key theoretical construct which includes Rogers’s view of self, his view of human condition and his rational for improvement of these conditions and then give examples to how such instances…...

Existence Precedes Essence

Existentialism developed as an effort to come up with a genuine action to the existential angst of modern-day male looking for his identity and location in presence. Possibly the very first existentialist thinker and philosopher in history, Socrates, put fundamental stress on the enquiry of the question "Who am I?" On the other hand, the twentieth century thinker with whom the motion of existentialism is most frequently connected with, Sartre, states that with male, existence precedes essence. That is to…...

Concrete and Formal Operational Stages in Education

Skinner's theory sees learning as a continuous process, with quantitative increases in learner behaviours with age. Learner behaviour can also be modified gradually by modulating the degree and frequency of reinforcement. Bandura's theory also portrays learning as a continuous process where perception, attention, memory and problem-solving skills increase with age. In contrast, cognitive development occurs discontinuously according to Piaget's theory. Piaget identifies four developmental stages of learning, namely sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational stages. These developmental stages are…...

Conditions of Worth in Human Development Psychology

Conditions of Worth - Term used by Carl Rogers to describe social influences on the self-concept; for instance, a child might not include anger in her self-concept because her parents' scolding has established a condition of worth such that anger is inappropriate. According to Rogers in order to become a fully functioning person we need to experience unconditional positive regard: feeling loved and worthy no matter what. "Conditions of worth" are the "requirements' set forth by parents or significant others for…...

Family and Community Health

Introduction A family assessment is an important tool to assess a child’s overall health aspects. It also aims to understand the functions and dynamics of the family which will assist the nurse to determine the possible factors of risks that will be addressed to the child. The family assessment focuses on certain areas like physical, cognitive, moral, and psychosocial. This will enable nurses to understand and comprehend better and will lead to better addressing the potential problems based on the…...

The Importance of Mother Tongue in Psychotherapy

Abstract. The purpose of the article is to sort out what important role mother language play in talk therapy. Talk therapy is used in some mental illnesses. It is a treatment rather than medicine. By using talk therapy, the therapist makes an interpersonal relationship with his client by using a language to seek out his mental disorder which is being faced by his/her client. Language, a medium to share information between the patient and his therapist, work s as a…...

Identity Crisis Amongst the Youth

What is an Identity Crisis? According to Erikson, an identity crisis is a time of intensive analysis and exploration of different ways of looking at oneself. Identity basically refers to how a person answers the question “Who am I?” S. Sharma and M. Sharma said “Identity is an umbrella term used throughout the social sciences to describe an individual’s comprehension of him or herself as a discrete, separate entity. The development of clear and positive identity or identities involves building…...

The Origins of Psychology: History Through the Years

Psychology is an important discipline, with links into many different areas and across disciplines. To address this question, we will be looking at psychology by looking at mental health treatment. The past, the present and the future of psychology will be discussed, as well as the application of psychological models in aiding the understanding of psychology in wider society, and whether psychology is really a science, with links into mental health treatment. Psychology does not just have one school of…...

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