Native Americans Essay Examples

Essays on Native Americans

Native Americans are the first inhabitants of North America. Population estimates, number of tribes, and languages are very inconsistent. Population ranges from the 100,000,000’s to as low as the 10,000’s.

Cultures in the Native American Creation and Coyote Trickster Stories, and A Model of Christian Charity
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During the discovery and exploration of the New World, colonists came to claim the land that Native Americans lived on. This immediately caused conflict between the two extremely different people. Between the Native American creation stories, the Coyote trickster stories and John Winthrop's "A Model of Christian Charity", there have been a lot of similarities between these cultures and it is the differences between them that cause a misunderstanding that could have led to prejudice. “A Model of Christianity” was…...
ChristianityNative Americans
Manifest Destiny as Justice for Native Americans
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The 4th of July in the year 1786 remains a special day in the history of the USA, being the day when the nations making up the USA come together into a confederation of states. This came as a result of the Declaration of Independence by the thirteen British colonies within that period, that joined up into the confederation. After granting them independence, the Great Britain facilitated the formation of the confederation of states as documented in the Treaty of…...
HistoryManifest DestinyNative Americans
Westward Expansion 1860-1890
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1860-1870 After the Civil War, Americans moved west of the Mississippi River, assuming control the area for farms, homesteads, and mines, and driving out the first clients, the Local Americans. American pioneers and European migrants overpowered the adversities of life on western homesteads planning to bring together new lives. An important part of the area in the West asserted by pilgrims was the country of Native American meetings that had utilized it for quite a long time. The westbound expansion…...
Native AmericansWestward Expansion
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The Historical Exile of Native Americans
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In order to understand the root cause of current day oppressions and injustices faced by specific minority racial groups, it is impossible to do so without fully examining and studying the history of racism, political struggle, violence, and oppression. Furthermore, when one is trying to comprehend the perpetuation of racial inequalities, it is a requirement to understand that racism is not just individual prejudices, but a collective social acceptance of racism that is weaved into institutional structures, making it difficult…...
Native Americans
Native American Culture
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Throughout my career, I have met multiple people from different cultural backgrounds. I currently have a colleague that has taught me much of her culture and has ever since gained my attention. The Native American culture is a culture that I find truly intriguing. This is not the first time I hear about this culture. I have attended a few of their Powwows. A Powwow is how Native Americans reunite in intent to dance, sing, visit, renewing old friendships, and…...
Native Americans
How Manifest Destiny Affected Native American Culture?
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What is no one spoke English anymore? What if it was illegal to celebrate Christmas? What if a new race of people decided to invade America and force Americans out of their homes? This was what happened to Native Americans during America’s Westward Expansion. Native American culture disappeared because America’s westward expansion forced them out of their homeland, disease and violence killed millions of them, and new laws gave them no rights. Life in the Western Hemisphere was much different…...
CultureManifest DestinyNative Americans
Impact of Colonization of America on Native Americans
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The colonization of America has usually been depicted as something positive, whether it be the relationship between John Smith and Pocahontas, or the first Thanksgiving meal shared between the pilgrims and the Wampanoag. The interactions that the Natives and the colonist had may have started off as cordial and good-natured when the Virginia Company sailed into the Chesapeake in 1607. But as the years passed on, their relationship became unstable, and ultimately resulted in King Philip’s war, which ended the…...
ColonizationJamestownNative Americans
The Genocide of Native Americans During the Period of Gold Rush in California
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At the time of Spanish colonization in the late 1700s, California was home to more than 300,000 Native Americans. There were more than 200 tribes. But, after the Mexican-American war in 1848, the state of California became a property of the US, gold was discovered near Sutter’s Mill in 1848 and created a new era for California. The era of a wild race for riches. A man named Sam Brannan, who was an American oligarch and a founder of California…...
California gold rushNative Americans
Analysis of “The Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America” by Cabeza de Vaca
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In the book The Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America Written by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America nitty-gritty the events of Cabeza de Vaca’s eight-year skip from Spain to the New World. De Vaca accepted that it was Zemourri who became the requisite one: ‘It was,’ wrote de Vaca, the Native Americans, and it was Zemourri’s affability with born languages that kept the man existent and even, after a tempo, assign them…...
Native Americans
The Journey of Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca
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Since the beginning of time the need for human civilization to explore the unknown has and will always be second nature to us. We go above and beyond to learn of new worlds so that we ourselves can expand the knowledge we’ve learned in our own land. We take our knowledge, power, rules and way of life and share it and transfer it, sometimes not in the best ways, to other cultures and other worlds so that we ourselves leave…...
Native Americans
Is Chronicle really about Cabeza de Vaca’s Journey
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Chronicle is a well-known account of the Spanish journey to the Americas. The story is about a group of men traveling to a new land to bring Christianity to the savages of the Americas. Cabeza de Vaca’s account has been widely debated as being exaggerated and pins him as an unreliable narrator. His embellishments in his story seem as a distraction from him not having much to report back to the king of Spain. The broad generalizations he makes, and…...
Native Americans
Analysis of “The Narrative of Cabeza de Vaca”
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In “The Narrative of Cabeza de Vaca,” Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca’s recounts a dramatic story of the 1527 expedition to North America, where voyagers had to survive against the many odds while being deprived of the basic necessities in life. His experience brought an insight into the history of America, as well as Spain, as it revealed a certain equilibrium between the “mighty” and “superior” Spaniard and the Indian. Throughout the narrative the idea of bareness conveys the trials…...
Native Americans
The Ever Changing Identity of Cabeza de Vaca
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Ten years is no short span of time. Entire World Wars have been fought in that stretch of time, incredible structures have been created in that period, and amazing discoveries have been procured in that such an interval. With all those great feats happening within ten years, it wouldn’t be unprecedented to see a person’s identity change in that time period. Cabeza de Vaca can be considered one of those people whose identities doesn’t just change, but changes vastly in…...
Native Americans
Life of Cabeza de Vaca
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Cabeza de Vaca became the first Spanish Europena to explore North America in the sixteenth century. The following eights years of living with native Indians in North America, he would become enslaved, used for as a trade labor, a healer, but also be considered a spiritual leader by thousands of natives. Immediately after escaping Galveston Island in the coming Spring of 1530, Cabeza de Vaca began his journey from Native villages while also managing to set himself up as a…...
Native Americans
Native Americans in “The Pearl” by John Steinbeck
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Steinbeck's The Pearl is one of his most intriguing pieces. Steinbeck manages to fit many different ideas into a short novella that is under a hundred pages. However, what makes The Pearl truly a great book is his critique of colonial society, and the interaction of Native Americans and colonists. Steinbeck emphasizes the differences between the colonists and the native Indians by using such symbols as the relationship between town and village, education, and instinct. Steinbeck also shows that he…...
John SteinbeckNative AmericansThe Pearl
How did Westward Expansion of the United States Effect Chickasaw Culture?
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A proud group of people forced to move out of their home land and forced into a new life style. Changes that shift everything about who they are and the life style they once held so dear to them. The group at mention is the Chickasaw tribe of North America. This group of Native Americans inhabited the southeast regions of Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama. During the 1830’s this tribe along with many other Indian tribes were relocated forcefully to…...
Native AmericansWestward Expansion
Native American Stereotypes In Sports and Schools
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As I walked into my new school, I was nervous, but at the same time I was delighted. I was embarking on a new journey, I was attending a public school. Because I lived on a Native American reservation and attended an American Indian Boarding School, I didn’t know what to expect. As I was walking down the hallway, I saw an image on the wall, a strange one. Beside the image, I read the word “Redskins”. The image, as…...
AmericaNative Americans
Unemployment Rate and Problem of Housing in Native American Tribes
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A large majority of Native Americans live in unacceptable living environments. The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development estimated, twenty-three percent of Native American homes experience problems in plumbing, electricity, and heating (azcentral, 1) The Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination Act was put into congress in 1996 and has improved some housing conditions on Native American reservations. The act is funded by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, which has historically been underfunded. (HuffPost, 1)…...
Native AmericansSocial IssuesUnemployment
Virginia’s Early Relations with Native Americans
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Throughout early American colonies, especially in Virginia, New England, and Pennsylvania, the colonists had a very interesting relationship with the Indians. While there was a period of conflict, there were also periods where trading was highly successful. Indian relations in Virginia and New England had some similarities with Pennsylvania, but, for the most part, Indian relations were vastly different. In New England and Virginia, Indian relations were at an all-time low throughout the seventeenth century. From events like King Philip’s…...
Native Americans
What is Adena?
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Adena were settlers who had lived in areas in Ohia, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky, parts of Pennsylvania and New York during the Early Woodland Period. Their name was only derived from an estate near Chillicothe, Ohio were artifacts were excavated in 1901. Adena were skilled craftsmen, jewellers and pottery makers. They lived in small villages and their main source of living was through hunting, fishing and farming (Adena Period, 2007). Trading They were also traders since some evidence were located…...
AmericaAmerican CultureCultural heritageNative Americans
Hamlet as a prologue for the rest of the play
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Hamlet does not begin at a light pace or with a trivial introduction to characters and setting. While the first scene does not involve the central characters, it manages to begin the narrative arc of the play immediately. Amidst the inevitable exposition that dominates the first act of the play, scene one contains plot-advancing action: the ghost of Hamlet appears; and, at the very end of the scene, Horatio decides that he should inform Hamlet: Let us impart what we…...
HamletPocahontasRomeo And JulietTragedy
Persona of Captain John Smith
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John Smith born to Alice Rickard and George Smith left home at the age of sixteen after the death of his father. His journey led him to fight for the Independence of Spain, become a leader in the Long War and actively involved with the Virginia Company’s to colonize Virginia. During his journey he faced many obstacles and challenges. Smith wrote journals that were informative of his adventures and carved the future for US history. Considered one of our country’s…...
JamestownJohn SmithPocahontas
The Effect of the Europeans on the Local Social Orders
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I feel just as Europeans forcefully attempted to seize and assume control using any and all means to substantially grow the new world. The ?rst progressing meeting among Europeans and local people groups of America in the ?fteenth century were quickly sporadic and topographically unsymmetrical. The overall breezes and flows over the Atlantic. Pushed European dispatching consistently towards northern South America and the Caribbean locale, the ?rst voyage of Columbus. From this underlying zone of contact European campaigns ran toward…...
Christopher ColumbusHistoryNative AmericansPuerto RicoSlaverySociety
The White Buffalo Calf Pipe A Native American Tale
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When deciding on a research topic, "The White Buffalo Calf Pipe" stood out due to the fact that it appeared to be different than any other reading in James E. Miller Jr.'s, "Heritage of American Literature." "The White Buffalo Calf Pipe" is a tale written by the Teton Sioux people, a Native American tribe, and has a rich historical background that allows readers to dive deeper into the culture of the Native Americans and their use of political, religious, and…...
BeliefNative Americans
The Abuse Of Native Americans
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The white colonizers of the past helped turn the once “New World” into the United States of America, a dominating world power that prides itself on being a fair, non-discrimatory and liberal country. What has been long forgotten is how they made their progress, that is, the destruction, torture, and unfair treatment of the first inhabitants of America, and how these people are treated to this day.Early ColonizationThe colonization of the Americas is dated all the way back to the…...
AbuseNative Americans
Abortion: Two Sides of the Argument
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In today's society every time a person turns on the television, goes on a computer, turns on a radio, passes a billboard, or picks up a newspaper that person is bombarded with debates. There are many different debates and each debate with two parties both of which have two very different and sometimes conversational opinions. Everywhere a person looks they are faced with arguments such as president Obama's affordable healthcare act, gay rights, the matters of the death penalty being…...
AbortionArgumentsPocahontas
Davy Crockett
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Davy did many thing through out his childhood all the way up to his adulthood. Davy was born in Tennessee on August 17, 1786 . John crockett (davy’s father) sent Davy to work for a man who was taking a herd of cattle to Virginia at age 12. Davy helped the man drive cattle for over 200 miles from Tennessee to Virginia. The trip was a little over 2 weeks, and then Davy finely returned home. Soon after, the man…...
Famous PersonNative Americans
Red, White, and Black by Gary Nash Review
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Gary Nash author of Red, White, and Black purpose to their readers is describing the early colonists, but also the relationships toward Europeans, the Indians, and the Africans. Nash successfully analyzes the impact of the colliding three cultures and interprets them to give an overall theme about the relationships between those who made America what it is today. He has shown another point of view to his reader that we grew up and was raise in a white people land;…...
Book ReviewFounding FathersHistoryLiteratureNative Americans
Native American Vision Quest
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Vision Quest: A vision quest is a rite of passage in Native American cultures and more specifically the Oji-Cree. It was undertaken by a person when they reached puberty. The vision quest comprised of going to the wild for about ten days to fast. This took place either at the top of a hill or if need be a platform built in a tree. During the vision it is expected that at least one or more spirits would take pity…...
Bhagavad GitaHinduismIslamJudaismNative Americans
Native American Literature
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Native American literature is comprised of 2 different kinds of literature, the oral customs and the more recent written customs. From these two types are many different designs that comprise the lots of various tribes of the Native American culture. Storytelling has actually long been an essential aspect of all Native American cultures. It is through storytelling that the Native Americans have the ability to give their traditions and cultural identities. Oral traditions as well as the newer composed traditions…...
CultureLiteratureNative AmericansOral historyOral History ExampleTradition
Native American Poverty
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W. E. B Du Bois once stated “to be a poor man is hard, but to be a poor race in a land of dollars is the very bottom of hardships” (qtd. in Rodgers 1). The Native American culture is often overlooked by many people in the United States today. What many people do not realize is that about twenty-five percent of Native Americans are living in poverty (Rodgers 1). A majority of the poverty among Native Americans is due…...
Native AmericansPoverty
Native American Religions
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Native American Religions happen to be one of the oldest and most enduring forms of religion. They comprise a large number of distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups. Native Americans arrived on the North American Continent fifth-teen thousand to twenty thousand years ago. Native Americans have literally sources that exist from only the last four hundred years even though Native American life covers perhaps twenty thousand years. Over three hundred tribes have been recognized by the United States government. Native…...
GodHuntingNative AmericansReligionSoul
The Comparison of the Representations of the Native Americans
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The initial interactions between the Native Americans and the British is one of the most romanticized topics in literature and cinema. Many descriptions done by early authors like Christopher Columbus, John Smith and William Bradford, who experienced the encounters with the native people of America first hand, are now finding a new life in the modern films and animated cartoons. All these works of art create various representations of the Native Americans. Judging from my previous experience with the standard…...
Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States and James K. Polk
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6. Compare the expansionist foreign policies of Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James K. Polk. To what extent did their policies strengthen the United States? 1. President Thomas Jefferson a. Anti-Federalist: usually weary of American expansionism b. Louisiana Purchase i. After Spain gave New Orleans to the French, Jefferson sent Monroe to France to buy the strategic land for $2 million ii. France about to engage in war in Europe and dealing with a slave revolt in Haiti, offered to sell…...
Manifest DestinyNative AmericansStateThomas Jefferson
Music: Native Americans in the United States and Correct Answer
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Incorrect 1. The language used to discuss music is universal. A) True B) False Table for Individual Question Feedback Points Earned: 0. 0/4. 0 Correct Answer(s): B Correct 2. One way 19th-century Americans were exposed to European classical music was through visiting European musicians. A) True B) False Table for Individual Question Feedback Points Earned: 4. 0/4. 0 Correct Answer(s): A Correct 3. The musical language of America is based on: A) Western European musical concepts B) ancient Greek musical…...
MusicNative AmericansStateTradition
Blackfeet: Native Americans in the United States and Blackfoot Tribe
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The Blackfeet or Blackfoot is a Native American tribe that was originally located in Canada, Montana, and Idaho. The majority of the tribe is located in Alberta, Canada, where three of the four Blackfeet bands are established. The Blackfeet can be found in the Great Plains, around many rivers and mountains. Some of these rivers include the Yellowstone River and the Missouri River. Also, just east of the Rocky Mountains, a major boundary in the past, members of the Blackfeet…...
Native AmericansState
Native Americans in the United States
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Dentify the economic, political, and/or social causes of the Civil War assess the influence of individuals and groups in the U. S. government on Reconstruction assess the influence of individuals and groups in the South on Reconstruction distinguish and analyze the freedoms guaranteed to African Americans in the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution analyze the various components of Jim Crow legislation and their effects on Southern minorities describe efforts by the U. S. Government to assimilate Native…...
CitizenshipJim Crow LawsNative AmericansPoliticsState
Harry Truman
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Harry Truman was a realistic, pragmatic president who skillfully led the American people against the menace posed by the Soviet Union. Assess the validity of this statement by examining the Foreign Policy implemented during Truman’s presidency. At the end of the Second World War two major issues were brought to attention. The first was dealing with the destruction of the global catastrophe. The second issue involved the shape of the new world and what political alliances were to be made.…...
AmericaCatch 22Cold WarForeign PolicyGovernmentHistory
Native American Oppression in North America
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While many different cultures were and are oppressed around the world, many people tend to forget about the genocide of the Native Americans on the land we call home. In 1492, when Christopher Columbus first sailed across the Atlantic Ocean, he came into contact with the indigenous people of the New World. After returning to Hispaniola, he quickly implemented policies of slavery and mass extermination of the Taino population in the Caribbean. This became the first major impact on Native…...
CultureNative AmericansOppressionPolitics
America: Land Of Opportunity
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“We think of America as a land of opportunity”, and it was. Back between the 1600’s through 1774 America was a great place to start off fresh and move onto something new and exciting. Many people wanted to relocate to the America’s due to the great rumors, which it had lead on. Although there were many opportunities available in America, they were limited and were a struggle to succeed in for some. The new settlers of America came from many…...
AmericaOpportunityPocahontas
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History

The different number of tribes ranges into the 1,000’s. The number of different languages and tongues spoken by Native Americans is even more ambiguous. Many different languages broken down further into different dialects. Despite all the various tribes, languages, and locations, Native Americans tend to be grouped together as one culture group.

The term Native American is commonly used to identify American Indians. It is not as well received by them. Given the negative tone that sometimes accompanies it. They have been called many things that they find offensive. Names such as, Indian, redskins, savages, and some even find Native American offensive. As anyone born in America, is a Native American. Most would prefer to be recognized by their tribal affiliation, as indigenous people, or First Nations people. This has remained a dispute not just between them and other groups of people, but also amongst the many different cultures and tribes.

Most historians and scientific research seem to agree that Native Americans arrived to the Americas coming across the Bearing Straits. The land bridge that was located between Asia and America. The belief is that the population of the Americas occurred in three migration phases. Native Americans arrived long before the Europeans. This is another area of inconsistencies. Native Americans are believed to have arrived in the Americas tens of thousands of years before the Europeans.

When speaking of Europeans arriving to the Americas, the general thought is that they are of Anglo descendant. England, Spain, and France were all settlers in the early colonization of the Americas. Even though Christopher Columbus is given credit as the discoverer of the New World, sailing over on the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. The fact that he is of Spanish descent is never really the focus. He is European, yes. But from Spain.

When the Europeans arrived in North America, they brought with them diseases (smallpox, influenza, and the measles). Not having built up immunities against the diseases, they sometimes wiped out entire tribes. This only helped the Europeans take over more of the Native Americans land

The arrival of Europeans to North America brought many changes to the way of life for Native Americans. Some good and some bad. During the exploration phase, things between the Europeans and Native Americans were pretty amicable. Once the Europeans moved to the colonization phase, things became very disruptive. Colonization brought prosperity and wealth to the Europeans, but poverty, despair, slavery, and death to the Native Americans. Tensions really started rising when the new settlers began enclosing property. The Natives were used to roaming freely where ever they wanted to go. The enclosures inhibited their free movement. Then laws were made that favored the Europeans because they were created by the Europeans. One major champion of the enclosure laws was, John Locke. Locke believed that “labor provides the ultimate basis for legitimate property rights” (Greer, 2012, p. 366). Simply meaning, that if you put in the work to cultivate the land and build it up, then you were the rightful owner of that land. Just existing in a given space, didn’t give you any rights to the land inhabited.

Even though trade was fairly good between the Europeans and the natives. When the Europeans began trading alcohol for furs and pelts, yet another problem arose for the Native Americans, alcoholism. Which still persists today. “Native Americans have higher rates of alcohol use, frequency of use, and increased rates of fetal alcohol syndrome, compared with other ethnic groups” (Szlemko, 2006, p. 435).

Issues

Native Americans are hunters and gatherers. They lived a very simplistic life with very few boundaries and ties to one location. They were nomadic by nature. Their migration patterns followed that of their food source. This was usually the buffalo. Buffalo wasn’t the only meat source for Native Americans. This was usually dependent upon the particular region they inhabited. In early North American civilization Native Americans inhabited 10 different regions: the Artic, the Sub-Artic, the Northeast, the Southeast, the Plains, the Southwest, the Great Basin, California, the Northwest Coast, and the Plateau.

Though Native Americans are seen as a singular culture group, they differ not only by region, but also by what ever tribe they affiliate themselves with. Culture, traditions, and beliefs also varied from region to region and tribe to tribe. One area of similarity, seemed to be religion. For the most part, Native Americans believe in animism and shamanism. Animism is the belief that animals and inanimate objects have spirits. Shamanism “is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered state of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world” (Shamanism, n.d.). A shaman or medicine man is the facilitator of the ritual ceremony.

Colonization was great for the Europeans but not for the Native Americans. Not only were they being pushed off their land, they were being forced onto reservations. This began with the Indian Removal Act in the early 1800’s. It “ordered all Native Americans to be moved west of the Mississippi River into designated areas in what is now Oklahoma” (Biscontini, 2014, p. 3). There were many treaties agreed upon between the Native Americans and the government. The Great Treaty of 1722, Treaty of Alliance, and Louisiana Purchase Treaty are just a very few. Most were usually broken or usually just ignored and not enforced by the government because of some profitable reasons.

There were some attempts to include Native Americans as citizens. Of course, this was totally on the Europeans terms. “Forcibly bringing them into white culture” (Biscontini, 2014, p. 3). They wanted the Native Americans to assume all of their cultural values and beliefs and fore go their own. This made reservation life even more unbearable.

Reservations were basically open range jails. Native Americans were not free to come and go as they pleased. The land was poor and they were not allowed to follow the buffalo. Therefore, they were not able to sufficiently feed their families, further impoverishing them. Given living conditions and emotional despair “points to drinking as one reaction to the profound disruption of Indian societies that began soon after Europeans landed in the Americas and intensified through the years” (Tischauser, 2015, p. 1).

Alcohol abuse has long been a problem for Native Americans, ever since it was introduced to them from the European settlers. Even though alcohol abuse rates are high among Native Americans, it by no means is meant to imply that all Native Americans are alcoholics. Though sometimes this is one of the many stereotypes they are labeled with. “Indian cultural pride and solidarity increase, as more Indians themselves work for the Indian Health Service (IHS), and as sufficient funding becomes available, new possibilities exist for stemming the tide of alcoholism” (Tischauser, 2015, p. 3)

Core Functions

Core Function 4-Assessment: With the counseling profession making a genuine effort to relate to their clients within the client’s cultural awareness and beliefs, this is a very necessary step prior to any treatment planning. “The cultural and spiritual beliefs of American Indians and Alaska Natives, as well as the historical trauma suffered by people who identify with these ethnic groups, require special considerations to be taken in the treatment of addiction conditions” (Villa, n.d.). one must consider the historical and statistical substance abuse information as related to Native Americans. As previously stated, Native Americans have a higher rate of alcohol abuse and use. That being said, the client is still an individual and must be assessed as such. Focused interviews would be the primary tool used to assess a member of this culture group. Looking at the family dynamic, how does the client spend their free time, and any life events that may have contributed to the client’s substance abuse. The is also where you would assess the client’s strengths and weaknesses. The counselor must assess how the client sees themselves. What type of personality does the client have? Is it strong on its own or dependent on others? How do they see the world around them? Do they feel oppressed or hindered by society? How do they feel about clinical treatment in general? All these things must be considered prior to developing a treatment plan.

Core Function 5-Treatment Planning: Devising a viable treatment plan must be designed with client input. The client’s assessment will guide the counselor in the treatment planning process. Once learning the client’s strengths and weaknesses, the counselor will then know where the client needs the most work and what just needs to be reinforced. A treatment plan is only good if the client is not only able but willing to complete the treatment plan. The counselor must determine the biggest problems that may be a hinderance in the client’s treatment. Then set goals to eliminate the problems. The counselor must also understand that new problems may arise during treatment and must be implemented and addressed in the treatment plan. The ultimate goal of treatment is to treat the whole person and not just the symptoms that are presented. This will ensure a consistence in sobriety.

Core Function 6-Counseling: “Using traditional healing to address substance abuse and mental health problems alone or in combination with westernized approaches may provide a more holistic approach to treatment” (Villa, n.d.). The counselor must build a cohesive relationship with the client. At no time should the client feel that they are less than the counselor. The group approach seems most feasible. “Because Indian alcoholism so often involves group activity, approaches involving groups and entire communities have proved more beneficial than have private counseling and treatment” (Tischauser, 2015, p. 3). The approach can always be adjusted or changed. Whatever works best for the client.

Surprises

The biggest surprise that I encountered during this research, was all the inconsistencies in supposedly historical facts. There are hardly any consistent numbers regarding the number of tribes or Native American cultural group, languages or tongues, or the length of time between Indigenous People’s arrival and that of the Europeans. Another thing that surprised me was my own lack of sensitivity or more like my lack of interest in knowing historical facts about my fellow Americans. I have never really given any thought as to how Native Americans want to be addressed. I didn’t even know that there was a debate about it. This is what made it hit me “American Indians derives from the colonizers’ world-view and is therefore not the real name of anyone. It is a name given to people by outsiders, not by themselves. Why should we use any name given to a people by someone other than themselves” (d’Errico, 2005). Only for the purpose of this paper will I continue to call them Native Americans. I also read somewhere that the question was asked, “why aren’t Europeans called European Americans? That is a real question to ask. Why does every other race have a precursor to American but the Europeans? They seem to impose themselves upon any group of people not like themselves. They wanted to “civilize” everyone. Mostly because they were uncomfortable with beliefs and traditions not like their own. I literally gave none of this a thought until this research project. Hopefully I will surprise myself further and do a better job of actually knowing who my fellow Americans are and how they came to be here.

Expectations

This particular question is what help me decide on this particular culture group. Originally, I wanted to research the Korean culture but I couldn’t find any events near me within the course time frame. Even in choosing Native Americans, finding events in my area for the time frame of part two of the paper was difficult. It is still a little difficult because I will have to drive 2 ½ hours to one event and almost 4 hours to the other one. Fortunately, the events are very inexpensive or that would have been another difficulty. As far as my expectations as to what to expect at the events, they are high. I have seen some videos online and read about some of the activities. Pow-wows are very colorful and are very festive. Also, another area of embarrassment for myself. I took my daughters to the first event, which was a pow-wow. One of them ask me what the purpose of the dance was. I had no real answer. I told her something vaguely about that it’s one way they talk to their gods and sometimes they do it prior to a battle. For the next event I will be ready for her.

FAQ about Native Americans

How Manifest Destiny Affected Native American Culture?
...As it can be seen from these examples, there are many things that contributed to the disappearance of Native American culture. The westward expansion contributed by bringing settlers and pioneers. Their land was taken away to make room for these peop...
How did Westward Expansion of the United States Effect Chickasaw Culture?
...Culture is a very important part of a group of people’s ways of life, it tells so much about a group and the people in it and in this case, it was the Native American tribe the Chickasaws. The lives of these people were reshaped and, in some cases,...
What is Adena?
...These areas are in West River near Annapolis and Sandy Hill and Nassawango Creek on Eastern Shore. The artifacts were found along with the cremated and uncremated Adena people. Same with the importation of the said artifacts, Adena people were also d...

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