State Federal Governments
The local governments usually deal with certain issues through the state made laws. U.S. citizens are in contact more with the local government than they are with state federal governments. The local government is broken down into four main branches such as County, Townships, municipalities and special districts. The county is responsible for administering laws within the county’s location. The county is usually responsible for managing public services such as hospitals, parks, fire services, libraries, schools, courts, roads and law enforcement. Marriages, births and deaths are also recorded at the county level. Townships are usually located in rural areas. Most townships elect its board members which usually includes supervisors who run the local services such as the sanitation department and road maintenance. Some townships are over the fire and police departments as well. Municipalities are cities or towns that have local government and a corporate status. Municipal governments usually have elected mayors serving as the executives and the elected counselors serving as legislators. Public servants in leadership roles should understand that they owe their deepest loyalty to the Constitution and the people, not to their hierarchical superiors, Congress, or even the courts. (Feldman, 2015) They oversee running services that citizens encounter daily. Special districts provide special activities in certain locations. The special districts are responsible for education, waste management and transportation. Special districts have the power to raise taxes and provide the services they cover.
The state government is very like the Federal government. There are 50 state governments. The state government system includes three branches Executive, legislative and Judiciary. The executive branch’s top executive official is the governor. The governor shares his power with several other officials such as lieutenant governor, secretary of state, attorney general and the chief legal officer who prosecutes those who violate business law. Headed by the comptroller general, agency staff members include economists, attorneys, policy analysts, computer experts, and other subject specialists who produce reports, general presentations, legal decisions, and more. (Stuart,2013) The power is also shared with the treasurer and commissioner of agriculture. All governors are elected through the election process. The winner is the candidate who receives the most votes. Each state has a legislative branch where the elected member can propose bills to become low, raise taxes and receive proposals for legislation from the governor. It plays the same role as the legislature in the federal system. The judiciary system deals with state constitutional issues and statutes as well as the constitutional issues and statutes. The kind of cases that take place in these types of courts are most criminal cases, personal injury, family law.
Executive Departments in the US
The federal government runs the entire country. Unlike the local and state governments, only one federal government exists. The federal government is made up of five divisions such as the Executive office of the president, executive departments, independent executive agencies, independent regulatory agencies, and government corporations. The executive office of the president provides the president with the support he needs to have the power to make decisions. Duties include providing advice on security and promoting the US trade interest. There are eleven principal offices including the White House office. The executive departments are cabinet-level offices run by secretaries who were nominated by the president, and then they were accepted or rejected by the senate. Each department has its own budget. Certain departments focus on certain policy areas. Independent executive agencies are independent from executive control. Independent executive agencies include the Central Intelligence agency which is in place to protect the US from international threats. Independent regulatory agencies perform duties such as regulating important industries and businesses that affect the public. This agency is responsible for enforcing environmental laws. Government corporations were created by the government to provide services for the public. They are commercial for profit businesses. These are services like AMTRAK or the United States Postal Service.
What is Federalism
Federalism is the sharing of power between national and state governments. George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison are the founders and supporters of the federal system. The Federal government was created for many different reasons. The government was created to avoid a cruel oppressive government. To allow the citizens more participation in politics. The government was created to use the states for experiments for programs and new ideas. Today we have moved away from the constitution. Federal policies control state actions in health care, education, and environmental policy to name a few. Public servants in leadership roles should understand that they owe their deepest loyalty to the Constitution and the people, not to their hierarchical superiors, Congress, or even the courts. The government has more control over our lives than most people realize. However, when many Americans think about government they think about laws, taxes, the president, senators, etc. The American government has a part in most of our day to day activities; most of them are things in which we are uncertain of. From the air we breathe to the water we drink the government has regulations and standards to which these two necessities should be held. Commercial property exists because of the government; without this home ownership would not be possible. Imagine living in a country where you have no right to build and/or purchase property.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is one of the more well-known government agencies. Their reason for existence is to protect the health of the people through facilitating safety, security and efficacy of human and animal drugs, medical devices, biological products, cosmetics, food supply and through the products that emit radiation(such as microwaves). Without the FDA there would be no control over what food we eat as well as the drugs that we take.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates safety in the workplace and workplace deaths. “OSHA’s mission is to assure the safety and health of America’s workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health. OSHA facilitates a safe and independent workplace environment free from injury and unfair practices.
The private sector is the part of the United States economic system that is run by individuals and companies rather than the government. These companies are typically for profit. Some examples are sole proprietors, partnerships (law office), small businesses, trade associations, and trade unions. The private sector being that is for-profit will initially base its decisions for regulations on the ability to gain revenue versus the betterment of the citizens. When it comes to determining whether the private sector could more so efficiently perform the duties of the government there are several factors to determine. The private sector, though non-profit, will be controlled directly by the individuals consuming the products.
Government Activities and Control
One of the United States government actions that I feel should be avoided or limited is the aid/assistance provided to countries following death and destruction. I believe this practice sends the message that an alliance is chosen between the countries at war which may pose a threat of terrorism. This also costs money for the government in which the money spent on other countries could then be dispersed amongst programs and people who shall benefit. It is also more than possible that the most effective way to reduce the threat of terrorism to the U.S. is to pull back from countries that breed terrorists rather than trying to run them. (Mcclatchy, 2009)
When many individuals hear the word government they automatically think about the president or congress and bills that should or should not pass. However, the government is present in our everyday occurrences. Lack of interest and education in the government is the reason for disconnection in relation to the importance of government. I believe that many do not realize how important government is and how much control we the citizens have over the government.