Binge Eating Disorder
Binge eating disorder is amount of food that is consumed in a two-hour period that is a larger portion than what most people might eat. One who binge eat will eat until feeling uncomfortably full. This disorder does not mean one eats when their hungry, but they also tend to eat when they are not physically hungry. It is stated by the emotion regulation model that individuals the binge eat, have a greater effect on having more intense emotions and greater difficulties than individuals that don’t have binge eating disorders. Researchers examined that people with binge eating disorder (BED) have low self-esteem, high level of depression, and a higher chance of developing a psychiatric disorder.
Binge eating disorder has exhibited sensitivity in regard to body image and has a role in the maintenance of eating order psychopathology. Many with this disorder are not satisfied with their image that they constantly binge eat. There has been a concern with weight and body shape of people with BED that relates to social anxiety and self-consciousness. Obese people with BED has greater body image dissatisfaction and patients with BED reported BID regardless of their degree of obesity. One who binge eats has BMI that is a significant factor that childhood teasing, weight or size plays a role. Childhood maltreatment also plays a significant role in BED. Grilo and Masheb stated that emotion abuse and sexual abuse happen to be the reason patients with BED face image dissatisfaction. They are affected because of the critical statements one faces during their childhood, they are told harsh comments and are criticized. This is crucial because one may carry these criticisms throughout their entire life remembering that they were once called that and will categorize themselves as that.
Body Dissatisfaction and Challenges
There also has been a study which explores how body dissatisfaction and challenges are associated with when a student transitions to a university resulting in symptoms of binge eating. Participants who lived farther away from their parents, and their home tend to develop binge eating disorder. While students try to adjust to the challenges of university, they put their health at risk. Stress and trying to adjust in university have been a predictor. As a student of a university leaves home, he or she may lose direct dependence from parents and members of social network, and will have increased responsibility, on top of that trying to maintain academic workloads. This is students facing academic burnout, where they are faced with so much workload that they feel strained and stressed. Body satisfaction for first year students entering university is a predictor for symptoms of binge eating. As they are emerging to adulthood and improving, they negotiate with developmental challenges.
Individuals with BED are significantly more likely to have mood disorder and major depressive disorder. While focusing on their shape and weight, patients with BED will try to examine their thoughts and concerns, it may be negative cognition about themselves. One who binge eats feels lonely and somber, they resist constantly eating without the urge to purge and I can say this from experience. Similarly, relating to the journals, I tend to consume food when I feel depressed because it just makes me feel “better” while there are health effects to be cautious about. Women in particular have a high prevalence of depression due to shift work/workload that leads to them binge eating.
Culture and Ethnic Identity
The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity happens to be related to the development of eating disorders. African American women may act against disordered eating to lose weight, but they put themselves at risk of disorders such as binge eating. Findings have revealed that ethnic identity may be a symptom as to why a woman might binge eat that leads to consequences. Caucasian women have high levels of binge eating and global eating pathology. That is because African American women portray ideal body sizes compared to Caucasian women. African American women are less likely to vomit or diet to control weight. Strong ethnic identity is a factor as to why an African American woman might not believe in binge eating is because they would want to promote internalization of their culture and be dominant on a Caucasian women’s thinness ideal. Binge eating may be the central role for small African American women who seek weight gain to achieve the fuller figure status that African American women portray. Research has conducted that Black participants have a higher body mass index than Caucasians but score low in depression and distress levels.
Additionally, along with those who binge eat, compulsive buying has been viewed as having the same characteristics and behaviors with someone who binge eats. Compulsive buyers were more likely to be classified as compulsive buyers. One who is a compulsive buyer will react to negative moods by going out for dinner, rather than shopping, which goes hand in hand with binge eating. One who binge eats will constantly consume, keep on doing that act despite the negative consequences. Excessive effort to control weight has also been a contributor to binge eating behavior. Compulsive buyer has also been found to have low levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depression.
Therapeutic alliance and reflective function may be a treatment for binge eating disorder. The psychotherapy will be based on emotionally focused group therapy (EFGT). EFGT is a way to reduce symptoms of binge eating by developing emotional processing. Clients with BED demonstrated low reflective functioning and after EFGT, the increase in reflective functioning. A therapist will establish a set of goals for a BED client to follow as the first step. Then the therapist will challenge the cognitive, emotions, and interpersonal patterns of the client. Then in the last stage the patient will try to adapt to new, better, and healthier changes. It all depends on for the treatment to work when there is an emotional connection between the therapist and client. In the group setting, it will allow a client to be focused and feel secure when with the therapist.
Treatment of Disorders
This therapy is different because this treatment depends on the victim. This therapy is done to help those that are self-critical, shame prone to develop compassion for themselves. This condition is a way to reduce weekly binge days. This intervention is done to reduce eating disorders and weight concerns. The clients were assessed on how to be compassionate towards oneself during distress and disappointment. Participants in the study were able to understand a healthier plan and to diminish binge eating by balancing a planned eating schedule. Also, this method allowed it to develop alternative activities when the urge to consume arises. Overall this intervention allowed one to be motivated and make positive changes.
Furthermore, other various treatment strategies for BED is the combination of phentermine and topiramate as a method to reduce calorie diet and increase physical activity for those that have weight management issues with a large body mass index. Other type of medications are antidepressants which may relate to how it affects chemicals in the brain that are associated with mood. A medication called sibutramine is effective in treating BED. During the participant study when this medication was discontinued, weight was regained, and this effect was known as the placebo effect.
Binge eating disorder is when a large amount of food is consumed within a two-hour period and a feeling of unable to stop eating. Symptoms/Antecedents of binge eating disorder is self esteem which negatively impacts binge eating disorder, ethnic background negatively effects binge eating disorder, depression negatively affects BED. Compulsive behavior has the similar effect as binge eating disorder does. Treatments include medications, therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy, emotionally Focused group therapy, and compassion focused therapy.