Essays on Atom

Why Nuclear Power Must Be Part of the Energy Solution?
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Introduction The natural resources in the world are being overexploited. As a result, the world must seek alternative resources. One resource is Nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is growing discussion for a numerous number of reasons. Nuclear energy is coming up as a great alternative however various factors support as well as oppose its growth because of the problems associated with its usage. Nuclear energy is stored in the center of an atom. Atoms makeup everything in the universe and are…...
AtomChemistryNatureNuclear EnergyNuclear PowerPhysics
Connex Atom Notebook
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Laptops offer a ton of benefits to computer users everywhere that desktops simply can’t provide. While you may have to sacrifice a little power or up your budget a little bit to get exactly what you want, in the end it is all worth it as you will take home a computer that is complete and ready to be used without having to spend time connecting a bunch of different wires to it just so you can turn it on…...
Of physics principles fusion
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This type of nuclear reaction for energy process produces a lot of long term radioactive waste which is quite difficult to dispose off and also there is a high probability of an event of a nuclear meltdown (a severe overheating of the nuclear reactor's core resulting in the core melting and radiation escaping).. a In all these complications of using the right source of energy, this is where the purpose of nuclear fusion research comes into picture. The smart features…...
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The fundamental nature of matter
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The first atomic theory Postulations regarding the fundamental nature of matter have been undertaken for millennia, but it was around 400 BC that Greek philosopher Democritus laid down the first atomic theory - and for a philosopher more than 2000 years ago, he was surprisingly close. Democritus wrote that all things are composed of minute, indivisible, indestructible particles of pure matter, which move forever in empty space. What has followed since has effectively been the refinement and proof of this…...
AtomAtomic TheoryChemistryNaturePhysicsScience
Thickness of wire
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1) Switch on the Multimeter (which is connected to the Nichrome wire via the crocodile clips). Record the reading I get from the Multimeter and switch off the Multimeter. (This will save the battery, which will give me more accurate results. ) 2) Increase the length by 100mm until I reach 1000mm. This will give me a wide range of results to draw a graph.1) Repeat the whole experiment two more times making sure I use the same pieces of…...
The history of the atom
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Over the span of hundreds of years science has advanced tremendously improving our understanding of what makes up the world we live in. The atom is one of sciences important findings and has had a changing history of new discoveries, always altering the way we see things. In the early 1800s a man called John Dalton made an atomic theory with predictions about atoms. He stated that atoms are tiny particles that make up elements and that they are indivisible.…...
AtomAtomic TheoryHistory
Studying Swarm Intelligence And Particle Swam Optimization Computer Science Essay
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Swarm intelligence ( SI ) is the intelligent behaviour of non intelligent species, like emmets ( traveling toward hunt of nutrient ) or birds ( during winging ) . SI system is made up by the simple agent 's population interacting with their environments and each other. There is no cardinal control ordering the public presentation of the agents.To research distinct job work outing without holding a cardinal control construction the unreal intelligence used is like SI. Real life drove…...
AtomComputer Science For ProgressImportance Of Computer StudiesIntelligenceNormal DistributionStudying
Research on John Dalton
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1. Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties. 3. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed. 4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds. 5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged. Dalton proposed an additional "rule of greatest simplicity" that created controversy, since it…...
Relative atomic mass
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The electron was the first particle to be discovered by J J Thomson, who was looking into passing an electric current through gases. At the positive end of the tube a glow was visible. This glow could be deflected by both electric and magnetic fields, suggesting that there were rays of negative particles travelling from the cathode to the anode. These particles are obviously electrons. Thomson went on to suggest that atoms were like plum puddings with negative electrons embedded…...
Process Analysis: Natural Diamond Formation
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Introduction "Better a diamond with a flaw than a pebble without" (Confucius 1). It is a common belief in today’s day and age that it is better to be something of value that is flawed than to be something of no value that has no flaws. Diamonds are formed from pure carbon, which is one of the most abundant elements on planet Earth, and makes up about 18% of the human body. In fact, all life on earth is carbon…...
Photon and Visible Portion
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The development of MRI imaging technology is one useful spinoff of basic research into structure of the atom. Research, however, is expensive. Many people argue that high cost of research outweighs its potential benefits. Provide one argument for and one argument against increasing current funding for atomic-structure research. Use specific examples from this lesson in your answer to support each position. (6 marks) Answer: 2. The emission spectrum of an unknown element contains two lines-one in the visible portion of…...
Do all metals have the same Specific heat capacity?
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My aim is to measure the specific heat capacity of 4 metals and find out if they all have the same specific heat capacity or different. Prediction: The specific heat capacity is the amount of heat energy needed to raise 1kg by 1 C and is measured in joules. My prediction is that the metal with the least massive atoms will heat up more quickly because they require less heat energy to make the molecules move around and heat up.…...
AtomChemistryPhysicsSpecific Heat
Measuring Conductivity
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In this experiment, the main goal is to study the formation and properties of a coordination compound. A coordination compound is composed of a central atom bound to multiple groups called ligands. There is a wide variety of possible ligands that can bond directly to the central atom, but only two common ones, NH3 and CO3, are to be studied in this particular experiment. In the formation of carbonatotetraamminecobalt (III) nitrate, denoted [Co(NH3)4CO3]NO3, the transition metal which serves as the…...
The Length of a Wire Increases its Resistance
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Here are the results: METAL DIAMETER (mm) AMPS Copper 0. 01 0. 39 Nichrome 0. 17 0. 99 Constantan 0. 1 0. 95 As you can see from my results, nichrome is the material which best fits my criteria. Its diameter can be comparatively much larger than that of the other two wires, whilst still having amperage of around 1amps. On the computer program we used, any increase in the diameter of the wires above that of the results in…...
Investigation to see if the length of any type of wire affects its resistance
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Resistance is a force. It opposes the flow of an electric current around a circuit. A circuit itself can resist the flow of particles if the wires are either very thin or very long. E.g. the filament across an electric bulb is very thin, as it needs to resist the flow of particles so that the bulb can glow. Resistance is measured in ohms. This discovery was made by George Ohm. He found out that the voltage of a circuit…...
Investigating Elastic Bands in Comparison With Springs – Experiment
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Aim My aim is to try and find out whether there is any connection between the way rubber bands and springs stretch once weights have been added. Factors that may affect the experiment are: The thickness of the band. The length of the band. The amount of weights added to the rubber band. The temperature of the band and the room. In this experiment I will use the number of weights as my variable. Therefore, so that this is the…...
Research – the Amount of Heat When Burning Fuel
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I predict that the amount of heat energy produced by burning the fuel (we are using ethanol) will be proportional to the mass of ethanol burned. I have based this prediction on the following scientific knowledge (as suggested in a secondary source - 'Chemistry: A Practical Approach' by A.L Barker and K.A Knapp): Within the reactant molecules of a chemical reaction, there are many tiny atoms which are held together by very strong forces. These forces which link atoms in…...
Interatomic Screening
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XPS uses soft X rays (200-2000eV) radiation to examine core levels. It is based on a single photon in/electron out process. "Photoelectron spectroscopy involves the ejection of electrons from atoms or molecules following bombardment by monochromatic photons", (Hollas, J. M. , 1998, p426). X rays are used to remove the core electrons. The photon is absorbed by an atom in a molecule or solid, leading to ionization and the emission of a core (inner shell) electron. This can be represented…...
Advanced TechnologyAtomChemistryMaterialsNaturePhysics
How Do Alkali Metals React With Water Environmental Sciences Essay?
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The instructor took a piece of Li from its storage and smudge off the oil with absorptive paper. The Li is placed on a white tile and a little piece is cut off with a scalpel.The instructor dropped a little piece of Li into H2O in the trough.Observations of what happened to lithium were noted down the tabular array.The instructor placed a lit splint merely above the Li in the trough.Observations of what happened when the splint got near the…...
Ernest Rutherford, Physicist
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Ernest Rutherford was one of the most famous physicists of the early 20th century. He won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1908 for his work on atomic emissions and his contributions that led to the discovery of atomic fission. Ernest Rutherford was born in Nelson, New Zealand on August 30, 1871. His father was James Rutherford and his Mother was Martha Thompson. His father was a wheelwright, a person who builds and repairs wheels. His mother was a proper…...
Energy and Semiconductors
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Semiconductors usually have four electrons in the outer electron shell. They are tetravalent. These are called valence electrons. The structure that is formed is a tetrahedral structure. This forms a crystalline structure. There are two types of semiconductors. One type is the intrinsic semiconductors and the extrinsic semiconductors. Intrinsic semiconductors are elements and compounds that are semiconductors. Examples include Silicon and Cadmium. When they are in a solid state, the silicon atoms form a covalent bond among themselves to form…...
Determination of the relative atomic mass of magnesium by back titration
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In this following experiment, we are aiming to determine the relative atomic mass of magnesium, using a process known as 'back titration'. The basic outlines of this experiment include a strip of magnesium being allowed to reach with excess hydrochloric acid. The excess acid is then determined by titration with a standard alkali (Sodium Hydroxide) and hence the moles of acid that reacted with the magnesium is found by difference. This can be used to determine the number of mole…...
Chemistry GCSE Definitions
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Atomic structure Proton - +1 Electron - weighs 1/1836 -1 Neutron - changes for isotopes (neutral) Isotopes do not change the atomic number, but increase the mass number because of the increase in neutrons, This will change the relative atomic mass depending on spread of isotopes. Mass spectrometry, sample in gaseous state vaporised, and bombarded with electrons, forming positive ions which are accelerated and passed by a magnet which then splits apart different strengths, forming a graph showing abundance of…...
Characteristics of Ohmic and Non Ohmic Conductors
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Every part of matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are called the building blocks of nature. These atoms consist of a nucleus and shells. The protons and neutrons are part of the nucleus and the electrons are distributed in shells around the nucleus. The protons have a positive charge, neutrons are not charged and the electrons are negatively charged. Electrons have no overall mass while neutrons and protons both have a mass of 1 unit. This is how the…...
Brief History of the atom model
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The roots of atomic theory can be traced back over 2000 years ago to the ancient Greeks. The Greeks were responsible for many advancements in civilization, but one of the things that drove them was the question of origin. Who are we? What are we made of? Where did we come from? These questions were not limited to humans, but to all matter in the world. Around 400 BC a philosopher named Democritus proposed a theory of composition of matter.…...
AtomAtomic TheoryChemistryHistoryLightPhysics
“What Affects How Quickly Sodium Thiosulphate (thio) Goes Cloudy?”
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Concentration can change the speed of the reaction in two ways: * The higher the concentration of the thio, the faster the rate of reaction, and the shorter the time span. * The lower the concentration of the thio, the slower the rate of reaction, and the longer the time span. I will be using first-hand experience evidence, as it will be a more reliable investigation, if I were to use secondary sources, the results may not be accurate enough…...
Atomic Force Microscope Operating in Parallel
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Abstract Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has advanced to be one in every of the foremost powerful tools for the characterization of material surfaces particularly on the nanoscale. It is a vital Nano instrument technique for several applications such as cell biology and nanoelectronics metrology and inspection. The utilization of a single AFM instrument is understood for its very low speed and not appropriate for scanning massive areas, leading to very-low-throughput measurement. Parallelizing AFM instruments will be presented to overcome those…...
Day 7For the seventh day we had a lecture by engineers We
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Day 7.For the seventh day, we had a lecture by engineers. We learned from him that Oil Rocks is exploited with two deposits( Neft Dashlari and Palciq Pilpilesi), there are 514 wells now and 492 of them are active, 21 of them are not active, just one well is at the appropriation stage, and the average amount of oil extracted from one well is about 5.5 tonnes. Furthermore, we knew that there are seven oilfields and just two of them…...
Synthesis of Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) Nano
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The cuprous oxide is very important material because of their unique properties comparing with other bulk counterparts, so its uses in various fields of technology. It is a p-type narrows band gap semiconductor and place into transition metal. It has large number of application in different field due to its monoclinic structure and its different properties such as, high stability, photovoltaic properties, super thermal conductivity and antimicrobial activities. Because of different properties cuprous oxide can be use many technological field…...
History of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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Back in 1882, the 26-year-old Serbian American inventor and engineer Nikola Tesla discovered about rotating magnetic fields (Hunt, 2018). Little did he know that just 130 years later, his discovery would be the foundation for a powerful medical diagnostic tool that has saved millions of lives called Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Today, more than 3 million scans are made every year just in England which comprises less than 1% of the world's population (NHS, 2018). In 1930, Isidor Isaac Rabi…...
Gorgeous Invention – Firework
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Boom! Pop! Sizzle! When their gazes were fixed on the streams of red, yellow, green and blue that fell lazily from the sky, the crowds below were astonished by this fantastic scene. It was Fourth of July, as known as Independence Day, which is one of the most essential national holidays in America. Thousands of people gathered from all over the country to watch and be amazed by the wonder of fireworks. Fireworks have been around for centuries and play…...
Air PollutionAtomChemistryInventionLightMaterials
Atomic Theory Timeline
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Atomos Democratus, 460 b.c. Billiard Ball Model John Dalton, 1808 Plum Pudding Model J.J. Thomson, 1904 Planetarium Model Ernest Rutherford, 1911 Bohr Model Niel Bohr, 1913 Refined Bohr Model Niel Bohr, 1920's Electron Cloud Model Erwin Schrödinger, 1930's New Quantum Model Albert Einstein, 1930's...
AtomAtomic TheoryWorld Wide Web
Chemistry Exam 3 (Atomic Theory)
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The wavelength of some green light is 530.0 nm. What is the frequency of this green light? 5.66 x 10^14 hz Microwave radiation vs. UV radiation Which has a longer wavelength? Which has a greater frequency? Which has greater energy? Microwave UV UV Microwave ovens emit microwave energy with a wavelength of 12.1 cm. What is the energy of exactly one photon of this microwave radiation? 1.66 x 10 ^-24 J A certain shade of blue has frequency of 7.32…...
AtomAtomic TheoryChemistryLight
Bean Bag Isotope: Abundance and Atomic Mass Lab
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A new atomic theory, in which all atoms of the same element are identical to one another and equal in mass, was proposed by the scientist Dalton. Although the theory had its flaws and was simple, it was revolutionary. Scientists became able to study the actual structure and mass of atoms after the discovery of radioactivity. Soon, isotopes were discovered, as atoms of the same element which have been built up to have different masses. Purpose The purpose of this…...
AtomAtomic TheoryRadioactivity
Laboratory Report : Flame Colors of Metals
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Abstract The experiment about flame color of metals demonstrates how electrons jump into their excitedstate from their ground state as it came in contact with heat. As it return to its lower energy state,it emits the absorbed energy in the form of light. A platinum or nichrome wire was dipped into aconcentrated HCL and was heated to clean it. The wire was dipped into different salt solutionsand heated in order to determine the metallic ion’s color and wavelength. Metal ions…...
AtomHow It Feels to Be Colored Me
Periodic Table Trends
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When you consider a periodic table, you think of aspects like oxygen, neon, lead, and iron. You may even believe of numbers, rows, and columns. You may not think of trends that are taking place throughout a periodic table. There are several trends that go on in a periodic table. The patterns that I am going to be explaining throughout this paper are atomic mass, atomic radius, first ionization energy, and electronegativity. When you study a normal/ordinary table of elements,…...
The atoms or molecules
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A substance in a solid phase is relatively rigid, has a definite volume and shape. The atoms or molecules that comprise a solid are packed close together and are not compressible. Because all solids have some thermal energy, its atoms do vibrate. However, this movement is very small and very rapid, and cannot be observed under ordinary conditions. There are four types of crystalline solids : Ionic solids-- These substances have a definite melting point and contain ionic bonds. An…...
The dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan
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In August 1945 the world changed. Two American atomic bombs were dropped on Japan with devastating effects. On the 6th of August 1945, the Enola Gay, a B- 29 Superfortress plane, dropped the atomic bomb "Little Boy" on Hiroshima. This single bomb killed 80,000 people immediately and about 60,000 more within six months. On August 9, a second atomic bomb that ultimately killed about 70,000 people was dropped on Nagasaki. The dropping of these nuclear bombs is perhaps one of…...
AtomAtomic BombJapan CountryWar
Short Summary Essay on the Big Bang
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The Big Bang theory is today's dominant scientific theory about the origin of the universe. It states that the universe was created from an infinitely hot and dense subatomic ball, which once exploded not only created energy and matter, but space and time itself. This is estimated to have happened around 14 billion years ago. 300,000 years after the big bang took place the plasma of elementary particles had cooled to 3000K, during which atoms began to form as electrons…...
AtomBig bang theoryLightUniverse
SCH4U Exam Study Notes
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Electron configuration: notation that shows number and arrangement of electrons in its orbitals Infinite number of electron configurations because infinite values of n For each atom, all but one of these represents the atom in an excited state Atom’s chemical property mainly associated with its ground state electron configuration Unless otherwise stated, assume electron configuration is in its ground state Ex: 1s2 (superscript represents 2 electrons in s orbital) Aufbau principle: process of building up the ground state electronic structure…...
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FAQ about Atom

Why Nuclear Power Must Be Part of the Energy Solution?
...I am for the use of nuclear power for a number of reasons. Renewable energy such as geothermal energy is a type of energy that can’t expand enough to deliver the amount of cheap and reliable energy the world needs. Nuclear power stations are able t...
Research – the Amount of Heat When Burning Fuel
...This also explains why my preliminary results show a straight line of best fit and thus do support my prediction, as opposed to my final results: in my preliminary investigation, I only experimented with 0.0-3.0g of ethanol, with the highest temperat...
How Do Alkali Metals React With Water Environmental Sciences Essay?
...Distance from the nucleus- Attraction falls off really quickly with distance. An negatron stopping point to the karyon will be much more strongly attracted than one farther off. So an atom with many negatrons, the outer negatron will be far off from ...
“What Affects How Quickly Sodium Thiosulphate (thio) Goes Cloudy?”
...Being as I did the investigation manually, I drew the graphs and other things on the computer, this would give me an accurate graph. I drew the line of best fit manually as it would allow me to make my own analysis and allow me to give the best possi...

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