Female and Gender Leadership

1. Abstract

The theme/topic of thesis is: Female and Gender Leadership. The main issue or mater of thesis work is to make research of male and female leadership and management style. Investigate in order to be clear about male and female leadership starting from definition of it, and continue with data collection in order to prove it.

It is obvious that leadership is a male dominated one, and female have some advantages and disadvantages, also prejudice and differ style of leadership.

It is very interesting to know and analyze leadership and management, which can bring some ideas and data transformation of some information to the thesis. One of the major things is to collect, analyze answers and identify leadership of male and female. Mostly, I am taking into account leadership style and management of both genders.

Therefore, female and male in leadership is one of the actual and continues study, which take interest of many people. To make research about men and women in leadership, how they use styles of leaders, what they do in order to be effective and how they work with their followers of different gender.

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What the main features of leaders they hold, how they make improvements and what they do for professional increase. Today, both women and men are trying to be equivalent in many ways of daily life; however, in work they are keeping style of leadership according to the job occupation. Anyway, what the main distinguishes between female and male, what kind of attempt they are making? How they cope with different tasks in various spheres, remaining to the own basic of behavior, skills and attitude.

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Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

2. Introduction My master thesis Female and Gender Leadership I am starting from introduction to the writing work, than writing about theoretical framework and research methodology, after that continue with research and investigation, which includes research question and answers on it through theory about leaders, leadership and management, leadership style of male and female, than about research study and finding. It is the main of research writing in the thesis. Who are leaders, what it is leadership and management, and style of female and male in leadership.

It is known that females want to reach top management and have some barriers and traits toward it. At the same time, there is common knowledge that men have leaders’ positions in politics and education sphere. However, my research is mostly about what the main differences in a leadership and management of female and male.

Though, as female one, it is very interesting for me to make research about gender leadership, it means about men and women, what the differences or similarities, how they as leaders deal with leadership, how they develop themselves in order to have followers whom lead willingly. How men and women are getting characteristics to be competent, progressive, well-informed, purposeful and professional in a dynamic environment or simply saying in a daily changed world. What male and female do and what kind of features they are obtaining being qualified as leaders.


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

3. Theoretical framework

The theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory. Theoretical framework guides research, determining what things will be measured and statistical relationships of it. Theoretical frameworks are obviously critical, theory-testing sorts of studies. In those kinds of studies, the theoretical framework must be very specific and well-thought out.

Theoretical frameworks are also important in research studies, where I as researcher really don’t know much about what is going on, and trying to learn more. There are some reasons why theoretical frameworks are important. First of all, no matter how little person think what she/he know about topic, and how she/he neutral or independent in the way of thinking, it is impossible for a human being not to have preconceived notions.

For example, some people fundamentally believe that people are basically untrustworthy, and you have keep your wits about you to avoid being conned. These fundamental beliefs about human nature affect how person on things when doing personal research. In this sense, researcher is always being guided by a theoretical framework, but she/he don not know it. The framework tends to guide what investigator notice in research, and what she/he don not mention.

Therefore, saying by other words, you don’t even notice things that don’t fit your framework. We can never completely get around this matter, but we can reduce this issue considerably by simply making our implicit framework explicit. Once it is explicit, we can deliberately consider other frameworks, and try to see the research question, answers, findings, situation through different lenses. In my thesis I am using theory about leaders, management, leadership styles of males and females.


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

4. Methods for data collection 4.1. Research methodology and methods The process of collecting data that can present relevant aspects of methods, which is used in this thesis is articles, journals, books, and internet. During reading and analyzing some information from above mentioned sources the related data can be picked up and gathered in order to show the appropriate research data. Methodology is a very important while conducting any type of research; it helps to follow how the study/investigation can be accomplished.

Qualitative method is one of the best approaches to use for study and research question. This type of research helps me as investigator to understand and explain the meaning of leadership for men and women. The qualitative research has the possibility to form a whole from different parts.

I am using qualitative method in order to make research by choosing, gathering relevant information, using an articles/journals, books, and information from web.sites. Qualitative method is appropriate to make analyzes of research data, give answers on research question and will bring out to the openings or findings. To open something new is equal to make findings and understand the meaning of research.

Taking into consideration this, I would state that research is significant because of real and actual importance of leadership. The theme of female and gender leadership is continues. Many interesting things and findings could be done since men and women interested in developing leaders and followers of both gender.


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

5. Research question and Investigation As for research question of my thesis, it is the following: What are the differences of male and female leadership and management style?

It is generally known that leadership is a male dominated one, however women are trying to enter leadership places and adopting men’s style. Both, male and female are having different style of leadership. Therefore, what are the main reasons that male are holding leader positions and female are having some barriers to the leadership and management positions.

Though, my research is based on theory about leaders, leadership and management, male and female leadership style. That’s why I am using qualitative method in my research, and I am making investigation of research issue by using relevant information from articles, journals, books, and information from internet, web sites.

To analyze a research data, found out answers and open new findings for my self as researcher is the core of the thesis. It is common knowledge, that female want to reach top management and they have some barriers and traits toward high positions and promotions to the top. Also, it is obvious that men have leaders’ positions in many spheres. However, my research is mostly about differences in a leadership and management of females and males.


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

5.1. Natural born leaders

‘If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader’. John Quincy Adams, http://www. wisdomquotes.com/cat_ leadership.html In my thesis I am wiring about leaders, about leadership and management, how I understand it and I continue by male’s and female’s leadership and management style, than mostly focusing on differences between male and female in leadership. I found out that book of Blank Warren about leadership and natural born leaders approach is very interesting and actual.

It opens point of view that people not only born as leaders, but also can obtain tools and to be skillful leaders. Therefore, people with gained skills of leaders are needy and this necessity is important always. That continual, progressive and sudden change in today’s competitive environment requires better leadership. Author, Blank Warren, (2001) gives the next definition of natural born leaders: ‘The dictionary defines the word natural as found in nature; without man-made changes; real, not artificial or manufactured; innate, not acquired.’

I agree with this definition and point of view, that people are natural born leaders. It means that leaders may get leadership skills and knowledge during their study in school, college, university, trainings, work, seminars, and so forth. Though, society grew up leaders by influencing via education, view of world, various trainings and workshops, seminars.

In addition, author stated that people not naturally born to lead. It proves his statement that people are natural born leaders, but they are getting skills and knowledge about leadership. With time people obtain skills to lead others. Therefore, leader is a person who gains followers at will. Leader provides followers by direction and support, also influencing them by using own skills. Because of that, author proposes that some people are natural born leaders, they demonstrate


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

specific skills in spontaneous, consistent manner and others follow willingly. Leading is a process of interaction between the leader and follower. If no followers and no one follow, there is no a leader and leadership.

The right definition, which Blank Warren, (2001) conclude, is that ‘The natural born leader label is an attribution made to those who master the skill set related to gaining willing followers. No one is born with these skills.’ So, it means that leaders master their skills and only exceptional one can be described as natural born leader. Indisputably, some people are born with features of leaders, which help them to master skills of leadership more effectively.

Such people have an inherent ability and perform and express themselves naturally in their area or sphere. However, that kind of individuals needs to have opportunity, support, encouragement, and training from people surrounded them.

Therefore, everyone has a natural born capabilities and talents to lead, because it is normal for people to respond to nurture. It means that people have innate ability to learn and grow. It proves that all people can improve their native, creative, intellectual capability by learning and excising the skills of best leaders.

The leader skill level grows, develops, prospers, and they can gain more followers in spontaneous, effortless, consistent, and frequent way. This style and way of natural born leaders attract more and more people as followers. If person can understand own capabilities and shape abilities by excising skills of learning, practice and feedback. In order to be effective leader, individual can improve himself and work with native and acquired skills.

In this book, Blank Warren proposed one hundred and eight skills which portrait a natural born leader. The main of them are self-awareness, a capacity to build rapport, and an ability to clarify expectations. Individual as a leader provide direction to people who do not know what to do. ‘People need 9

Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

direction when the organizational structure can not or does not provide it. No organization can create a perfect bureaucracy. Established organizational systems may not offer useful guidance in the face of dramatic change,’ Blank Warren, (2001).

When a leader masters his/her skills and become an expert leader, so he/she can direct and lead willingly not only other person, but also large groups. Leaders who have a broad and global view can bring others out as leaders. Leaders have to maintain their obtained skills and improve new in order to be active during the difficult times. The following characteristics of person as apathy, arrogance, and self-deception destroy leadership potential. It was pointed out that more and better leaders are needed in organizations at all level.

According to the self-awareness the leader have to use this skill that helps to be clear and manage his time, attention and actions. The fundamental of leadership growth is self-awareness that is internal one and each person can know and understand it fully by analyzing inner world. Leaders with self-awareness may listen and learn and to try new things. So, self-awareness is an important characteristic which give to leader possibility for proper use of time, focus of attention and performance of action. Self-awareness plays a big role for leaders and helps for continues process of getting skills and work under self-perfection.

The leaders’ quality characterize by self-reliant, principled, genuine, courageous, resolute, moral, stable, and trustworthy features. In addition, passion is one of the main characteristic which motivates leaders to lead. These qualities put together the image of leaders. Leaders work under self-development, get feedback and connect up their left-brain dominance (logical, rational) and right-brain dominance (intuitive, creative). Master leaders maximize their brainpower with whole brain thinking.

A capacity to build rapport’ is one of a big reason that some people gain as attribution
of natural born leader, Blank 10

Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

Warren, (2001). Respect creates the interpersonal bond and sense of unity that is basic in a leader wants to gain willing followers. The best leaders build respect to reacquire the allegiance necessary for success, to create customer connections and partnership, and to fulfill the needs of the relation sphere. To get know people, display good manners, and to be pleasant are technical and emotional skills of rapport. Another one is an ability to clarify expectations, which is important thing for leaders.

I would say that all people born as natural leaders; however they can show, apply and use their skills, attitude in accordance with activities, situation, and work. They improve skills and work under leader’s features. As for leaders as natural born, they could be male or female since leadership doesn’t have gender. Men and women also could obtain skills of leaders during their childhood, study in school and university, by getting experience and influencing by environment.

The following factors influence on leadership skills such as characterization or behavior of men or women, education (school, university), job experience (work place or job occupation). Therefore, men and women can obtain leadership skills and use them according to the situation, environment and work place. However, men dominate in politics, education sphere. As for women, they remain to fill their niche as teachers, salespeople, managers, etc. If we consider leaders and managers, it is obvious that most of men are taking leaders role and position, and women are managers.

‘The very essence of leadership is that you have to have a vision’. Theodore Hesburgh, http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_leadership.html Let’s look what is categories and types of leadership? What are the differences of men’s and women’s leadership style and management? Leadership is a skill that an individual may keep and


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

posses. One can categorize the exercise of leadership as either actual or potential: Actual - giving guidance or direction, for instance: a teacher being a leader to a student. Potential - the capacity or ability to lead; as in the concept born to lead, it means that leader have potential to lead.

Though, leadership can have a formal aspect, for instance as in most political or business leadership and an informal one as in most friendships. Speaking of leadership - it is the abstract term, rather than of leading - it is the action, usually implies that the entities doing the leading have some leadership skills.

So, we know basic category of leadership is actual/potential; than formal/informal; and another categorization is that there are 3 types of leadership: 1) Authoritarian Leadership (Autocratic style), which provides clear expectations for what needs to be done; 2) Participative Leadership (Democratic style) – this style is generally the most effective. Democratic leaders offer guidance to the group, but also participative in the group and allow input from other members. 3) Delegative (Laissez-Fair style) - this type of leadership consider to be less productive among above mentioned.

Most of men are holding autocratic style of leadership, but it depends from sphere and location. As for women, some of them are combining autocratic and democratic style, some are keeping democratic one. The relation of leadership and management is continuous process. I would say that when people are mentioning leadership they still note management.

It is connected to the psychology of leadership: one of the differentiating factors between management and leadership is the ability or even necessity to inspire and inspiration. A leader may be deifined as one who can hold direction to an individual or group of individuals and will be using skills of psychology to affect that group either consciously or subconsciously. 12

Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

Those who seem to be natural leaders and effectively inspire groups without consciously acknowledging the strategies or tactics used are considered charismatic leaders. On the other hand, the conscious leader applies a variety of psychological tactics that affect the reactions of a group to the environment they exist in.

According to the organizational psychology disciplines, leadership is a product of awareness and command of the reactions and influences of a group on the individual, as well as the individual on the group. A leader’s successful application of directive organizational psychology by modifying specific consistent behaviors towards the group may raise changes in the organizational culture.

The level of passion and efficiency that is developed in the culture will be defined by the emotional drive fulfilled by a directive leader’s ability to create a greater purpose with the group.

What makes effective leadership? Leadership keeps up its effectiveness by natural sequence according to established rules. The simplest way to measure the effectiveness of leadership to involve evaluating process, later he/she can as leader master it. However, this approach may measure power rather than leadership. To measure leadership more specifically, one may assess the extent of influence on the followers, that is, the amount of leading.

Effective leaders generate higher productivity and opportunities. Leaders create results, reach goals, and realize vision and objectives quickly and with high level of quality. The functional leadership model conceives leadership as a set of behaviors that helps a group perform a task, reach their goal, or perform their function. In this model, effective leaders encourage functional behaviors and discourage dysfunctional ones.

Leader has the function of clearing the path toward the goals of the group, by meeting the needs of subordinates. The quality of the leadership process: An effective leader has to get a group of potentially diverse and talented people, many of whom have strong personalities to work together toward a common output. 13

Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

The following suggested qualities of leadership: technical and specific skills, charismatic inspiration it is attractiveness to others and the ability to leverage this regard to motivate others, clear sense of purpose, mission, clear goals, focus, commitment, results-orientation it is directing every action towards a mission via priority of activities to spend time where results most arise, cooperation, optimism. Ability to encourage and nurture those that report to them - delegate in such a way as people will grow, role models, self-knowledge, self-awareness an ability to lead.

Leaders have to understand the environment, how they lead and how they affect and are affected by it. The leadership characteristics as innate labels some people as born leaders. Leadership development involves identifying and measuring leadership qualities, screening potential leaders, then training those with potential.

Leadership skills mostly are a pattern of motives. The successful leaders will tend to have a high need for power, a low need for affiliation. Leadership behavior becomes a function not only of the characteristics of the leader, but of the characteristics of followers as well. These following determinants include: the nature of the task; organizational policies, climate, and culture; the preferences of the leader's superiors; the expectations of peers; the reciprocal responses of followers. The nature of the problem, the requirements for accuracy, the acceptance of an initiative, time-constraints, cost constraints.

The following cover leadership styles: articulate vision to followers, leaders display a passion, they engage in outstanding/extraordinary behavior, leaders show a high degree of faith, confidence, and persistence in them selves. Leaders need to have a very high degree of self-confidence and moral conviction.

They see their followers as competent, credible, and trustworthy. Leaders communicate expectations of high performance from their followers and strong confidence in their followers’ ability to meet such expectations and confidence in followers. Leaders motivate followers, leaders see as of special relevance to


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

the successful accomplishment of the vision and mission. To persuade followers to accept and implement change, outstanding leaders engage in frame alignment. This refers to the linkage of individual and leader interpretive orientations such that some set of followers’ interests, values, and beliefs, as well as the leader’s activities, goals, and ideology, becomes congruent and complementary. Leaders often, but not always, communicate their message in an inspirational manner using stories, slogans, and symbols.

Even though these ten leadership behaviors and approaches do not really equate to specific styles, evidence has started to accumulate that a leader’s style can make a difference. Style becomes the key to the formulation and implementation of strategy and plays an important role in work-group members’ activity and in team citizenship. Little doubt exists that the way or style in which leaders influence work-group members can make a difference in their own and their people’s performance.

For instance, how leaders and managers are differentiating? Leaders innovate, ask what and why, focus on people, do the right things, develop, inspire trust, have a longer-term perspective, have an eye on the horizon, originate, and show originality. As for managers, they administer, ask how and when question, focus on systems, do things right, maintain, rely on control. As for management styles, if we look to various styles of management, it depend on the culture of the business, the nature of the task, the nature of the work force and the personality and skills of the leaders too.

The style of leadership is dependent upon the prevailing circumstances, therefore leaders should exercise a range of leadership styles and should deploy them as appropriate. For example, an autocratic manager makes all the decisions, keeping the information and decision making among management personnel. The objectives and tasks are set and the workforce is expected to do exactly as required. The communication involved with this method is mainly downward, from the leader to the subordinate. The main advantage of this style is that the


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

direction of the business will remain constant, and the decisions will all be similar, this in turn can project an image of a confident, well managed business. On the other hand, subordinates may become highly dependent upon the leaders and supervision may be needed.

Another form is also essentially dictatorial. However the decisions tend to be in the best interests of the employees rather than the business. The leader explains most decisions to the employees and ensures that their social and leisure needs are always met. This can help balance out the lack of worker motivation caused by an autocratic management style.

This style can be highly advantageous, and can engender loyalty from the employees, leading to a lower labour turnover, thanks to the emphasis on social needs. It shares similar disadvantages to an authoritarian style; employees becoming highly dependent on the leader, and if the wrong decisions are made, then employees may become discontent with the leader.

In a Democratic style, the manager allows the employees to take part in decision-making: therefore everything is agreed by the majority. The communication is extensive in both directions from subordinates to leaders and from leaders to subordinates. This style can be particularly useful when complex decisions need to be made that require a range of specialist skills.

From the overall business's point of view, job satisfaction and quality of work will improve. However, the decision-making process is severely slowed down, and the need of a consensus may avoid taking the best decision for the business. It can go against a better choice of action. In a Laissez-faire leadership style, the leader's role is peripheral and staff-manage their own areas of the business.

Therefore, leader avoid uncoordinated delegation occurs. The communication in this style is horizontal, meaning that it is equal in both directions, however very little communication occurs in comparison with other styles. The style brings out the best in highly professional and creative 16

Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

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groups of employees, however in many cases it is not deliberate and is simply a result of poor management. This leads to a lack of staff focus and sense of direction, which in turn leads to much dissatisfaction, and a poor company image. The word leadership can refer to ability to get people to follow by their will.

5.2. Leadership and management.

‘True leaders have an uncanny way of enrolling people in their vision through their optimism – sometimes unwarranted optimism’, Bennis, W., and Nanus, B., 2004. To continue my thesis I am writing about leadership and management. In the book of Bennis, W., and Nanus, B. about the leadership and management I found out an interesting the author’s attempt which distinguish the leadership from management. This book described men’s leadership and management, also strategies of leadership.

The main description here is that men use their power, status in leadership; also they are result-oriented and communicative. Authors stated that leadership skills were once thought a matter of birth. Leaders were born, not made summoned to their calling through some unfathomable process. This might be called the ‘Great Man’ theory of leadership. Here authors pointed out, that leaders are natural born and that environment, time, and situation dictate the style of leadership. Here we can see that leaders mostly are male-politicians, they reviewed through leadership style and strategies of leadership.

This research is based in interviews of leaders, gives a clarification to see what the difference between the leadership and management. The leadership and management are different because of the characteristics of leaders, also how leaders work and what are their attitudes to their followers, and how they achieve their goals. According to the authors’ opinion, leader should not only direct and exercise power, but also facilitate for teamwork. In order to identify the distinction between the leaders and managers, the book investigated the characteristics of


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

leadership, the role of social architecture, the significance of the visions of leaders, importance of optimism and trusteeship of leaders.

According to this research, there is a big difference between management and leadership and both are important without doubt. As we know one of the prevalent expression is that managers are people who do things right and leaders is people who do the right thing. In other words, to manage - is to accomplish something, to have charge of/or responsibility to conduct. The definition of management - is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals.

Management includes planning, organizing, resourcing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing contains the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act of management.

As for leading, is to influence, guide in direction, course, action, opinion. The leadership - is the process of influencing people while operating to meet organizational requirements and improving the organization through change. Leadership - as change agents who guide their followers onto new heights, while along the way, they develop and grow their followers.

Leaders two driving goals should be make the organization a success. Anyone can become a leader that has the willingness and drive to achieve that goal. Traits can be changed or reduced by focusing upon the more desirable traits. But the better leaders concentrate on and grow their desirable traits so that they over-power their weaker traits.


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

Furthermore, a very important that there are four strategies of leadership: first of all, attention through vision, meaning through communication, trust through positioning and the deployment of self through positive self regard. These four strategies makes clear how the leaders become leaders, what kind of tools and mechanisms are used in order to achieve success. Regarding the first strategy, authors argue about the unity between the leaders and followers.

By their opinion attention of leaders to followers is considered as one of the major strategies. In addition, in this part of strategy authors mention about the vision and organization. According to their research, the organization has a clear sense of its purpose, direction, and desired future state and when this image is widely shared, individuals are able to find their own roles in the organization.

In other words, for the success of their organization leaders should deliver their vision for their followers. In the first strategy, research also took into account the importance of past, present and future. For the successful leadership the leader should analyze the whole nature of organization, including its past business, present situation and future vision.

The second strategy, so called meaning through communication also develops the importance of unity between leaders and followers. According to this research work, communication creates meaning for people. The only way any group, small or large, can become aligned behind the overarching goals of organization. In many big companies, leaders are just busy with their business meetings and because of their busy schedule they sometimes even don’t see often their workers. However, as it is argued, communication and interaction between the leaders and followers is very important.

Regarding the second strategy it was also mentioned about the social architecture. By the author’s opinion social architecture is very important for leaders. They believe that social architecture presents a shared interpretation of organizational events, so that members know how they are 19

Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

expected to behave. Organization’s social architecture serves as a control mechanism, proscribing particular kind of behavior. Social architecture is very important for leaders. It is argued that when organizations develop they might need to change or shape their market performance depending on the necessity. In this case it is very significant to take into consideration the social architecture as well. In general, the social architecture is a very important part in the company’s development, because it is built for many years.

In some companies employees are used to work with the same structure and methods for a long period of time. Therefore, it is obvious when company wants to change its market performance it will meet difficulties. In the case of product changes and transformation, companies need at first to make a relevant approach to their followers.

As for the third strategy, it is also considered as one of the most important ingredients of all organizations. According to authors view, Bennis, W., and Nanus, B., (2004) they maintain that, ‘trust is the emotional glue that binds followers and leaders together. It cannot be mandated or purchased, it
must be earned. How the trust can be earned? and how long it will take to earn it? In order to earn the trust in the organization there should be teamwork policy. Organization should work as one team, and it can strengthen unity.’

Regarding the trust authors also argue that in order to earn trust there should be a clear interpretation of leader’s position and their vision of work for their followers. Like in the first and second strategies, the main point is that followers should have clear idea, what is the position and what are the main objectives of the organization. In addition, authors gave information about the concept of organizational positioning.

In order to make it clear, their research makes a distinction between the human organizations and other organisms. In addition, according to their analysis, there are four main strategies that leaders choose in order to position their organization: reactive, change the internal environment, change 20

Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

the external environment, and establish a new linkage between the external and internal environments. All of these strategies are purposed for leaders to earn trust, because all of the strategies are aimed to make a clear vision of the leader’s position to their followers. The last strategy is also very interesting, which is called deployment of self. This means that leaders are perpetual learners, some of the leaders learn from reading books while most of the leaders learn from other people.

The research talks not only about how leaders learn, but also it makes a reference to organizational context. For example, it is stated that, organizational learning is the process by which an organization obtains and uses new knowledge, tools, behaviors, and values. It happens at all levels in the organization – among individuals and groups as well as system wide.

The way that authors made clarification of differences between leadership and management is useful and interesting. I completely agree with them that in the current world it is very important for organizations to predict and oversee the future perspectives. Because, the success of the organization and leadership depends not only past and current situation analysis, but also it highly depends upon the future vision of the leaders.

Within this connection, this book very informative in terms of leadership perspectives since authors made accent on men style, strategies which can be used by leaders for their followers. My understanding of this definition and description is that men as leaders have to improve their skills and take into consideration that: ‘People don’t want to be managed. They want to be led.’

The whole book is dedicated to men as leaders, and authors gave examples of politicians, it proves that most of leaders are men. The same can be adapted to organization’s leadership. However, my writing is about men and women leadership and management differences. That’s why I will continue saying about female leadership and what the main differences from male one. 21

Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

5.3. Male’s and female’s style in leadership.

‘Finding roles for women isn't the problem. Finding one for men is.’ Margaret Mead, http://www.albatrus.org/men_natural_leaders.htm As we know, women enter leadership sphere, which mainly occupied by men. The leadership styles of women and men are differs. What are the differences or similarities, what women and men do and how they deal with this?

Mostly there is basic information about leadership styles of women and men on the example of autocratic and democratic styles of both men and women. The behavior of women and men in leadership style related to leadership roles. It is different for men and women and the fact that women face more barriers to become leaders, especially for leader roles that are male-dominated. This issue is usually discussed in terms of leadership styles, than behavior.

Distinctions in styles can be important because they are one factor that may affect people’s views about whether women should become leaders. It is not surprising that women are the usual focus of discussions of the impact of gender on leadership.

From one side, the differences in leadership style can provide a rationale for excluding women from opportunities and especially from maledominated leadership roles. From another side, the perception of sameness would fail to acknowledge the relational qualities which are traditional source of female pride and that may contribute to superior performance by women leaders. But differences and similarity is not the main point.

Therefore, leadership styles of women and men are different, probably because women more cooperative and collaborative, but less hierarchical, than men. However, men and women have different social roles, for instance in the family and employment place. The main differences of


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

men from women, that male are assertive, controlling, and confident tendency, for example: they characterized as ‘aggressive, ambitions, dominant, independent, self-confident and competitive’. On the contrary, women are ‘affectionate, kind, helpful, sympathetic, nurturant, interpersonally sensitive and gentle’, Alice H. Eagly, Linda L.Carli, (2003). Having different characteristics male and female try to adopt each others’ style of leadership in order to be competent in leader roles.

Another point of view, that leadership doesn’t know the gender. The definition of leader is a person named by the group as the leader, person who group members perceive to be the leader, person who has the greatest influence on the groups’ decision and who actually performs leadership behaviors. According to the task behavior women emphasize production.

They will continue their strong contributions to the task at hand when the group is doing well, where as men will reduce their contributions as the group does better. It was found out that female leaders spend more time communicating about the task on hand than men, as they make more off-task comments. There are suggestions to strengthen females and their work in group. They generate twice as many procedural suggestions in resolving conflicts as men do. It is usually because females worked substantially harder than any other member in the group.

When we look to the social-emotional behaviors, we can tell that women are more likely to meet the social-emotional needs of the group slightly more than men do. Women are rated as being more interpersonally warm during the first interactions then male leaders. Females using an authoritarian style of leadership were perceived less favorably than males using the same style. In decision making, women use a democratic or participative style than men. Men who worked


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

under women supervision were more opened for the leadership of a woman. Women value listening as a skill that makes others feels both comfortable and important.

How women interact and what kind of way they are using: First of all, women have an equalitarian (a person who believes in the equality of all people) view among themselves. Secondly, women are described to be more cooperative and supportive, while their male counterparts tend to be more self-assertive and competitive.

Thirdly, women desire leaders who are cooperative, empathetic, supportive, democratic, and calm. Fourthly, most women perceive leadership more as a facilitation and organization rather then power and dominance. If we summarize above written, females and males are equally effective leaders. In addition, female and male leaders are equally effective in conflict management styles. The only difference in female and male conflict management styles include age, education, and managerial experience the leaders must share similarities to one another.

Both, ‘men and women who have female bosses are more collaborative, and less aggressive than men’, Alice H. Eagly, Linda L.Carli, (2003). They seek consensus, emphasize team building, are more nurturing and empathetic, and are more approachable. However, males are still frequently rated more positively than females for the same behaviors. Men show more leadership, have higher-quality contributions, being more desirable for hiring, meriting a higher salary, and more responsible job.

For the same behaviors females were rated as more emotional, less warm, less sensitive, and less attractive than males. Women have begun to increase their individual power, independence, assertiveness, and competitiveness. Male dominance is effectively reduced when people are reminded of their equalitarian attitudes.


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

Leaders are expected to create conditions under which collective learning and continuous improvement can occur. Achieving these knowledge-based outcomes depends on emotional or relational intelligence. It includes the next skills: self-awareness, listening, empathy, also learn from others and empower others. So, leadership based on individual achievement, focused on collective learning and mutual influence, also noted by egalitarian relational skills and emotional intelligence.

Male and female can display individualism, assertiveness and dominance are socially attributed to men and generally understood as masculine. The interpretation of this event is to predict that the shift to new leadership practices will create a female advantage. But this process toward new models of leadership is more complex, because the shift is related to a gendered power dynamic, not just to gender. It is more interesting because it is about genderlinked shift in the very understanding of how to achieve business success.

To investigate these involvements we need to understand the association of certain characteristics with masculinity and feminity and what has to do with the rules for business success. The main reason for that the way to view the social world divided into two spheres of activity: the public sphere, for instance work. And the private sphere – family and community.

This way of seeing the world is so natural. For instance, labor in the work sphere is assumed to be skilled, dependent on training and labor in the domestic sphere. This gender separation of two spheres of life is significant in leadership. The ‘label feminine and masculine is attributed as certain characteristics’ and how to do good work in each sphere, Alice H. Eagly, Linda L.Carli, (2003).

Women are active participants in the domestic area - family and men are active in the work area. These images of gender linked attributes are idealized, but have a powerful effect expected to act in each on how men and women act. Also how they are expected to act in each sphere and what 25

Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

types of behavior are considered appropriate and inappropriate. The view of separate spheres helps us see that new models of leadership break some basic principles and beliefs about gender, power, individual achievement, also work and family.

5.5. Research study and finding

‘You gain strength, courage and confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. You must do the thing you think you cannot do’. Eleanor Roosevelt, This citation from web site: http://www.nwlink. com. I found out during my research study that there is a really nice concept about natural born leaders, it means born to lead. This finding opens view that both, female and male are natural born leaders and can lead followers willingly.

This approach is a theory of male’s and female’s leadership. That means leaders are people who can act according to the situations, be flexible, adaptive to the environment, and in compliance with the style of leadership. During research it is important to characterize who are leaders, what are gender differences, and leadership styles. As for leaders’ definition, they are people with concept of natural born leaders - born to lead. Leaders, both male and female, believe in their own actions and inspire followers for reaching goals.

There is gender, which is a social construct, and there is what is referred to as a masculine or feminine leadership style. These leadership styles are based on how female and male are usually socialized, but a man or woman might use a masculine or feminine style. That’s why good leaders of both genders are able to use these styles according to the current or particular situation. All leaders have some preferred styles which their can use to approach things. Female and male leaders learn the skills by themselves and develop people around them with these strengths.

The research study about females’ and males’ leadership shows that women, gender, and leadership mean very different things to different people. Therefore, some women still perceive


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

many barriers and challenges. Females usually have to work harder and perform better, but they are perceived as having more opportunities.

Women in management are desirable because females bring a different style of leadership. For example, female bring a less aggressive and more intuitive style, also they tend to keep the authoritarian masculine style. These softer skills are more in demand today rather than the aggressive, dominating style of men. At the same time females need to be more motivated and encouraged by them and family because they fight for promotion.

Since women combine job with family, so they pursue their selfish ambition to place their careers ahead of family responsibilities. What the ways of leading and how female lead? Women managers are succeeding in leadership by drawing on what is unique to their experience as women.

According to practice, men and women in similar managerial jobs make the same amount of money and experience. But in leadership styles there are differences: Male are much more likely than women to view leadership as a series of transactions with subordinates, and to use their position and control of resources to motivate their followers.

Female, on the other hand, are far more likely than men to describe themselves as transforming subordinates' self-interest into concern for the whole organization. Women are using personal traits like charisma, work record, and interpersonal skills to motivate others. Women leaders develop and practice interaction or interactive leadership.

They are trying to make every interaction with coworkers, it is positive for all involved in participation, also they encourage, share power and information, make people feel important, and energizing them. In general, women have been expected to be supportive and cooperative. This is one of explanation why women leaders today tend to be more interactive than men. But interactive leadership should not be linked directly to being female, since some men use that style and some women prefer the democratic style. That is why female and male in


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

this are having similar features of leadership because organizations that are open to leadership styles with individuals' strengths will increase their opportunities in a fast-changing environment.

However, for women in leadership, it is very important to develop and keep interpersonal skills and professional competence, since it plays a big role in achieving results. There are some good suggestions how to make good and quick decisions for women in business insight. The principle consists of skill’s set where men are consistently rated by bosses as outperforming women. Figure out how to increase profitable growth, customer retention and customer acquisition.

Communicate effectively to people at all levels in organization, including a boss, colleagues, and subordinates. It is better to state the goals or successes in terms of how what people are doing helps the organization reach their key goal. If women get to the point, try do not lose control, state things in absolutes and not questions, so they are training their skills and as female-leaders learning how to overcome successfully.

In addition, there are many females who learn and improve their business skills by networking. There are many attainments that women gain, practice skills which are needy for success in the business world. That’s why women are coordinating their calendars and setting a schedule to network. The information gained by networking can keep women informed of the latest trends. Women have unique ideas and their implement them during discussions with colleagues.

The business experience that women have is tools for success in the business world. Some women network with their suppliers and distributors to find out what their thoughts are on getting a product to market. Women serve an active role at home and in the office, they are having skills to deal with conflicts that can occur. Women learn to balance job in business with a family life,


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

that’s why get out of obstacles and come up with a manageable solution. They learned these skills by networking with professionals.

Therefore a growth of women in business increased. One of the reasons is that this rate of growth might be because the women set goals that they wanted to reach. And, these women have taken an intensive and assertive step for taking positions of leadership. That’s why many women have remarkable rate of success in business. One of the positive reasons is that their goals included training that would prepare them to operate a business successfully.

Women are applying for business at the same rate as male leaders. Women learn to guide the growth of their companies by using various resources at their disposal. Equity from a business perspective is considered as a measurement for the success and growth of a company. Women are successful in business because they are open to learn and get new skills.

Women grow businesses better because developed patience in dealing with problems, also they learn to negotiate a successful outcome to any problems. The growth of women in business is increasing; some of them learned to manage money, budgets and operate with finance.

Women are growing strong in the business world because they have a different management style, it is named as finance. The growing rate of successful women in business is due to their skills people that they do business with. They have confidence when work in the team and built a trust in everyone in the company. From the people that manage their finance to the people that deliver their goods, women know that their businesses will grow because it is personal to everyone at work.

The analysis taken from my research study can be following. Females may try to be something other than what they are, adopting a masculine style, for example, and not being authentic can be a mistake for any leader. That’s why this way of leadership style can bring positive reflection and


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

results on own attitude, habits, goals, career opportunity. Leaders need to understand their strengths and their priorities, as well as the culture, policies, and systems around them. There are wonderful opportunities, but this means women have enormous choices and a much broader range of prototypes to think about and analyze.

Some of females are making progress in taking leadership roles in organizations. It is clear that women can go all the way to the top today. And it is clear that female leaders face some problems as others, including men. Female with a high potential are in incredible demand, so companies need to look at how to retain these women.

However, for today, the drive to the equalitarian roles of male and female is not a fight against of men or women. Also, it is not a war against men and their rights, family life and mutual respect between the sexes. The equality model is that has as much relevance to a modern society. This equality is a delicate balance of power, respect and sharing of responsibilities between men and women. That’s why egalitarian style is making female and male an efficient and productive, flexible and effective.

This is proof of the fact that the best leaders are married people; they are the best in leadership. For instance, men are best when they lead and provide for their families, at the same time they improve themselves through skills of leaders and contribute their positive impact to society and vice versa. Both male and female get leadership skills during their study, education, job experience, trainings, seminars, they obtain good characteristics as qualifications, intelligence, hard work, and so forth.

The best leaders, female and male, use rationally and successfully all obtained skills according to their surroundings, job occupation, environment, situation. That’s why all the time the best females’ and males’ leaders are trying to keep the following: “They do the things they think they can not do…”


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

6. Conclusion

In this thesis I wrote about leaders, leadership style and management, differences of male and female in leadership. I found out that many people are natural born leaders. They gain skills of leaders and learn leadership, both male and female.

As for women, they are combining autocratic and democratic style of leadership. However, men and women have different social roles, for instance in the family and employment place. As for men, they are holding autocratic style of leadership, but it depends from sphere and location. Therefore, women’s and men’s leadership style interrelated with their roles. For example, women are keeping house and working, at the same time men are taking part in housing, but mostly they are making career and busy with job. The priority men are giving to their job occupation.

Anyway, men and women have different characteristics and try to adopt each others’ style of leadership in order to be competent as leaders. Also, if male and female leaders are keeping skills of natural born leaders, such as ‘self-awareness, building rapport, clarify expectations’, develop others as leaders, ‘develop leadership influence skills’, to influence others follow willingly, create a motivating environment, so they are competent, desired, and essential as leaders in many spheres: business, politics, education, sport, and so forth.

In addition, interpersonal skills and professional competence are important. Male and female could use these skills, and all above mentioned too, achieve results and reach their goals, it is very important for men and women.

I would like to conclude my thesis by beautiful words which mostly related to business and sounded as meaningful expression: ‘Read Play Like a Man, Win Like a Woman’. (From the following web.site: http:// www.evancarmichael.com/Leadership/Women-Leadership.html).


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova


I would like to express my warm words as thanks to Dr. Professor Phillippe Daudi and Professor Mikael Lundgren for tutoring and suggesting in thesis writing, and to Program Coordinator Teresa Johansson for making good support during thesis procedures and studying. It is very interesting interactions among students and professors and teaching staff. It gives motivation for study research and positive reflection for the thesis writing.

Besides, it was very interesting for me to be in a role of opponent for another male team of master thesis with similar topic, for the first time. I think it is an active process and good experience of study in international environment. The final seminars were essential and useful for understanding of different topics, and point of view of other students on the same things. Therefore, studying is an interesting progress of intellectual growth, it gives a new knowledge which can be used in further job occupation and development of own career.


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova


Alice H. Eagly, Linda L.Carli, The Leadership Quarterly 14 (2003) 807-834. The female Leadership advantage: An evaluation of the evidence, Article. Bennis, W., and Nanus, B., Harper Business, New Yourk, (2004). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge. Blank Warren, Saranac Lake, NY, USA: AMACOM, (2001). 108 Skills of Natural Born Leaders.

Judith G. Oakley, Journal of Business Ethics, (2000), Gender-based Barriers to Senior Management Positions: Understanding the Scarcity of Female CEOs.

http://www.albatrus.org/men_natural_leaders.htm, Men – natural leaders, by Alan Barron. http://www.evancarmichael.com/Leadership/Women-Leadership.html.Women Leadership. http://www.leadershiparticles.net, Women In Business Network, Growth Rate Of Women In Business, by Jim Brown. http://www.sclmcoach.com, 2002, Women’s Style of Leadership, by Alicia M. Rodrigues. http://www.nwlink.com, quotes. http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_leadership.html.


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

Enclosure: Guide for Thesis writing (Summary)

This is an enclosure for master thesis that I supposed to use for making research at the beginning. This guide was suggested to the thesis writing as guiding principle or instruction, that’s why it is left as reminder and direction in this enclosure.

A short guide for thesis is as a summary of main points, which gives a view of the whole thesis. Starting from research area I would like to say that according to the thesis theme Female and Gender Leadership, it concern of male and female leadership styles and leads to narrow of research toward female leadership.

Research problem and/or issue/question remain the same: What are the main distinctions of men and women leadership and management styles in the context of gender and leader role? How male and female hierarchies can bring to investigate leadership role in companies and organizations?

I would like to add that this area and questions is very actual now, and will bring to female leadership, how women are implementing their leadership and management style and what kind of features and organizational culture their hold. In another words, how women deal with leadership and management in the male-dominated world.

The importance and implication of the research is both interrelated. Therefore, each research is important and will have results first of all for the writer/author, tutor, than for all interested in it parties. The importance of this research is a core for making investigation. The implication


Master Thesis, Female and Gender Leadership

Ainura Kadyrkulova

should drive for using research methods and analyzes in order to conduct thesis writing in a way of doing own best. The usefulness and implication of this research consists of understanding of female leadership and further thinking about career, employment, etc. for women.

Proposed methodology: I would like to use qualitative method for gathering relevant information and use an articles, books, and statistical information if it possible. To make analyzes of research data and formalize it to the answer of research question is one of the important issue during thesis writing.

Theoretical context of the research (area/ topic/ question): The research area is male and female leadership and management. The object of study is men and women in the context of leadership and management, with further narrowing of female leadership and management style. While making research the different leadership theories can be reviewed and applied according to the necessity.

As for feasibility, I believe that it can be done according to the thesis instructions and tutor’s feedback, advices, including own contribution to the thesis investigation. The thesis is an important one and students will gain and improve their own research and writing skills.

My vision of expected results is realistic and will be based on the chosen research question, methods and time plan (schedule of thesis writing). This thesis theme is interesting and could bring new knowledge about female leadership as a study for future perspectives of men and women leadership role.


Updated: Jul 06, 2022
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