In just twelve years, Alexander the Great conquered many territories, and took control of lands from west of the Nile to east of the Indus. Alexander took control over Syria, Palestine, Egypt, most of the Middle East, and many more. Alexander was one of the eight children of Philip II. Philip II prepared Alexander for a political and military future, to make him a leader. He was educated very well by a Greek Philosopher named Aristotle. Aristotle taught Alexander many different things, not just basic; he opened Alexander’s interest to Science, Medicine, and Philosophy.
After his father was killed, Alexander became the new king of Macedonia when he was only twenty years old. As told Alexander was taught from a young age and was given power over the cavalry at the important battle of Chaeronea. He secured the frontlines, and defeated the Greek rebellion, then put his attention to the rest of the world. He began to campaign ( entered Minor Asia) along with 37,000 men on which 5,000 were cavalry and had his first confrontment and victory against the Persian Empire at a battle at the Granicus River that almost caused Alexander’s life.
In the Battle of Issus, the Persian’s troops greatly outnumbered Alexander’s troops. Never the less, the great advantage the Persian’s obtained didn’t really matter because the battlefield was narrow, and ended in Alexander’s success for Macedonia. After that, Alexander headed south, and by the winter of 332 BCE, Alexander had now obtained control of Egypt, Palestine and Syria.
He took the honorable title of Pharaoh of Egypt and began to build the first cities that were named in great honor, after him.
He then moved archaic Mesopotamia in 331 BCE. Alexander’s troop contended with the Persian at the Battle of Gaugamela, northwest of Babylon and progressed into the Persian capitals of Susa and Persepolis where he obtained the Persian treasuries and immense amount of gold and silver. In 330 BCE, Darius III was deceived and murdered by one of his own men. Alexander then acquired the title and office of Great King of Persia.
Alexander still not quite satisfied to rest with the loot of the Persian Empire, decided to move east and northeast into Pakistan and by the summer of 327 BCE moved into India which was separated into a number of belligerent states. In 326 BCE, Alexander’s troops triumphed the merciless fought Battle of the Hydaspes River in northwestern India. Alexander requested to continue moving forward but, his army men rejected the idea to continue because they were tired and weary of fighting, mutinied and denied the idea of moving on.
Alexander then headed back and guided his troops across the parched lands of Southern Persia. Alexander’s troops suffered, and heavy casualties were occurred due to the lack of water and too much heat before they reached Babylon. In spite of the great casualties that his troop suffered, this didn’t stop Alexander from gimmicking more campaigns. Anyhow in 323 BCE, weakened from fever, wound and perhaps excessive alcohol consumption Alexander died at the age of thirty-two. Regardless of Alexander’s beliefs, views, and thought, the extension of the Greek language and ideas to the non-Greek world of the Middle East.
Alexander liquidation of the Persian monarchy build opportunities fro Greek merchants, soldiers, engineers, ect, and those who obeyed him and his followers could attend in the new political unity based on the principles of the monarchy. Alexander’s followers used force to build military monarchies that controlled the Hellenistic world after his death. Autocratic energy became regular resources of those Hellenistic monarchies and was a part of Alexander’s political endowment.
It’s quite evident that Alexander’s vision of an empire influenced the Roman who was the true brood of his legacy. Alexander didn’t just leave a new political view, but he also left a cultural legacy which developed the Greek language, art, architecture and literature which expanded throughout the Middle East. Urban Centers which was built by Alexander and his followers became of the Greek culture which spread in the clash and fusion of many different cultures, which is one of the main characteristic of the known Hellenistic realm.
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