(i) Compound argument is one claim made up by two claims with using “or” or “and” to combine the two claims in the sentence. The argument has multiplicity on at least one side of the statement. For example, apple is not orange or apple could not make an orange Juice. Although there are two claims in this sentence, but it Just can be considered as one claim only. Source: http://www. westminsterreformedchurch. org/Logic/LogicTerms/LogicTerms. compound %20argument. htm Answer (it) Concealed argument defined as the claim where uses slanter in order to convince omeone of their claim without using any argument whatsoever.
Slanters are the various linguistic devices commonly used to attempt to persuade without argument. Concealed claim contain dubious claim to a loaded question, such as “When did you stop beating your wife? “. The answer may conceal the fact which called as concealed argument. Source: Critical Thinking & Information Literacy across the curriculum, Retrieved from: http:// www. bellevuecollege. edu/lmc/ilac/Curric/kint/phi17. htm Answer (iii) In the principle of rational discussion, we have to assume several things such as the erson who is discussing with us or whose arguments we are reading.
On the other hand, we must know about the subject under discussion and whether is able and winning to reason well, and also make sure it is not lying. Before involve in the discussion, we must make sure we do not bring in any bad emotion such as fear, spite or pity to avoid unfairness.
So that, we will give a valid reason for the argument with rational thinking and lead to a good conclusion. Another thing we have to consider carefully, do not introduce new arguments while another argument has yet o be resolved because it will lead to confusing.
Yet, we must provide the evidence for our position or arguments otherwise our argument or claim will not be valid. Source: Hooks (2011). Critical Thinking: The Rational Discussion Flowchart, Retrieved from: http://www. 606studios. com/bendisboard/showthread. php? 208669-Critical-Thinking- The-Rational-Discussion-Flowchart Answer (iv) Fallacies defined as a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound arguments. It also can be defined as a claim that someone gives to another person is not good. It ay contain some bad emotion such as appeal to fear, pity, spite, and prejudice.
One of the example of fallacies: “All dogs are animals. Ginger is an animal. So, Ginger is a dog. ” In this sentence, Ginger may or may not be a dog. The conclusion is not true that direct conclude that Ginger is a dog, therefore the argument is fallacy since there is no prove for it’s position. Another example from the author, Bubbly, she said that ner triend, Joanna was spread out the rumors without evidence and concluded Bubbly is a bad person. Joanna doesn’t not has any prove on her argument and it is ust came from she “heard”.