Truth and Logical Relations of The Square Opposition

Categories: Treatise

The square opposition is a diagram that represents logical relations holding between different propositions. Traditionally, the square of opposition refers to a collection of stable relationships personified in a square table. The chart provides characteristics between two hypotheses: contradiction and contrariety. Additionally, the square of oppositions deals with conflict, denial, quantication, and suggestion and provides a foundation through which logic has been based in the past. Categorical logic refers to the generally accepted standards that manage specific arguments and offers a set of rules through which inferences are made about a particular supposition.

The purpose of the square of opposition is that it helps people to infer truth upon the proposition and based on the value of another proposal with similar conditions. The key features of the Square of Opposition include A plan takes the form of universal affirmatives where all S are P, while Some are P and negations where No S are P while Some S are not P.

Get quality help now
Dr. Karlyna PhD
Dr. Karlyna PhD
checked Verified writer

Proficient in: Metaphysics

star star star star 4.7 (235)

“ Amazing writer! I am really satisfied with her work. An excellent price as well. ”

avatar avatar avatar
+84 relevant experts are online
Hire writer

therefore, given these assumptions, propositions are regarded as contradictory if the reality of one is a falseness in another and vice versa. For example, if a hypothesis states that all industrialists are capitalist, then the statement that industrialist is not capitalist should be false. On the same note if a statement indicates that one no mammals live in water, then the proposal that various mammals live in water should be correct.

Secondly, the proposition is said to be contrary if both proposals are right. For example, if a statement that giraffe has long necks is true, then it cannot be true to state that no giraffe has long necks.

Get to Know The Price Estimate For Your Paper
Number of pages
Email Invalid email

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Write my paper

You won’t be charged yet!

However, both propositions can be false, for example, there is no gas on the planet, and no earth has gas. Additionally, the opposition is regarded as subcontrary when it is not possible for both to be true or false. For example, if lunch is free is wrong, then the opposite, i.e. some lunch is not open should be correct. It is also possible to have two oppositions to be right at the same time. For example, some countries are democratic, and not all countries are democratic.

Propositions can be regarded to be set in connection to subalteraton if the first truth implies truth in the second, but not on the contrary. Therefore, a proposition can be defined in subalternation in relations to the proposal. For example, plastics are artificial shows the truth that a few plastics are artificial. On the other hand, the statement that not all cars are made in America does not show that the opposite is true, hence not cars are made in America is further from the truth. On the same note, if a proposition is true, it does not mean that the corresponding universal proposition should be correct. Most people do not use categorical reasoning each day; categorical form is too compelling and will be complicated to be used daily. However, to determine the legitimacy of various arguments, it is essential to translate all categorical propositions into standard forms. In some situations, translating into standard form provides a clear depiction of the fallacies presented by the original wording.

Therefore, the translation must preserve the original context of the statement. The kinds of categorical claim are classified for the sale of convenience. For example, A, and E stands for universal affirmative and negative respectively, while I and O stand for particular affirmative and negative correspondingly. The chart below represents the general propositions accepted in a classical logic. From the table above, A and O are considered contradictory, A and E are contrary, while I and O are subcontrary and E and I are propositions. Two proposition is contrary if either of them denies the other. Therefore, both can neither be true or false, i.e. O and A and I and E. secondly, two propositions are said to be contrary if they are false, but can both be true for example, A and E are contrary. Thirdly, proposals are termed as subcontrary if both are not true but can be false, e.g. I and O. Sub alterations entail if one proposition is true, then the another must also be true and sub alterations if wrong, the sub alteration is false.

The main operations of intellect are to make decision, reason, and apprehension. The result of anxiety is the development of an idea. When a concept is expressed in written form, it is called an idea. However, the thinking goes beyond concepts. From the thoughts formed in mind, people make judgments based on the acquired concepts. Therefore, opinions are expressed in a written form based on the received idea of a specific notion. Moreover, when people make judgments, they use declarative sentences and can either be true or false depending on whether it supports a particular position or negates that view. For example, an inquiry about time, or when a command is issued on a specific view, or an exclamation is uttered in relations to a particular situation cannot be distinguished whether the statement provided is true or false. For example, what is the time? Or what a sight! Such statements cannot be measured regarding whether it is true or false. Propositions can either be categorical or hypothetical, hypothetical provides conditions, for example, when the rain begins, I will go to the church. In conclusion, square opposition is used to determine the truth of a proposition based on the value of another proposal with similar conditions.

Updated: Dec 23, 2021
Cite this page

Truth and Logical Relations of The Square Opposition. (2019, Aug 20). Retrieved from

Truth and Logical Relations of The Square Opposition essay
Live chat  with support 24/7

👋 Hi! I’m your smart assistant Amy!

Don’t know where to start? Type your requirements and I’ll connect you to an academic expert within 3 minutes.

get help with your assignment